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MANUAL TRAINING 
MAGAZINE 



CHARLES A. BENNETT, Editor 
WILLIAM T. BAWDEN, Managing Editor 

ASSISTED BY 

CHARLES R. RICHARDS 
CHARLES F. WARNER 
WILLIAM E. ROBERTS 



VOLUME XII 
1911 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 

(No Summer Number) 



©Ifr manual Arts T^tesa 

PEORIA, ILL. 



INDEX 



(Names of contributors of articles are set in small capitals. (E) indicates an editorial.) 



Architectural Drafting in the Maryland In- 
stitute (111.) — James Frederick Hopkins, 1, 
114; II, 326. 

Associations — Boston Manual Training Club, 
291 ; Department of Superintendence, 493 ; 
First National Conference in Vocational 
Guidance, 277; High School Conference, 
77, 288; Illinois Manual Arts Association, 
495; Missouri Teachers' Association, 291; 
National Education Association, 80, 497; 
National Society for Promotion of Industrial 
Education, 278; Northern Illinois State 
Teachers' Association, 282; Ohio Art and 
Manual Training Association, 284; Okla- 
homa Manual Arts Association, 395; Penn- 
sylvania Educational Association, 395; 
School Crafts Club, 394, 493; Western 
Drawing and Manual Training Association, 
78. 

Bennett, Charles A.— The aim of the Con- 
tinuation School (E), 272; College Entrance 
Requirements (E), 74; Death of Senator 
Stout (E), 274; The Difference (E), 388; 
Dr. George Kerschensteiner (E), 178; Dr. 
Kerschensteiner's Chicago Address (E), 
272; Important Changes in England (E), 
72; An Important Meeting (E), 271; In 
California (E), 274; The Manual Training 
Teacher's Opportunity (E), 390; Minn- 
esota's Progress (E), 182; New Associate 
Editors (E), 489; The New Code in Penn- 
sylvania (E), 180; A New Magazine (E), 
488; Senator James H. Stout (E), 391; 
University Departments of Manual Arts 
(E), 73; Visiting Manual Training Schools 
in Europe, (111.) VI, 28; VII, 143; VIII, 
247; IX, 467; Vocational Training and 
Manual Training (E), 387. 

Bookbinding in the School, (111.) — George W. 
Eggers and Oscar L. McMurry, I, 9- II 
130; III, 356. 

Canoe Building (111.)— Egbert S. Cary, 61. 

Cary, Egbert S.— Canoe Building (111.), 61. 

Chamberlain, Arthur H.— The Vocational 
Middle School, 105. 

Craig, Will J.— A Box Kite (111.), 425. 

Crawshaw, Fred Duane— The Relation be- 
tween and the Content in Manual Training 
and Engineering Shop Courses, I, 209; II, 
379. 



Cruikshank, Lewis W. — Manual Training 
and Industrial Education in Pennsylvania, 
440. 

Current Items— 93, 196, 302, 401, 508. 

Eggers, George W. — Bookbinding in the 
School, (111.), I, 9; II, 130; III, 356. 

Felmley David — The Educational Value of 
Manual Training, 1. 

Haney, James P. — Twentv-one years of Man- 
ual Training (111.), I, 2'l8; II, 446. 

Hopkins, James Frederick — Architectural 
Drafting in the Maryland Institute (111.), 
I, 114; II, 326. 

Industries in Public Education, The Place 
of— Charles R. Richards, 47. 

Judd, Joseph H — School Craft and the Edu- 
cational Value of Doing Wrong, 415. 

Kite, A Box (111.)— Will J. Craig, 425. 

Manual Training and Engineering Courses, 
The Relation between and the content in — 
Fred Duane Crawshaw, I, 209; II, 379. 

Manual Training, The Educational Value 
of — David Felmley, 1. 

Manual Training and Industrial Education in 
Pennsylvania — Lewis A. Cruikshank, 440. 

Manual Training Schools in Europe, Visiting 
(III.),— Charles A. Bennett, VII, 143; VIII, 
247; IX, 467. 

Manual Training, Twenty-one years of (111.) 
—James P. Haney, I, 218; II, 446. 

McMurry. Oscar L. — Bookbinding in the 
School (111.), I, 9; II, 130; III, 356. 

Metalwork with Inexpensive Equipment for 
the Grammar and High Schools (111.) — 
Arthur F. Payne, III, 52; IV, 169; V, 237; 
VI, 372; VII, 431. 

Payne, Arthur F. — Metalwork with Inexpen- 
sive Equipment (111.), Ill, 52; IV, 169; V, 

237; VI, 372; VII, 431. 

Reigart, John F. — Vocational Training for 
Boys in Leeds, 346. 



INDEX 



Reviews — Batchelder's Design in Theory and 
Practice, 411; Binns' The Potter's Craft, 
101 ; Binns and Marsden's Principles of 
Educational Woodwork, 312; Blodgett's 
Exercises in Elementary Algebra, 514; 
Breckenridge, Mersereau, and Morse's Shop 
Problems in Mathematics, 515; Collins' The 
Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes, 411; 
Dana's A Primer of Architectural Drawing, 
101; Gillette's Vocational Education, 412; 
Heyny's Modern Lettering, Artistic and 
Practical, 207 ; Holton's Shop Mathematics, 
412; Jensen's Elementary Industrial Work, 
515; Mann and Twiss' Physics, 413; Rath- 
bone's Simple Jewelry, 207 ; Row's The 
Educational Meaning of the Manual Arts 
and Industries, 514; Selden's Elementary 
Cabinet Work, 313; Wells and Hooper's 
Modern Cabinet Work, Furniture and Fit- 
ments, 100; Willard's A Practical Course in 
Mechanical Drawing, 206. 

Richards, Charles R. — The Place of Indus- 
tries in Public Education, 47. 

Roberts, William E. — Cleveland Boys' Ex- 
position, 491 ; The Influence of the Manual 
Training Room (E), 180. 



School Craft and the Educational Value of 
Doing Wrong — Joseph H. Judd, 415. 

Shop Problems — Blackboard Drawing Ma- 
chine, 191; Box, 297; Costumer, 397; Din- 
ner Bell, 87; Dutch Clock, 187; Hall Clock, 
499; Hygroscope, 191; Indian Club, 187 
Ink-bott]e Holder, 187; Megaphone, 299 
Model Monoplane, 294; Morris Chair, 87 
Pedestal, 297; Potato Masher, 397; Tab 
ouret, 191, 504; Shaving Mirror, 504 
Shaving Stand, 499; Six-piece Puzzle, 499 
Spool Holder, 504; Stool, 397; Window 
Ventilator, 87. 

Woodwork in Rural Schools, Cooperative Plan 
for, (111.)— Clinton S. Van Deusen, 315. 

Van Deusen, Clinton S. — Cooperative Plan 
for Woodwork in Rural Schools (111.), 315. 

Vocational Middle School, The — Arthur H. 
Chamberlain, 105. 

Vocational Training for Bovs in Leeds — John 
F. Reigart, 346. 



Copyright, 1911, The Manual Arts Press 



VOLUME XII. NUMBER 1. 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE 



OCTOBER, 1910 



THE EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF MANUAL TRAINING. 1 
David Felmley. 

IN THIS brief paper no attempt is made to advance an}' new reasons 
for manual training. People already acquainted with the literature 
of the subject will find here only a restatement of familiar argument. 

Any adequate presentation of the educational value of manual training 
must trench upon the ground assigned to the last speaker. In fact most 
insistent advocates of the supreme importance of manual training in the 
education of every child, such as G. Stanley Hall and Miss Katherine 
Dopp, derive their conclusions from their evolutionary philosophy rather 
than from practical experience as teachers. Man is preeminently the 
tool-using animal. When he assumed the erect posture and freed his 
fore limbs to hurl the stone or grasp the club or fire-brand he made short 
work of the great carnivora that were the chief menace to his existence. 
In all the subsequent stages of culture— in warring barbarism, in agricul- 
ture, and in modern industry, from bows and arrows to Dreadnoughts 
and Krag-Jorgensen rifles, from the reap-hook to the modern harvester, 
from Tubal-Cain to Bessemer — the chief advance in ministering to his 
physical needs has been in the perfection of the tool. 

The evolution of the tool has been paralleled by the development of the 
brain. The nerve-mechanisms that control the muscles of precision and 
nice adjustment make up the greater part of the cerebral hemispheres. 
Hence the frequent assertion that thru the use of the tool man's intellect 
has been developed. Modern man may pursue knowledge for its own 
sake, but with early man knowledge was of value only as it contributed to 
survival, that is, only as it aided in the right regulation of conduct, or to 
more efficient action in the struggle for existence. 

1 Address delivered before the Illinois State Teachers' Association, Springfield, 
December, 1909. 

1 
3 



2 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

If, as is generally held, the individual in his growth recapitulates the 
evolution of the race, it follows that the use of the tool in education is 
vital to the unfolding of the intellect. As Emerson puts it, "Whatever 
man does, or whatever befalls him opens another chamber in his soul — 
that is, he has got a new feeling, a new thought, a new organ." 

Hence the high value of farm life for boys — now so universally recog- 
nized — with its varied activities and employments, the care of poultry, 
horses and other live stock, the work of the field, garden and orchard. 

On the farm he has access to tools. As a boy he made rabbit-traps, 
sleds, wagons, hen-coops, pigeon-houses, a kennel for his dog. Later as a 
young man he built fences and corncribs, shaved out ax-handles, braided 
cattle-whips, fashioned or repaired the various tools used in farm opera- 
tions. The school did something for these boys, on the social side as 
much as the intellectual, but the education outside of the school did more. 
In truth a boy's instincts are insistent and even under modern urban con- 
ditions where he cannot follow his father, his natural teacher, to the 
office, the factory, or the shop, as on the farm he could follow him to the 
field, he is going to get something of this first-hand education whether 
the school plans it or not. "Boys," says Emerson, "are the masters of 
the playground and the streets ; they come like the flies." They are on 
hand where everything is going on. They hang around the paving gang, 
at the public sale; they are down at the station to welcome the circus 
train that steals into town in the gray dawn, and are eager watchers at 
every process, and helpers if permitted, until the last car is loaded at 
midnight. 

"The children, coming home from school, 
Look in at the open door." 

They don't stop with looking in. They swarm into our shops and fac- 
tories if we tolerate their presence. They board the engine and beg the 
engineer for a chance to work the levers. It is the boy guided by this 
irrepressible instinct against whom all the "keep-out" signs are directed. 
Manual training in the shop satisfies this deep longing to be doing some- 
thing with the hands. It makes some amends for the great wrong done 
boyhood in transporting it to the city. In the shop he can plan and exe- 
cute the projects that arouse his interest and enlist his powers. Man 
has grown from savagery to civilization thru his efforts to use the forces 
and materials of nature to satisfy his physical needs, and the true basal 
education is not thru the three R's, but in this planning and executing, 
in the manipulation of material to meet fundamental wants. 



EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF MANUAL TRAINING. 3 

But you may say this is all theory — or a mere deduction from your 
theories of racial evolution and the parallel unfolding of individual 
powers. Shall we then undertake to schedule educational values in 
the old fashioned way? 

In estimating educational values we usually find them in knowledge, 
in skill, in habits, or ideals. We find these values in the fields of physi- 
cal, or mental, or of moral education. The purpose of physical educa- 
tion is two-fold, to afford such exercise as will lead to the proper devel- 
opment and functioning of the various organs, and to make the body the 
ready servant of the will, able to perform with ease and delight every 
useful act of which it is capable. In brief, its ends are health and skill. 
Nature thru deep-seated instincts provides for this physical development. 
But ordinary school life is at war with every instinct of the child's physi- 
cal nature. 

Nature says to the child, "Run about," the school mistress says, "Sit 
still !" Nature says "Seek the open air and sunshine." The teacher says 
"Come indoors, while I pull down the shades; so much sunlight makes 
me nervous." Nature says, "Use the large muscles of your body in run- 
ning, jumping, climbing, throwing." The school says, "Use your fingers 
in the accurate adjustments needed in writing, drawing and sewing." 
Nature says, "Use your eyes on distant objects." The school says, "Focus 
them on this page ten inches away." We are all making business for the 
increasing army of eye-specialists and nervous disease specialists. Parents 
realize the truth of Spencer's saying that the first requisite to success in 
life is to be a good animal. 

Manual training at the bench does not cure all these evils, but it puts 
the boy in a roomy shop where he is on his feet and may move about with 
some freedom. In handling the plane, saw, and draw-shave, the muscles 
of the trunk and legs have no mean share, while in using the hammer, 
chisel, square, and lathe is cultivated the delicacy and precision of the 
skillful workman. The discipline as a whole means muscular control, 
dexterity, and a fair degree of technical skill. 

On the intellectual side our school manual training develops distinctly 
the power to grasp an idea and embody it, equips the boy with a wide 
knowledge of methods, devices, recipes, and machines for accomplishing 
the ends of his art. He is not permitted merely to copy models. He 
must invent new designs; he is required to reduce his somewhat vague 
conceptions to an accurate working drawing before he touches a tool to 
the valuable wood in which he works. He is rarely allowed to make the 
same thing twice. He would undoubtedly gain skill and speed thru 



4 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

repetition, but we want to educate the brain rather than the spinal cord. 
If he is constantly working on new projects he must give his mind to 
every step of the work. Dexterity comes in the use of the individual 
tools, rather than in the creation of particular forms. 

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENCE. 

On the side of knowledge our present manual training is seriously 
limited. Students acquire a definite knowledge of space forms and rela- 
tions that forms a solid basis for all geometrical thinking and an excellent 
preparation for any one of the building trades. They learn a good deal 
of the structure and physical properties of the woods they deal with, the 
warping and shrinking that spoils their finest work unless due measures 
are taken to prevent such a catastrophe. We must give a much wider 
range to our manual training if it is to lead to science which is becoming 
more and more the real basis of every industry. Just now we are making 
furniture ; soon we shall make more scientific apparatus, we shall intro- 
duce glass making and photography and explore the whole industrial 
life of the day for tools and processes that will lend themselves to the 
school. Reciprocally the study of science gains in interest, reality, and 
power if we approach it thru the arts to which the sciences minister. 
Here again we follow the order of nature for the beginnings of every art 
preceded the development of the science which explains the rationale of 
its processes and perfects its methods. There was metallurgy before 
chemistry, medicine before physiology, pumps before atmospheric physics ,' 
bread making and brewing before yeast was known to be a plant. 

The best values in manual training are in the habits, ideals, and attitudes 
it fosters. It interests many pupils who are not successful in other school 
studies, holds them in school, imparts new zest for some of their other 
studies, gives a sense of capacity, power and effectiveness to many a boy 
who is almost ready to accept the teacher's estimate of His incapacity and 
worthlessness. It is the boys of weak will who are most benefited. 
They lack the ability to conceive a project, to devise ways and means for 
its realization, and finally the patience and persistence that continues to 
its accomplishment. Their want of persistence is largely an intellectual 
lack; their desires degenerate into mere wishes because they cannot plan 
the complex courses of action needed to gratify them. To strengthen 
the will then it is necessary to develop the willingness, the power, and 
the determination to think connectedly. The ordinary school studies 
afford many opportunities for complex thinking but many children have 



EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF MANUAL TRAINING. 5 

little interest in abstractions. They must think in the concrete. Man- 
ual training is interesting. It connects our thinking closely with our 
doing. 

THE APPEAL TO INTEREST. 

Let the work to be undertaken be the making of a chair. The boy's 
interest in adding a chair to the furnishings of home or school arouses 
his attention ; the concreteness of the task holds his attention, for every 
step accomplished does not lie merely in memory. It is before him as a 
visible, tangible reality. The variety of occupations involved constantly 
stimulates his interest. First is the deciding upon the particular style 
of chair to be made, next the construction of the working drawing show- 
ing all the details ; and so on, thru all the steps, until every piece has been 
cut out, planed and sand-papered; the tenons and mortises accurately cut 
and fitted ; the various parts accurately glued together ; the finished chair 
stained, shellacked, varnished and rubbed down with pumice stone and oil. 
Here is a series of operations all leading to a final end, and each one is an 
end in itself which, when accomplished, strengthens his confidence and 
renews his courage to attack the next process. When finally the chair is 
done and stands before his eyes, a thing of utility and beauty, the joy of 
achievement comes to crown his labor. The consciousness of power and 
love of excellence grows with every such task accomplished. 

Much has been said of the priceless habits gained in the shop. It is 
frequently asserted that such habits extend their sway over all the actions 
of the individual. If he learns to make square boxes he will be square 
in his dealings. If he is accurate in his measurements he will be accurate 
in his statements. If his chairs and tables stand level he will be level- 
headed in his judgments of men and things. To the writer it seems 
pretty clear that there are no generalized habits. In the well-ordered 
shop there is a place for every tool, and the workman is required to keep 
every tool in its place. He may not leave the shop until everything is 
in order. He soon becomes habituated to this requirement; at the mere 
sight of a tool out of its accustomed place, he automatically puts it where 
it belongs. A habit exists when the same stimulus excites the same reflex 
act with a minimum of conscious attention. The bench is set in order 
as one puts on his overcoat, quite unconscious of the steps of the process 
unless he meets with some unusual difficulty. But this automatic response 
to the sight of a tool out of place is no guaranty of a similar response when 
the boy sees a pencil mark out of place. A habit of neatness in the shop is 



6 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

no assurance that the student will brush his coat, or black his shoes, or 
keep his desk in order, or abstain from defacing his text-books, or write 
neat examination papers. 

It is, however, possible to form the habit of completing one's under- 
takings, of being deliberate and cautious before acting. Furthermore, 
if a habit has been formed, not by external constraint as when a horse is 
taught to stop at the word "Whoa," but voluntarily under the inspiration 
of an ideal, the same ideal may create similar habits in other fields. 
Thus if the habit of neatness has been formed from the fact that the 
pupil takes pride in a clean shop and an orderly bench, because of his 
fidelity to an abstract ideal of neatness and order, the same ideal may 
function in creating similar habits in regard to his clothing, his books, 
desk and manuscript. Now manual training leads all other school work 
in its power to develop fidelity to ideals because our work remains as a 
visual, tangible thing just as we have made it. 

The argument that we have made lives only in its effect upon men's 
opinions ; the song that we have sung dies away in the air, but our care- 
less workmanship lives to shame us, our good work to nourish our love 
of excellence. 

The fact that one must respect the grain of the wood that he planes 
and polishes, that its physical properties are ultimate facts that will yield 
neither to his coaxing or his entreaties, his poutings or his threats, is a 
useful discipline in obedience to law. 

ATTITUDE TOWARD SCHOOL LIFE. 

But on the habit side of character the benefits of manual training are 
to be found not merely in the positive discipline of the shop. Preoccupa- 
tion in any form of joyous activity will banish the listlessness, the idleness, 
the mischief, the spirit of insubordination, that infest many of our schools, 
Benchwork, sewing, cooking, drawing, appeal to the student of the motor 
type as few of the older studies can. Every high school principal can 
recall instances of a radical change in attitude toward school life and 
school work wrought in many students by the introduction of manual 
training. 

Two somewhat aberrant types of students receive a special benefit 
from manual training. The sons and daughters of the wealthy find 
in these fundamentally human studies the same instinctive delight as do 
other human beings. With this familiarity comes an appreciation of the 
life and interests of the toiling masses that can hardly be gained in any 



EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF MANUAL TRAINING. 7 

other way. The changed attitude of the daughters of luxury towards 
the household arts wrought by courses in home economics, is a matter 
of universal comment. 

On the other hand, among the semi-criminal there is no better way to 
teach the rights of property than by having boys make and own articles 
of use and value. The right of private property 7 in land, or mineral 
veins, or water-power, sources of wealth created by the Almighty, may 
be and is questioned ; but the right of property in that which one has made 
with his own hands is a fundamental right that no one questions. 

The self-respect enjoyed by skilled workmen is one of the most sub- 
stantial qualities of good citizenship. Longfellow's Village Blacksmith 
looked the whole world in the face. The free cities of the middle ages 
owed their democratic character and political capacity to the members 
of the gilds, and it is in the homes of such workmen, next possibly to our 
farm homes, in which our best citizenship is bred to-day. 

CLASSIFICATION BY OCCUPATION. 

Divide the children of your school into five classes according to the 
occupation of their parents. In the first put the children of the pro- 
fessional classes — presumably the best educated according to the stand- 
ards of the schools — ministers, lawyers, physicians, editors, teachers, also 
the ex-teachers and ex-preachers in real estate and insurance. 

In the second class place the children of the trading class, merchants, 
bankers, traveling men, grain buyers, ticket agents, but excluding tailors, 
tin-smiths, and other skilled mechanics who combine trade with manu- 
facturing. 

In the third class put the children of the farmers active and retired. 

In the fourth class the children of skilled mechanics — carpenters, 
blacksmiths, masons, plumbers, printers, machinists, locomotive engineers, 
and others. 

In the fifth class the children of the common laborers and of men whose 
occupations require little special knowledge, skill, or responsibility. 

Now grade these several groups according to their scholarship, deport- 
ment, and fidelity to school obligations and note which group averages 
highest. I made the classification in a town of 2,000 where I knew 
everybody. In that case the fourth group stood highest. 

You may ask what does all this prove. It probably proves nothing, 
but in so far as good school work is due to hereditary transmission of 
sterling traits of mind and character, or to the cooperation of the well- 



8 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

ordered home, it indicates that men of skill in the manual arts are not in- 
ferior in mind or character to the so-called "better classes" of the com- 
munity. 

Thruout this paper I have discussed manual training in the most 
familiar meaning of the term, viz: benchwork in wood for the boys in 
the grammar grades and high school. But the term includes drawing, 
modeling, weaving, sewing, cooking, all forms of handwork other than 
mere writing. The educational values here discussed apply in large 
measure to them all. We can rate none higher than sewing and cooking 
for girls. The preparation of food and clothing for her family has been 
woman's chief occupation thru all the ages; no other school occupations 
approach these studies in interest and power. They introduce an in- 
tellectual and idealistic element into the daily duties of the home that 
saves them from drudgery. 

Finally manual training introduces us to that gospel of work of which 
Carlyle and Ruskin and William Morris are the prophets — a gospel that 
brings soul, content, interest, beauty and taste, to all creative work of 
the hand. It promises that better day when workers will make nothing 
of which they are not proud, and dealers will handle only the goods they 
love to sell, and buyers will seek nothing but what they find delight in 
using. 

It invests all labor with an atmosphere of joyful service, and exalts the 
laborer to his rightful place of dignity and honor. I cannot bring this 
paper to a better close than by quoting from Ruskin's Ethics of the Dust 
this apotheosis of the great household art: 

To be a good cook means a knowledge of all fruits and herbs, of balms 
and spices, of all that is healing and sweet in grove and field, savory in meats. 
It means willingness, watchfulness, carefulness, inventiveness, and readiness of 
appliance. It means much tasting and no wasting. It means the skill of your 
great-grandmothers and the science of modern chemists. It means French taste, 
English thoroness, and Arabian hospitality. It means, in short that you must 
always be ladies (literally loaf-givers), and see to it that we all have something 
nice to eat. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 

George William Eggers. 
Oscar Lincoln McMurry. 

I. THE SPIRIT OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. 1 

WHEN introducing any craft into the curriculum of the public 
schools, it is of the utmost importance that we scrutinize care- 
fully its educational possibilities to learn just wherein its 
values lie, and form conclusions as to what approach will yield most 
richly in return for the time spent. It is necessary to keep clear in our 
minds the true standard of educational potentiality, tho the subject may 
never have been measured by this rod before, and to ignore all other 
standards of measure of whatsoever sort may happen to persist around us. 

There has been a movement recently to confine the meaning of indus- 
trial education to the idea of training for a given trade. There has 
always been in practice, and is now in nomenclature, a growing disposition 
to confuse industrial education — that broad idea which comprehends all 
use of the industries as instruments of general education — with vocational 
training which implies a specific training for a particular calling. The 
most immediate and threatening danger to industrial education in the 
public schools to-day is the confusion of its aims, its ideals and its methods 
with those of vocational training. The essays of this series then, let us 
hasten to say, are essays on industrial education rather than vocational 
training. That the difference is marked will be made clear, for upon a 
thoro understanding of it depends the essential spirit and method of all 
that follows. 

The method of vocational training is of necessity allied to the method 
of factory work. The boy, in order to be prepared to take his place by the 
side of the experienced workman, must be surrounded during his training 
with some of the conditions and ideals which surround the said workman. 
The method of industrial education is in many respects the precise oppo- 
site of the method of the factory, since factory conditions and ideals 
do not always make for the character growth which is the essential spirit 
of education. This can be seen clearly enough by viewing any industry, 
first as a factory problem and again as an instrument of general education. 

The factory sees as the goal of its endeavor an article of more or less 
■excellence, produced in the most economical manner possible. This 

1 Copyright, 1910, by George W. Eggers. 



10 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

means that the problem shall consume the smallest possible amount of 
material (for material is an element in expense), the smallest possible 
amount of time (for time may be an element of even greater expense), 
and shall involve the smallest possible amount of intelligence, for in a 
factor}' intelligence is the most costly element of all. "One good boss 
is worth nine men." The factory consequently hires one boss, or leader 
or foreman, one head, to do the thinking (the planning or the "laying out" 
of work) for the ninety-and-nine "hands." This leader solves two-thirds 
or if possible nine-tenths of the workman's problem, and automatic ma- 
chinery is procured to solve as much as possible of the remaining fraction 
of it. It is to be noted here that it is the thinking problem which is thus 
ever being eliminated. The factory constantly needs, calls for and makes 
(as has often been pointed out) non-thinking, non-intelligent individuals; 
it takes no account whatever of the effect of its economy upon the indi- 
vidual character and it reckons not in the terms of humanity, for humanity 
is not its avowed product. All of this method is part of the legitimate 
and necessary economy of the factory. 

HUMANITY THE CHIEF CONCERN OF THE SCHOOL. 

Humanity is the chief concern of the school. The avowed product of 
the school is ever a finer and finer humanity. The school takes little 
account of the costliness of materials, little account of the time which 
goes into a given piece of work, provided its broadly understood educa- 
tional purpose be subserved. The school glories in, as well as adds to, 
the degree of intelligence which it finds in its workers. "Not what 
you take away, but what you bring to it, will make this a great school," 
declares a modern educator to his pupils. So the indivdual who enters 
its portals to become a worker finds the school getting at problems in a 
way often totally different from that of the factory. The school main- 
tains its leader too, as the factory does, only it is not the purpose of this 
leader to solve the problems, but to create them. His lying awake nights, 
unlike that of the factory foreman, is for the purpose of devising situations 
which will tax the ingenuity and intelligence of his workers, and bring 
forth more and more of the capacity for self-realization. 

What then of the teacher in industrial education who says, "We can't 
get thru our course if we stop to 'develop' our problems" ? Better look to 
your "course." Are you running a factory where a certain number of 
jobs have to be put thru every ten months? What of the one who says, 
"We can't get our work done if we allow pupils to stop and design"? 
Are you educating your pupils to be leaders or followers?; "heads" or 
"hands" ? 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 11 

How then shall the material of any given industry be used to bring 
about these ends ? The teacher may see the year's work of any given 
grade in terms of finished projects; or he may see it in terms of the pupils' 
growth. As we have seen, the two are not necessarily synonymous. 
The teacher may present the work in one of two ways: (a) he may pre- 
sent the end or goal which is to be attained, by showing the pupil a fin- 
ished object or the representation of an object which is to be duplicated, 
stating conditions and giving directions as to the attainment of that 
object; or else, (b) he may develop a need to be fulfilled, with its impli- 
cation of a circle of definite conditions, alloiving the pupil to form his 
own image of the completed object called for in the fulfillment of these 
conditions. A statement suggesting comparative possibilities in the em- 
ployment of these two methods follows : 

TWO METHODS COMPARED. 

In the first place; with a definite end or goal set by models or represen- 
tations the ultimate image is supplied, a ready-made thing; it is a fixed 
point beyond which there is no incentive for the capable pupil to rise, and 
up to which the slow one is pretty sure to be "boosted" by the moral 
effect of the class work and probably by the special help of the teacher. 
The quick pupil gets no chance commensurate with his power to grow ; 
the slow one never becomes conscious of the need to grow: the difference 
between good thinking and poor thinking is not made apparent. On the 
other hand, when the problem is set as a circle of conditions fully under- 
stood, but without the end being actually presented, each pupil has an 
opportunity to rise as far as he can; there is no "lid" upon his problem; 
it may be as much of a problem as his ingenuity will conceive. When 
it is finished the whole class may see the superiority of the object which 
superior thinking has produced. 

Secondly : With the goal set by models or representations the activity 
becomes chiefly a manual activity; it is not fully a constructive problem. 
The real constructive problem is the engineering feat, not the laborer's 
part. On the other hand, when the problem is set as a circle of condi- 
tions, a complete circle of human activity is involved : a need is dis- 
covered ; it is analyzed; it is understood; a solution is devised; it is pro- 
jected; it is worked out; the product is tested by use; it is criticised by 
all, and its adequacy or shortcomings understood and accounted for. 
Every one of these steps is big with educational opportunity. The dis- 
cussions among the pupils will turn upon structural problems rather than 
upon technic, and the true relation between conception (or invention) 



12 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

and execution will be ingrained. The experience will then be a typically 
constructive experience. 

Thirdly. In order properly to approach this topic of our comparison 
certain esthetic bearings of the subject should be considered. "Art," 
says Hegel, "is the free and adequate embodiment of the idea in a form 
peculiarly appropriate to the idea itself." Every creative feat, from the 
painting of a picture to the building of a skyscraper may come under this 
definition. Within five years the American industries have awakened 
to the economic value of art as a part of their product and as an element 
in its presentation to the public. The schools may recognize these now 
obvious truths, but most of them have yet to discover the more occult and 
still more pertinent truth of the transcendant importance of the esthetic 
as a factor in education. Even without the conscious embodiment of 
extraneous artistic elements in any work, the process of invention itself 
is an esthetic process. As the efficiency of the object or person or work 
considered is increased this becomes more apparent. We hear it said 
of a waiter who anticipates our desires : "He has made service a fine art," 
and in this connection our use of the term "fine art" relates itself to the idea 
of extreme efficiency. If it is understood that this is the true spirt of art 
— carrying on toward the ideal the efficiency of any work or operation 
(and do not confuse with it the idea of mere beautification or elaboration) 
it will be clear to us how impossible it is justly to omit the esthetic element 
from consideration in industrial education. In this sense the simplest 
thing may be a work of fine art — it may be a mouse-trap, it may be a 
book-case, it may be a loom, or it may be an envelope. When the prob- 
lem has been scrutinized for the maximum of its possibilities and these 
have been to some degree lived up to in the solving of it, the product will 
in its proper degree take rank as a work of fine art. Let it be noted then, 
that it is not the amount of manual labor expended upon it so much as it 
is the kind of manual labor, nor yet is it so much the kind of manual labor 
as it is the kind of thinking which raises anything into the realm of the 
ideal — not the complexity of the problem but its peculiar fitness for its 
purpose. When it is understood that this element pervades constructive 
work at every point, the importance of having the pupil conceive his work 
in the spirit of fine art cannot be overlooked. And so to return to our 
comparison of the two methods of presentation of problems in the indus- 
trial arts: with the end or goal stated by means of a finished model or 
explicit representation of any other sort, there is eliminated the possibility 
of this esthetic experience, of perfectly adapting form and character to 
purpose. Now all imagination is in a certain sense creative. But the 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 13 

imaging of things never before seen, the making of combinations never 
before made, in other words the esthetic experience, involves a certain 
independence of intellect not fully appreciated by educational systems as 
yet. It involves a most important type of judgment, that which tran- 
scends formulated rules. Education has largely concerned itself with 
fitting the pupil to rules already formulated, it has given him little oppor- 
tunity to act in "uncharted" realms of thought — and yet the greatest pos- 
sibility of human achievement lies in these uncharted realms. When, how- 
ever, the problem comes before the pupil as a circle of conditions fully 
understood including a definite need to be met, his imagination is at once 
impelled and set free — his problem is an esthetic problem. At the same 
time his reasoning is given absolute direction, since the conditions remain 
of imminent importance — the object when made must satisfy the need. 
And so, while this statement of the conditions rather than the end, gives 
him the widest freedom for his making of choices, it at the same time gives 
him an absolute criterion of judgment as to the wisdom of the choices 
he has made. 

VALUE OF SELF-DIRECTED EFFORT. 

Finally : Some who advocate the stating of the end rather than the 
conditions of an industrial problem, hold that only by laying emphasis 
on the end can standards of technic be maintained. Only by fixing a 
mark, they say, can pupils be made to come up to the mark. But will not 
the mark retain all its potency and win perhaps more, if the pupils estab- 
lish the mark themselves? And again, is it not better to have them 
learn at once, not only technic, but the uses of technic? How would we 
rate the efficiency of a surgeon who "knew the use of tools," but could 
not diagnose a case? 

The essays of this series will outline problems in the making of books, 
and will cover somewhat fully other problems embodied within these. 
Of necessity a work of this kind describes solved problems. It will be 
found that these problems are more or less typical and suggestive ones 
and that the constructive devices suggested thru them are capable of 
other combinations and uses than those in which they appear. Let us 
then be quite definite as to the use which should be made of such material. 
Let us remember that the teaching problem is not to reproduce this or that 
set of books. Such is the practice of the factory and it is not of the 
greatest educational import. The teaching problem is rather to discover 
situations (or better still, to see to their discovery) which the students 
may analyze, understand and meet, and in which they may find oppor- 
tunity for judging the efficiency of their own solutions. 



14 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

II. CONSIDERATIONS FAVORING INTRODUCTION OF 
BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOLS. 2 

The importance of bookbinding as a typical industrial art to be in- 
corporated into the program of school studies is based upon the following 
considerations : 

1. It furnishes a series of progressively developing problems rich in 
art and constructive elements. This series properly distributed thru 
the grades harmonizes with the growing needs of children in their use of 
blank and printed books and portfolios. Bookbinding from this point of 
view provides a completely practical and even ideal series of constructions. 

2. It is designed that children shall make use of not only stock book- 
binders' materials but that they shall in a supplementary way gain knowl- 
edge of fundamental processes by actually engaging in the transforming 
of crude materials into serviceable products, as in the making of sheets 
of paper by hand ; in the preparing, dyeing, and twisting of cotton or flax 
fibers into thread ; in the preparing and tanning of skins. Children may 
thus to some extent, with this background of experience, cultivate the 
habit of examining prepared materials ere passing judgment as to their 
quality and fitness for the service intended. 

3. Constructive processes involving paper folding, cutting and past- 
ing in the elementary problems are so primitive and free from compli- 
cations (and allow so much freedom on the part of children for individual- 
ity), the materials so familiar and pliable, that children engage in them 
without fatigue. 

Demand for increased tool technic and for materials with resisting 
qualities in later problems is in harmony with the general plan of develop- 
ment. 

4. Paper continues to be a medium thru which children readily 
develop ideas in connection with their work or play, in folding, tearing, 
pasting, etc. These occupational activities catch their fleeting interests 
and center them in such constructions as calendars, envelopes, books for 
clippings, etc. 

5. The book making activity in school, while satisfying the varying 
needs of an extensive field, looks to other activities in the school to furnish 
experiences sufficient to enable children to judge of the qualities of cloth, 
to make the various knots and stitches, construct apparatus for sewing, 
shaping and pressing of books, etc. It is evident from this, then, that thru 
the needs of bookbinding certain problems belonging to the textile and 

2 Copyright, 1910, by Oscar L. McMurry. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 15 

woodworking industries may be suggested as proper to form a part of or 
to supplement these courses. 3 Again, when we consider that printing 
including typesetting and proofreading in connection with composition 
and spelling, is not only strongly recommended but actually in service 
in many schools, the close kinship of these two phases of bookmaking and 
printing is plain. 

6. One problem in school management is the care and repair of 
supplementary reading and of library books (if the school is fortunate 
enough to have a library.) The course in bookbinding naturally provides 
experiences sufficient to cover the need for this kind of work in its series 
of problems. It should be considered incumbent upon children to make 
the repair of library books a part of their course. Here is an opportunity 
for a social efficiency test in the school. 

There are opportunities for development along art and construction 
lines in the designing and making of gift books in the holiday seasons. 
Provision should be made in the course (or supplementary to it) for 
problems of this character, not only for advanced pupils but for younger 
pupils as well. 

7. Inasmuch as children are engaged in the making of blank books 
of various kinds to satisfy individual and social needs, and inasmuch as 
they are interested in binding up old and new printed matter, these same 
children must early become judges of subject matter on the one hand and 
of qualities of paper, cloth, leather, character of type and marginal spacing 
on the other. This requires the early cultivation of an interest in good 
and suitable subject matter as well as an acquaintance with publishers who 
bring out good and suitable reading matter, printed with good type, on 
good paper, leaving generous margins. 

8. Textile activities had a stronghold in the curriculum almost from 
the start. Children, especially beginners, engaged in work which could 
be carried on in the regular class or schoolroom with but a nominal equip- 
ment under direction of the grade teacher. Bookbinding, like textiles, 
can be followed out under similar conditions. Scissors, rulers, and sloyd 
knives are in many cases provided by school authorities. Sewing-frames 

3 It is highly desirable that children design and make the apparatus necessary 
for the particular work in hand, thus insuring the broadest experience possible 
on the part of children in invention and constructive design. This plan provides 
likewise for upper grade children assisting younger children in shaping the parts 
of constructions which the latter have designed but have had no opportunity 
to shape and assemble thru lack of suitable equipment, thus fulfilling a much- 
desired requirement, that one industrial activity shall prepare its pupils and 
offer its equipment to supplement the work of other school activities. 



16 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




TREE BOOK. SEE DETAIL DRAWING. 




BEAR BOOK. SEE DETAIL DRAWING. 













w: 


^1 








/'iltF J 




fcL 


_ ^"L^^B 


fc _ M 


! ' '■': jJSjjjj ' 







BUTTERFLY BOOK. SEE DETAIL DRAWING. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 17 

and presses (together with such hammers, saws, and files as may be 
needed) can be secured thru the woodworking shop. The glue-pot, gas 
plate, and even paper cutter — one of each for an entire building — alone 
require special effort in the attaining. 

9. There is a distinct advantage in using the materials required by the 
regular bookbinders rather than the scrappy "hit-and-miss" materials 
picked up at random, inasmuch as children and teachers are held to the 
standard requirement that suitable materials must be available if good 
designs and constructions are to work out into serviceable, tasteful 
products. These materials ordered from regular supply houses, even at 
retail prices, can be furnished to the school at an expense per pupil which 
will cause little if any hardship. 

GROUPING OF BOOKS TO BE MADE AND BOUND. 

We notice, under paragraph 1, above, that bookbinding furnishes a 
series of problems rich in art and constructive possibilities or elements, 
(elements to be found both in blank and printed matter), and that this 
series of problems proposed for solution, is readily suited to the needs 
and developing powers of children. 

We may think of the books in this series as falling into divisions or 
groups controlled by some fundamental structural idea. 4 We may 
think of some books in the series as made up of sheets folded and gathered 
into one or more divisions held together in one of several ways. Such 
books may for convenience form Group I. 

Other books, made up of sheets unfolded, gathered together and 
secured in one of several ways, constitute Group II. 

These two groups may have their leaves bound together in such man- 
ner as to permit of the insertion or removal of leaves at will or of allow- 
ing no readjustment. Permanent and detachable covers of various kinds 
have been designed — in some cases made complete and separate from the 
books before encasing them — in others built up with the book piece by 
piece. 

There is a series of constructions, very necessary to children in caring 
for their samples of materials and sketches, which while they have the 
earmarks of books, cannot, strictly speaking, fall withing the limits of 
Groups I or II. 

4 Students of bookbinding are encouraged to make their own grouping, in 
arranging a series of developing constructions. The grouping outlined below 
suggests but one of several possible arrangements. 



IS 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 





BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



19 



These constructions not only supplement the work of bookbinding 
in the application of art and construction principles, but also make use of 
book materials in the solution of the problems. We are inclined, there- 
fore, to constitute Group III, the series of problems involving the devel- 
opment of the portfolio. These constructions, like those of bookmaking, 
may call for increasing complexity of detail corresponding to the needs and 
abilities of children. 

It may be stated that one book in 
its development (we learned above 
that books are divided into groups 
by reason of structural features) is 
not necessarily fundamental or pre- 
liminary to another group. Child- 
ren design and construct books in 
response to needs or interest, with- 
out regard to whether they fall 
under one group or another. 



PROBLEMS FORMING THE FIRST 
GROUP. 5 

Books may be made of sheets 
folded to form : 

A. One-Section Books. 

1. Word Book (Grade 1.) 
Selection of papers for cover and 
book as to color and texture ; thread 
— its color, kind and size (num- 
ber) ; folding for size and propor- 
tion ; securing of sheets, spacing for 
stitches or lacings; knotting; deco- 
rations on cover by paper cuttings 
or tearings ; placing. 6 




One- Fold 



Paper 
Cover. 



Method 

or 
Sewing 



Word Book. 

Single Section Book. 

Cover Paper Cover. 

Simple Sewing. 



" These problems in connection with design offer experiences in the funda- 
mental operations — folding, tearing, sewing, punching and pasting. 

c Children have a preliminary problem in preparing samples of book and 
cover papers, cloths, thread, and boards, together with the designing and making 
of envelopes in which to place and label them. These samples are invaluable 
in matters of color and textures in connection with design. Hence every child 
should have his own samples. As materials are used up and new supplies 
provided, the envelopes may be overhauled, discarding the old samples for the 
new. 



20 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



2. Tree or Pear Book ' (Grade II ) , for pasting pictures or clippings. 
Texture and color for book and cover papers ; cord made cf twisting of 
threads/ Book to be considered as to size and proportion, with reference 




FOLDING, TEARING, SEWING OR PUNCHING, DECORATING. 

7 The names of books given are those suggested by children in their work. 
Children are free to select names for their books. 

8 One of the fundamental experiences which children should gain is in 
preparing the cotton or flax fibers and twisting them into threads and making 
cord by twisting together the threads. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



21 




TWO-NEEDLE SEWING. 











JB^pl H 


V" ' ^^^^^Bii^T^-. £^ l_^^^^o^H .' 







ADDRESS BOOK, OR HOLLY TREE INN. SEE DETAIL DRAWING. 




JACK AND BEANSTALK. SEE DETAIL DRAWING. 



22 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



to its service. Two-piece cover with flap in contrast with single fold 
cover. Decoration by spacing and lacing together with torn or cut 
paper designs. Purpose of stubs made by folding sheet into long and 
short leaves. 

3. Bear or Hallowe'en Book 9 (Grade III), for sketches or composi- 
tions by children. Sketching for size and decoration ; crayon or water- 
color designs for cover ; flexible covers built up with manila paper for 
boards ; cloth hinge and cover papers ; edges trimmed or not. 

4. Butterfly Book 
(Grade IV). Records of 
study of butterfly. Size 
and materials and decora- 
tions suitable ; board cov- 
ers for permanent records; 
built-up covers piece by 
piece; trimming of book 
and covers. 

5. Printed Book 
(Grade V), as Jack and 
the Beanstalk. Consider- 
ation of quality of paper; 
size and design of type; 
size of margins ; para- 
graphing; purpose and name of blank leaves at beginning and end of 
book. Boards for covers to have edges covered ; patterns for cloth hinge 
and cover paper sides ; mitering corners. Design for title — its size, letter- 
ing, placing. Testing for proper cutting and placing of boards on book. 
Pressing. 

6. Silhouette or Sketch Book (Grade VI). Reverse- fold section; 
quality of paper, cloth, boards; design for cover. To stiffen boards; to 
straighten boards tending to warp; to reinforce folds (reverse) to insure 
better service. Paste for use in book-making ; wet paste, dry paste ; care 
of paste. 10 Materials for making of design — water color; oil colors; mix- 
ing of colors, placing. 

Hand-made paper is valuable — the processes thru which the crude materials 
are put are elementary enough tor children to engage in them intelligently. 

10 Making of Paste — Wet Paste — Flour; making of batter, mixing in proper 
amounts of preservatives as powdered alum, oil of wintergreen, and glycerine — 
purpose of each; boiling, stirring, and beating; placing in receptacles; storing. 
Dry paste — Flour, Starch, preservatives. Purpose of wet paste; of dry paste. 
Prepared pastes on market — good points — objections. 





^B 










■ 




1 















REVERSE FOLD SKETCH SILHOUETTE BOOK. 
SEE DETAIL DRAWING. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



Bear Book, also Halloween Book. 



Cut-out, Torn or 
Painted Design 



Paper Lining 
Sin&le Section. 




One Section Book, Trimmed Edges, Ma- 
nila Boards, Cloth Hinge, cover Paper 
Sides, Paper Lining, & Three Fold Sewing. 



Butterfly Book. 



End Sheet, 
Ready to be 
Pasted to 
Board. 



One- fold 

Section 

End Sheet 
Pasted to Board. 




Board 
Cover Paper 



Cloth Hinge 

Book with Folded Sheets. One Sec- 
tion. Boards. Cloth Hinge, and 
Paper Sides. "Trimmed Edges 
and Three- fold Sewing. 



24 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



B. Several Section Books. 

7. Address Book, or Holly Tree Inn (Grade VI). Selection of 
writing paper for address book; proportions suitable; texture of materials 
for board covers; case binding; leather for hinge (and corners) ; quality 




Board. 



Cover 
Paper 



Leather 
Hinge 



Sections 



Address Book. (Case Bound). 

Book with Folded Sections, 
Two-needle Sewing, Case Bind- 
ing, Boards, Leather Hinge, 
Cover Paper Sides. 




Sections 



Detail Showing Sewing. 



and finish. Sewing of several section book with two needles; gluing 
back ; shaping of back ; pressing. 

MATERIALS. 

In estimating and ordering supplies suitable for needs of school in 
working out a series of problems, one should have some knowledge of 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 25 

terms applied to stock materials and the manner in which supplies are 
delivered as in packages, bundles, skeins, spools, etc., in standard weights 
and sizes. 

Paper? 1 — Flat writing, common pen and pencil note, in standard weights and 
sizes. 

Linen bond, pen and ink note of high grade. (Light weight bond for 
guarding and repairing books.) 

Book paper for pen and pencil notes, for end papers, and for print papers. 

Kindergarten papers in colors, for cutting and tearing. 

Sketching paper in tints. , 

Cover papers, rough, in crash or antique finish. Cover papers, smooth in 
laid or enameled finish, in great variety of colors. 

Manila, in light, medium and heavy weights, for cover paper and flexible 
board. 

Boards. — Jute, straw, cloth, and tar boards — low numbers for thick boards — 
high numbers for thin boards, in standard weights and sizes, in bundles. 

Cloth.- — Book cloth, buckram, in light and heavy weights, in many colors; 
38 inches wide; by yard or roll. 

Linen, pure, or mixed with cotton or jute. 

Pongee silk, in 27 inch and 36 inch widths. These cloths are used for covers 
and linings of books. 

Muslin, lawn, cambric and linen may be used for lining of hinges, flaps, etc. 

Threads. — Linen, by the pound, in skeins, balls, or spools, for sewing. 
Silk in skeins and spools, for sewing and making head bands. 
Embroidery silk, in skeins, for cord making and embroidery work., 
Silk floss, in skeins or spools, for head bands and lacings. 
Macreme cord in balls for book lacings. 

Tapes. — Cotton and linen, narrow and wide — necessary to dye to get suitable 
•colors. 

Leather. — Buffing, in sides or hide, in many colors and finishes. 

Skivers, in skins in many colors. 

Glue. — Hide glues, ground and sheet, by the pound. 

Paste. — Flour, made or prepared. 
Library, made or prepared. 

11 Paper, for writing and printing. Boards of different kinds may be ordered 
from the paper houses. Book cloth, leather, lithograph lining papers, glue, etc., 
may be obtained from bookbinders' supply houses. Linen silk, macreme, floss, 

thread, tapes, etc., may be bought in the dry goods stores, department stores or 

notion stores. 



26 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



27 



Tools, Letter presses, with 12 inch by 16 inch plate, may be purchased 
second-hand at reasonable rates. The problem of the press is suggested as a 
suitable one for the upper grades to design and execute. Some have been worked 
out on the principle of the wedge, others on that of the screw. 

Glue-pot (1 qt.), enameled iron, together with boiler. 

Gas-plate, single burner, and 10 feet of rubber tubing. These may be had at 
hardware stores or department stores. 

Needles. Tape needles, in packages of 10 each. 

Sewing needles, in packages of 25 each. Needles may be obtained in notion 
stores. 

{To be continued.) 




BOOK-PRESS. 



VISITING MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 

VI.— ST. ALBANS AND LONDON. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

ON returning from Scotland I visited more schools in Lon- 
don and completed my short trips out of the city to the schools 
and men whom I wished to see. Among such trips I recall with 
special pleaeure the two that I made to see St. Albans, where I was the 
guest of James T. Bailey, instructor in manual training at the St. Albans 
School, head master of the St. Albans Technical School and Secretary of 
the National Association of Manual Training Teachers. 

St. Albans is about twenty miles 
out from St. Pancras station on the 
Midland Railway. It is beautifully 
situated on an easily sloping hill — the 
highest point in Hertfordshire. The 
entire hill, as seen from the railway, 
is covered with the buildings of the 
city partly hidden by many trees, and 
crowned at the top with the noble 
cathedral, the historic abbey church of 
St. Albans. At the foot of the hill 
thru broad fields — green even in Feb- 
ruary — flows the sluggish waters of 
the Ver, beyond which are still to be 
seen some of the ruined walls of the 
ancient Roman town of Verulam. 
The first view that one gets of the city 
is one that appeals to the eye and to 
the imagination also if he has learned 
the history of the place, for St. Albans 
was named for the first Christian mar- 
tyr in England. Briefly told, the story is this : 

In the reign of Diocletan a native of Verulam named Alban gave 
"shelter and hospitality" to Amphibalus, a deacon of the Christian church, 
and soon became a convert to the Christian faith. When the Roman 




FIG. 73. 



THE MARTYR S PATHWAY, 
ST. ALBANS. 



28 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



29 



agents of the Emperor tried to capture Amphibalus, "Alban enabled 
him to escape and thus brought upon himself the death from which he 
had, for a time, rescued his friend." Alban was taken outside the walls 
of the city along a path that still remains, Fig. 73, across the river Ver, 









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gju 


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FIG. 74. THE OLD GATEWAY, ST. ALBANS SCHOOL. 



and up to the top of the nearby hill where he was beheaded. This was 
in 304 A. D. In a few years Christianity had gained such headway in 
this ancient town that a church was founded in honor of Alban and very 
appropriately located on the spot where he had suffered. Gradually, 
as time went on, the new town of St. Albans was built on the hill around 
the site of the martyrdom and the Roman town on the other side of the 
Ver was forsaken. It is interesting to know that in the same degree that 
the native citizens of Veralum had been noted for their fidelity to the serv- 
ice and interests of the Romans, having on that account been accorded 
privileges equal with the Romans themselves, so under the new religious 
impulse the inhabitants of St. Albans became zealous in the propagation 
of Christianity thru the church and its ally in the Christian School. 

There is little doubt that St. Albans School established in connection 
with the abbey, supposedly in A. D. 948, is the oldest educational foun- 
dation in England. "In the year 1195 it is recorded that it had a greater 
number of scholars than any school in the Kingdom. Under the foster- 
ing care of the abbots of St. Alban's monastery it became endowed with 



30 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

special privileges, and many distinguished scholars received their edu- 
cation within its walls." During the three centuries after the Refor- 
mation the school was held in the Lady Chapel of the Abbey, and it was 
here that Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans, received his early educa- 
tion and preparation for Cambridge University. At the present time 
the school occupies the old gateway, Fig. 74, which is a corner of the 
monastery buildings erected in 1365, and some excellent modern additions, 
only one of which is shown in the illustration. Guided by Mr. Bailey 
I entered the door at the base of the octagonal tower, Fig. 74, and passed 
up a narrow spiral stone stairway within the tower. The steps of the 
stairway were badly worn by the feet of centuries of schoolboys. On 
the second floor we came to the little old library. It was such a room as 
one would like to sit down in and read of Alfred the Great, Richard the 
Lionheart, Henry, Stephen, and all the rest. Going up to the very top 
of the tower we found an entrance into a half-lighted strange-looking 
room with a post in the center. If legend be truth, this is a veritable tor- 
ture chamber, the central post a whipping post, and the tiny fireplace in 
the side of the room the place where the hellish irons were heated. It 
seems quite fitting that this room is now used as a property room for the 
dramatic club of the school. 

Passing down the stairway again and inside the great gate, the head- 
master of the school, E. Montague Jones, completed the chapter begun 
in the torture chamber by showing me the prison cell with barred win- 
dows and the dungeon. He unbolted a heavy door, took me into a dark 
room, lifted up some planks in the floor and bade me look in. My imagi- 
nation began to work and I did not care to investigate deeper down. It 
was enough for me to know that it was a black hole fifteen feet deep and 
that in olden times all they had to do to get rid of an offender was to 
drop him in, replace the planks and bolt the door. The headmaster 
assured me that the dungeon had not been in use for many years. On 
the second floor above was a well equipped manual training shop. He did 
not say that this shop and his excellent gymnasium were a substitute for 
the whipping post and the dungeon, nor did he say that these latter were 
ever used for school purposes at St. Albans, but I could not help think- 
ing that manual training, which, to a degree, at least, is a fair embodiment 
of the modern theory in education, is rapidly pushing back into very 
remote antiquity such clumsy and grewsome means of guiding the human 
spirit. Of all the great public schools of England St. Albans is the 
oldest and, what is doubtless more interesting to our readers at this 
moment, it is the first to recognize fully the value of manual training by 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



31 




32 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

establishing a modern school shop and employing a trained and experi- 
enced manual instructor. More than Eaton and Rugby and other 
schools of this class, St. Albans has broadened its course, giving much 
attention to science, mathematics and manual training. It is therefore 
especially qualified to fit boys for the newer English universities and the 
colleges of engineering as well as for Oxford and Cambridge . 

I visited the manual training shop when a class was at work under 
Mr. Bailey, and was permitted to take the picture shown in Fig. 75. To 
me this room was a charming intermingling of the new and the old — 
modern manual training teachers in a room more than five hundred years 
old, up-to-date light fixtures in a room with a great fireplace bearing 
the coat of arms of King Charles, modern tools and models on the benches 
while the carved corbels holding up the large brackets on the sides of this 
famous old room and the one adjoining were the product of medieval 
craftsmanship, probably representing personages living in the ancient 
monastery or such others as might be considered desirable companions — 
a crusader and an angel, for example. As soon as the class had left the 
room I took another picture, Fig. 76, showing more clearly the design 
of the work-bench used. The closet in the end holds the bench outfit 
of tools, each tool having a definite place. Under the bench are eight 
pigeon-holes with removable fronts which are held in place at each end 
of the bench by vertical strips of wood hinged to the posts. These 
strips can be fastened at the top with lock and key. The top has a tool- 
tray at the back and a vise at the right-hand front corner. Each bench 
is provided with a drawing outfit ; a closet at the side of the room contains 
the extra tools. 

The general spirit of the class in this room was excellent. In some 
English school shops I had felt that there was an unnecessary atmosphere 
of suppresion and submission, but not so here. On the contrary there was 
an atmosphere of freedom and self-control, enlivened with enthusiasm 
for the work and made fragrant with an evident good comradeship, 
and manly courtesy. How much of this was due to the course, how 
much to the teacher, and how much to the general conduct and tradi- 
tions of the school I could not tell, but I can readily believe that each was 
an important factor. Here as well as at the Technical School Mr. 
Bailey was teaching the thought-stimulating course outlined in his "Wood- 
work for Schools on Scientific Lines." This course is made up of useful 
models, including a large number of pieces of science apparatus. The 
steelyard shown in Fig. 77 is one of the earlier pieces. The aim in this 
course is to link the classroom with the laboratory and workshop, thus 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



33 




34 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

bringing into correlation mathematics, science, drawing and woodwork- 
ing. Instead of centering the interest of the boys on making things useful 
for their homes, the obvious aim is to concentrate the attention of the 
pupils on the work of the school. 

St. Albans seems to have found a happy solution of one of its school 
problems by bringing its public library, its technical school and its art 




FIG. 77. MANUAL TRAINING MODEL, ST. ALBANS. 

school into the same building. This building is therefore an educational 
center for adults as well as youth, both daytime and evening. The rooms 
of the technical school are badly crowded, but the art school has three 
excellent rooms. Robert E. Groves, head master of the art school, 
assisted me in taking two pictures, Figs. 78 and 79, showing the equip- 
ment of two of these rooms. The simplicity and convenience of the fur- 
niture interested me, but especially I was attracted by the excellence of 
the work being produced by the students. Altho St. Albans is a small 
city, its art students are receiving instruction fully equal to that given 
in most of the larger centers of population. 

Of my other short journeys out from the center of London little 
need be said here tho each had its special pleasure and value. I shall 
never forget the day with Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Hudson at their delightful 
Home School for Boys and Girls at Highgate. There, in a fine old 
mansion, in one of the healthiest suburbs of London, surrounded by trees 
and lawn and garden live Mr. and Mrs. Hudson with their own children 
and several others besides, under conditions for child culture seldom 
equalled. Nature, art, music, literature, history, work, play, and mother 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



35 




36 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



37 



love all unite to do their best. I was reminded of a friend who looking 
at a little girl coming into a street-car one spring morning said to me, 
"There is nothing so beautiful as a sweet little girl." I agreed with 
him, but now I believe I could get him to revise his decision if I were to 




CENTRAL SCHOOL OF ARTS AND CRAFTS AND DAY TRAINING COLLEGE, LONDON. 



show him a whole garden full of such girls with some fine little boys 
mixed in. Such is my memory of the Home School at Highgate. The 
handwork in the school is not at all of the formal type. I recall a tool 
house that had been constructed in the corner of the garden and some 
exceedingly interesting inventional problems that have been wrought 
out in harmony with the life and needs of the school home. 

Just before I left London I became very much interested in the schools 
of arts and crafts, maintained by the London County Council. The 
most important of these schools are the Central School of Arts and Crafts 
on Southampton Row, Fig. 80, and the Camberwell School of Arts and 
Crafts, Fig. 81. These are day and evening technical schools giving 
instruction in those branches of design and manipulation which bear on 
the more artistic crafts and trades. They also supplement the workshop 
practice of the various industries of the neighborhood. The Council is 



38 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

assisted in the management of these schools by advisory committees of 
trade experts. In referring to these schools in a pamphlet on "The 
Organization of Education in London," Mr. Blair, the Executive Officer 
of the London County Council, says: 

"The great majority of the students attending these schools are even- 
ing students who are engaged in commercial or industrial pursuits in 




FIG. 81. CAMBERVVELL SCHOOL OF ARTS AND CRAFTS. 

the daytime. There is, however, a steadily growing number of day 
students who are either preparing to take up industrial work or who 
are already so engaged, and are able to attend day classes by permission of 
their employers. The trade classes which constitute the bulk of the 
evening work are, as a rule, confined to bona fide workers of the respec- 
tive trades. The fee for these classes is small and in the Council's own 
institutions apprentices, improvers, and learners under twenty-one years 
of age are admitted free. The day work covers a wide field and includes 
courses for students working for their degrees ; art classes for training 
designers, teachers, and skilled craftsmen ; pre-apprenticeship classes for 
boys entering such trades as engineering, building, silversmithing, and 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



39 



cabinet-making; trade classes for girls in dress-making, waistcoat-making, 
upholstery, corset-making, millinery, ladies' tailoring, and photography; 
and domestic economy classes for girls and young women." 

As the Central School building was new and recently equipped I 
wished to obtain photographs of some of the rooms. None had yet been 



L.CC. CENTRAL SCHOOL 
OF ARTS AND CRAFTS 
FTTT1MQS 




i \ \_ja . 



> J . LUM P" 



mm 



-war t| '1 

J 



FIG. 82. SECOND FLOOR PLAN, CENTRAL SCHOOL OF ARTS AND CRAFTS, LONDON. 

taken, but thru the kindness of Mr. Blair I was granted permission to 
take some myself, including one floor plan, Fig. 82, which I wanted toi 
order to show the general arrangement of the rooms. The building 
occupies a space a little more than a hundred feet square. It has a base- 
ment and six floors above, providing about fifty thousand square feet of 
floor space. In the basement are the rooms for the heavier work, such 
as leadwork, stone-cutting, ironwork and metal casting, also the heating 



40 



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42 



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44 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

plant. On the ground floor are the administrative offices, library, class- 
rooms for architecture and wood-carving and gilding, Fig. 83, and a large 
central exhibition hall lighted by a dome. On the first floor above the 
ground floor are grouped together the rooms for goldsmiths, silversmiths, 
Fig. 84, chasing, enameling, and designing for metalwork, Fig. 85. On 
the second floor are the rooms for book-making, including typography, 
illustrating, illuminating, lithography, engraving, and binding, Fig. 86. 
The third floor is devoted to a similar group of rooms for the furniture 
trades, and the fourth and fifth floors to drawing, modeling, painting, 
art needlework, art glass work, and design. The building will accom- 
modate about nine hundred students at one time. 

I was unfortunate in not seeing many classes at work in the school 
and equally so in not meeting Professor W. R. Lethaby, principal of the 
school, whose writings are well known in America, but I did see some 
interesting work in process in the cabinet-making shop and the wood- 
carving and gilding shop, where they were designing and making indi- 
vidual gilt frames for pictures, with the hope of raising the standard of 
artistic framing in London. I saw classes at work in modeling, drawing 
and glass-painting, and, on the whole, saw enough of the school to be most 
favorably impressed with the exceptional opportunities offered. At the 
Camberwell School I was more fortunate, being there during an exhibi- 
tion of the work of the school. Metalwork, stone-carving, bookbinding, 
and work in a great variety of other arts and crafts were shown. In 
going thru the rooms I was especially attracted by the work in stone 
masonry. The models made by the students, Fig. 87, involved the solu- 
tion of many of the most difficult problems of the craft. To me these 
schools of arts and crafts seemed to offer many helpful suggestions to 
Americans interested in technical education. 

Any account I am able to write of my visit to English schools seems 
very empty compared with the real experience. The camera helps a little 
but not very much, because the experiences which I prized most were with 
men, and not with models and equipments. The personalities of these 
men and the free interchange of thought gave color and added meaning to 
all I saw. For example, I recall a delightful evening spent with John 
Cooke, secretary of the Educational Handwork Association, in his home 
at Shepherd's Bush. Perhaps this stands out stronger in my memory 
because of years of occasional correspondence with this man who has 
been the backbone of the sloyd movement in England. He has certainly 
done a great work in the interests of sound methods in teaching handwork. 
I also recall a Sunday afternoon at Hampstead with H. Williams Smith, 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



45 




46 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

editor of Manual Training, when we roamed over Parliament Hill to- 
gether, after he had regaled me with quaint gleanings of wisdom from 
his unique library. Another rare evening was spent around a table with 
Solomon Barter, John Cooke, Williams Smith, J. T. Baily and Walter 
H. Nevell. But especially I recall, and with grateful appreciation, the 
evening I was the guest of the London Branch of the National Associa- 
tion of Manual Training Teachers. This occasion was a dinner given 
to express the cordial feelings of the London manual training teachers 
toward their American brethren in the same field of activity. Here I 
met the vice-chairman of the Branch, Mr. Moss, Evan Ortner, W. Pear- 
son Smith and a score of other leaders and representative teachers of 
handicraft in London. Impressions gained on such occasions cannot be 
fully transmitted thru the printed page. I may say, however, that in 
my case they were the means of convincing me that manual training has 
a vital hold on educational work in England. It is carried on by a body 
of live, progressive men who are bound closer together than such teachers 
are in America, even tho they are yet divided into two camps. Their 
work is sure to progress, and I believe rapidly, in the near future. 

{To be continued.) 




THE PLACE OF INDUSTRIES IN PUBLIC EDUCATION. 1 

Charles R. Richards. 

THE report upon the Place of Industries in Education submitted to 
the Council is confessedly in one respect at least not compre- 
hensive. It is written by schoolmen and deals solely with schools. 
This means that it represents, almost inevitably, a common weakness of 
such studies in that it discusses a part of a whole process without setting 
forth the nature of the conditions, limitations and results that obtain in 
the other part. 

In other words, the present day problem of industrial education is 
one that cannot be adequately dealt with by the school alone. It is an 
affair in which the largest element is the training, experiences and devel- 
opment obtained in commercial practice and in which the office of the 
school is either supplementary or preparatory. 

To make the school an effective instrument in industrial education we 
need to place it in intimate cooperation with the industrial situation. 
To do this wisely and successfully we need to know as schoolmen much 
more about industrial conditions. We need to know more about the 
exact conditions under which boys and girls enter the industries, the 
nature of the educational influences that surround them in the learning 
period, and the limitations of these influences. 

The data that we need is not a matter of generalization for in an 
exact sense there is no general problem of industrial education but a 
thousand specific problems. To meet the situation intelligently and 
successfully we need to know the conditions that the learner faces in all 
the important industries of the country. 

MORE DEFINITE DATA NEEDED. 

We need to know the degree of specialization or division of labor 
represented in each trade; the proportion of unskilled, low grade skilled 
and high grade skilled workers and nature of the tasks performed in 
each grade; the wages of workers in each group; whether the trade is 

1 Introductory address of Professor Richards in presenting the report of the 
Committee on the Place of Industries in Public Education to the National Council, 
Boston, July 2, 1910. 

47 



48 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

localized or general in its distribution. We need to know the qualities 
demanded in workers such as strength, endurance, intelligence, accuracy, 
quickness and artistic feeling, and most particularly we need to know the 
conditions under which beginners enter the various trades and the influ- 
ences that surround them ; whether they are confined to a narrow range 
of operations leading only to low grade and low paid positions or whether 
they have opportunities for a broader range of experiences and the chance 
to develop into high grade work ; whether the tendency is to reduce them 
to a cog in a machine or whether the influences are such as to stimulate 
intellectual growth and ambition. 

Such data is not at the present time available. It exists only in piece- 
meal. For its development we must rely either upon comprehensive 
investigations undertaken by state or national government or upon local 
studies of particular situations. The need of such data is vital in the 
present situation. We still talk of industrial education in purely gen- 
eral terms but until the school provisions of a locality shall bear an exact 
and intimate relation to the needs of its particular industrial community 
we shall not have industrial education in any true sense. 

We have heard much of late years concerning the schools of Germany, 
but we have not yet had in any full sense an exposition of the German 
scheme of industrial training. The fundamental fact, and the fact 
that constitutes the essential strength of the German system of industrial 
education, is that it is primarily an adjustment of school instruction to 
the conditions of the shop and factory. Not until we know the facts as 
to the training of the young worker in the industries, and the way the 
school dovetails into this training, shall we have the full story of German 
industrial education. Not until we appreciate the work that the German 
government has done to restore and to sustain the influence of the old 
gilds, and thru them to protect, advance and safeguard the apprenticeship 
system and other methods of industrial training, shall we understand 
rightly the German attitude towards industrial education. Industrial 
education in Germany is never a generalized affair. It is always a studied 
attempt to supplement and round out the training obtained in some 
specific trade up to the needs of advanced modern industrial practice. 

Furthermore, and a very significant fact to us, a large number of the 
industrial schools of Germany are directd and largely supported by trade 
gilds or associations, and when this is not the case, such associations often 
have a very large influence in their control. 

While we have this great principle of coordination to learn from Ger- 
many, it is very true that conditions in this country differ so materially 



PLACE OF INDUSTRIES IN PUBLIC EDUCATION. 49 

from those of the older nations that our specific institutions for industrial 
education must necessarily take on different forms and methods. 

In Europe, particularly in Continental countries, a boy's career is 
virtually fixed by his family traditions and family resources. At fourteen 
years of age the son of a craftsman or mechanic almost inevitably enters 
upon a trade similar to that of his father, and the problem of industrial 
education for the boy after this point is, consequently, a problem of sup- 
plementary education thru the continuation school. 

PLACE OF MANUAL TRAINING. 

In our country these conditions do not obtain. All the influences 
that bear upon the boy in school and out of school life tend to confuse 
rather than settle his ideas as to a career and to arouse a spirit of rest- 
less and disinclination for industrial work. To bring a neutralizing 
element into this situation and to influence boys well fitted for industrial 
work towards the industries, we need first of all varied, stimulating 
courses of manual training in the elementary schools. Not manual train- 
ing that is merely busy work with tools or the making of decorated knick- 
knacks, but well organized constructive work that will give at each step 
some knowledge and experience in real industrial processes and that will 
have for its total result added insight into industrial methods and added 
interest in the doing of real industrial work. 

Such a provision we would do well, it seems to me, to consider as a 
peculiarly American need. Altho suggestions for such work have in the 
past come to us from Europe and altho extensive systems of manual train- 
ing exist in many of the older countries, it is apparent that the tendency 
toward congestion in our large cities, the almost complete lack of con- 
structive manual experiences by the youth of these cities and the disturb- 
ing character of our social ideals as they bear upon boys and girls, make 
such work for us a peculiarly important and necessary foundation for an 
effective system of industrial education. 

It is apparent, on the other hand, that the vocational school for boys and 
girls from fourteen to sixteen, is an institution demanded peculiarly by 
American conditions. The practices and prejudices obtaining in our 
industries shut out, to a large extent, the boys and girls below sixteen 
from opportunities leading to skilled or high grade positions; the character 
of our labor laws add to these restrictions and the terms of our educational 
statutes show clearly that it is more and more the tendency to hold 
American youth within the sphere of educational influences until sixteen 
years of age. 



50 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

We have, because of these facts, a situation essentially American in 
which the social, industrial and educational elements all clearly demand 
further provision for industrial education for boys and girls between 
fourteen and sixteen years of age. 

THE HIGH SCHOOL PROBLEM. 

The high school, again, presents a problem in this field that is par- 
ticularly our own. We have what might be called a great high school 
population in this country. The high school is the educational ideal of 
the middle class homes thruout the length and breadth of the land and 
sacrifices are constantly made to allow boys and girls to attend such schools 
comparable to the efforts made in these same homes to send boys to college. 

These schools exercise a tremendously fine and steadying influence in 
our national life, but viewed from the standpoint of the practical world 
they come clearly within the field of vocational education and it would 
seem as if specific provisions in this direction cannot much longer be 
postponed. We are beginning to have high schools of commerce and by 
all indications we need equally high schools of industry — schools that shall 
be frankly recognized as vocational and that shall devote themselves to 
intensive technical preparation for industrial life. 

Such schools should be sharply differentiated from trade schools and 
from intermediate industrial schools. Their students will come neces- 
sarily from homes which represent somewhat larger resources and some- 
what different ideals, and their function should be to afford educational 
advantages that in the long run will count towards superior industrial 
opportunities. 

CONTINUATION SCHOOLS. 

In the matter of the continuation school which so far with us is almost 
solely an evening school we come to a more general proposition — a supple- 
mentary school for those already entered in the trades. In this field our 
needs and our conditions are very similar to those of the old countries. 

Such schools constitute the corner stone of the German system of in- 
dustrial education and are by far the largest factor in that system. They 
are also the largest element and the most important element in such devel- 
opment of such industrial education as we already have in this country. 
Much has already been accomplished in this direction by private founda- 
tions but in the public schools we are hardly at the beginning. The 
admirable work of the Springfield, Mass., Evening School of Trades 
presents many suggestions for the organization of such schools. Progress 



PLACE OF INDUSTRIES IN PUBLIC EDUCATION. 51 

in this field would seem to demand greater and greater differentiation 
of courses toward the needs of actual industrial workers in place of the 
amateurish and indefinite type that sometimes constitutes the patronage of 
so-called evening technical schools. 

In connection with the subject of continuation schools it is perhaps a 
fact that our committee would have done well to emphasize the need for 
a special type of continuation school for boys and girls between fourteen 
and sixteen years of age. Such schools would not properly be evening 
schools but classes providing specialized instruction adapted to this age 
of boy and girl during the daytime, or at least before the hour of 7 P. M. 

Trade schools are not included in the affirmative proposition of the 
report because in the judgment of the committee the need for such schools 
is limited to a comparatively few industries where the conditions are 
such as to render training in commercial practice difficult or inadequate, 
and to special communities representing exceptional industrial concen- 
tration. The question of general public support of such schools in the 
judgment of the committee is one that should be further tested and worked 
out by the experiments of the next few years. 

These are the phases of industrial education that have seemed to your 
committee to represent the largest possibilities before the public schools 
of this country, whether considered from the side of practical results or 
possibilities of public support. Taken singly, your committee feels that 
each division represents an element of far-reaching importance, and in 
their entirety they submit them to you as an attempt, in the light of 
to-day, toward a comprehensive program of public industrial education. 




NEW TOOLS REQUIRED. 



METALWORK— WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
GRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS.— III. 1 

Arthur F. Payne. 



BEFORE continuing with the series of graded problems, I wash to 
call attention to two problems that are supplementary, or similar 
to the book-end described in the last issue. 
The clock is made in exactly the same manner as the book-end ; a design 
may be etched on the metal, and the edge is lapped over and the base is 
bent back in precisely the same way, the only difference being that the 
base of the book-end is bent back exactly at right-angles, and the clock 
is bent back at about 70 degrees. Any small round clock may be used ; the 
one in the illustration cost $1.00. The legs and handle may be taken 
off by unscrewing them, and it is then ready to fit to the copper holder 

1 Copyright, 1910, by Arthur F. Payne. 

53 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 



53 




LETTER-RACK. 



which is done by marking on the copper where the clock is to go, a circle 
that is exactly the diameter of the clock, and inside this another circle 
that is l / 2 -inch less in diameter. Next, cut out the small circle as smooth 
as possible, either with the small chisel that was used to cut out the strap- 
hole on the watch-fob, or better yet, cut it out with the saw-frame described 
later in this article. If necessary, smooth off 
the edge with a file, then with the ball pien 
hammer on the lapping-stake turn back the 
extra stock to the circle that is the actual 
diameter of the clock as shown in the draw- 
ing, and fit the clock in tight and snug. 
Color and finish in any of the previously 
described methods. 

The other supplementary problem is that 
of the letter-rack which will require a piece 
of 18-gage copper or brass 10 inches long 
by 6 inches wide. A design may be etched 
on the front which is 3^4 inches high by 6 inches wide; the back is 4 
inches high and the bottom is 2^4 inches from front to back ; these pro- 
portions may, of course, be varied 
slightly. The edges of both front 
and back are lapped the same as the 
book-ends. It is better and easier to 
lap the edges while the metal is flat, 
being careful not to make the mis- 
take of lapping the back and front 
both the same way, because they 
will be opposite when bent up into 
shape, but they should be lapped as 
shown in the drawing. After the 
edges of the front and back are 
lapped, we may bend up the front 
in exactly the same manner as we 
•did the book-end, but to bend up clock. 

the back we shall need a piece of 

hard- wood — the end of a piece of 2 x 4 about 10 inches long would do. 
Bend up the back, color and finish. 

There are numerous other problems supplementary to this course, 
among them being the desk calendar made on the same principle as the 
clock with a narrow strip riveted on to hold the calendar, also the calen- 




54 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 55 

dar-pad holder, but enough has been said of supplementary work to show 
the wide variety of problems that are useful and that can be made 
beautiful. 

When making the next of the graded problems, which is a hinge, we 
shall need in addition to the tools already illustrated in the preceding 
issues the following new tools : 

No. 65, Jeweler's saw-frame, 5 inches deep, costing $.70 

No. 2, Jeweler's saw-blades, 1 dozen 10 

No. K, Stake, rough cast, 15c, polished 40 

No. 27, Prick or center punch 10 

No. 82, Hand-drill 1.25 

Drills from 3 cents to 7 cents, according to size. 

1 piece of wood, ^4 mc h thick, 3 inches wide, 8 inches long, for a saw-board. 

When designing the hinge it must be remembered that the first re- 
quirement is that it shall be strong enough to carry easily the door or 
cover for which it is made. No standard dimensions can be given for the 
hinge as they vary considerably in size according to the purpose for which 
they are made and the space they have to fill. Generally speaking there 
are three styles of hinges : the butt hinge, in which both ends are the same 
— two of these are shown in the photograph ; the strap hinge, like the 
majority of those shown in the illustrations ; the third style is called the 
T-hinge, one of which is shown in the drawing. 

We will take for a description of process the making of a strap hinge. 
Hinges consist of four parts; the butt, which is the short end, the strap 
which is the long end, and the knuckles which fit together and are held 
together by the pin. There are usually five knuckles, three on the butt 
and two on the strap end. In other words, three knuckles on that part 
which is stationary when in use, and two knuckles on that part which 
moves. First make a full size drawing of the hinge you wish to make, 
then by means of the transfer paper described in the preceding issues 
transfer the design of the butt end to the copper or brass. Then lay out 
the knuckles as shown in the drawing, which is done by measuring the 
outside diameter and laying off three times the diameter which will, when 
bent around into the knuckles, be approximately the required size. Trans- 
fer and lay out the strap in the same manner. 

Saw out the hinge with the jeweler's saw. This process of saw 
piercing will require considerable care in observing a number of details, 
otherwise the beginner will break a number of the small fine saws. To 
place a saw in the frame first be very sure that the teeth point toward 
the handle. This can be determined by careful inspection, as the teeth 



56 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 57 

are cut similar to those of the ordinary rip-saw. Fasten the saw in the 
top clamp of the frame and push the top of the frame against the edge of 
a table or bench and the frame will give or spring just a little, then fasten 
the lower end of the saw in the bottom clamp. When the pressure is 
released, the give or spring in the frame will pull the saw tight. The 
saw will break in the work if it is not stretched tightly. 




POSITION OF HANDS AND SAW-FRAME WHILE SAW-PIERCING. 

Take a small piece of metal and practice sawing, before starting out 
to saw out the hinge. Fasten the saw-board to the work-bench with screws, 
nails, or better yet with a clamp that can be bought for 10 cents. Hold 
the metal flat on the board with the saw in the V-shaped opening in the 
board and start sawing, remembering that the cutting is all done on the 
down-stroke. Be sure and keep the saw-blade at right angles with the 
metal, and moving at the rate of about two strokes per second. When 
changing the direction of the saw always keep it moving up and down. 
This is very necessary as the saw will break if it is twisted while still. 
If the saw sticks and binds a little beeswax rubbed on the blade will 
sometimes help. To saw out the ornamental openings in the hinge it will 
be necessary to punch a small hole thru the metal with the prick punch ; 
then unfasten the saw from the bottom clamp and insert the saw in the 
small hole in the metal, spring the frame again and fasten the saw in the 
clamp and proceed to saw as before. When both parts of the hinge are 
sawed out, bend the ends of the knuckles over on the K stake and continue 
bending until they are as near round as you can get them. Then get a wire 



58 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 





Z 
j£ 

D 
O 

c 




a 

o 



< 










RACK 


u. 

°* 

ZO 






-te< QC 






i 3 

r-JJ ° 


UJ 

<0 









METALJVORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 59 

nail that is large enough to fit the knuckles tight and hammer them smooth 
and round and fit the two ends of the hinge together. Push in and cut off a 
wire nail for the pin, to hold them together, then hammer the hinge 
smooth with either end of the ball pein hammer and locate the holes for 
the screws to fasten it to the article for which the hinge was made. With 
the prick punch make a small hole, and with the hand-drill drill the holes. 
Color and finish in any of the methods previously described. 




PLACING NEW BLADE IN SAW-FRAME. 

Next we have the making of the handles and pulls for drawers, book- 
cases, cabinets, etc., similar to those shown in the photographs. A pull or 
handle is made up of three parts : the back, the handle and the sockets. 
When designing the pull always have the lower part of the handle fall 
upon the back and not upon the wood. The method of transferring the 
design and saw piercing the back is exactly the same as with the hinge. 
Hammer the metal slightly to make it stiff and bend the edges down a very 
little so that when the pull is finished and attached to the drawer, the 
edge of the back will rest on the wood and not rock on the bent over part 
of the socket as will be shown later. Cut off a piece of wire the length 
of the handle, which may be found by bending a strip of tin, or fine wire, 
or string, around the outline of the handle on the design and then straight- 
ening it out. After the wire is cut off the correct length, bend the ends 
with the hammer on the edge of the lapping-tool, and bend the rest to the 
outline of the design. Place the handle on the back in its proper position 
and mark the place for the sockets which are made of a strip of metal the 



60 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



same thickness as the back and about j4-inch wide. Bend the strip 
around the handle; and in the back, saw out a small slit just as wide as 
the strip and twice the thickness of the metal so that the two ends of the 
strip will fit tight when they are passed thru the slit. Next bend the 
ends back, one up and one down and hammer them down with the ham- 
mer. If the edge of the back is not bent back slightly, as mentioned 
before, the ends of the sockets will cause the back to stand out from the 
drawer, which of course is to be avoided. Mark and drill the holes for 
the screws to fasten to the drawer, color and finish. Keyhole escutcheons 
may be sawed out and the holes drilled for the fastening screws in exactly 
the same manner as the hinge. 

The writer of this series of articles, realizing the difficulty the average 
art metal worker has in obtaining the necessary tools, has taken consid- 
erable pains in choosing from the various catalogs the tools illustrated in 
these articles, and upon receipt of a stamped and self-addressed envelope 
will be glad to specify where the necessary tools and materials may be 
obtained. 



9 BB H Is 

II I 



PROBLEM IN FORGE-SHOP AND 

WOODWORK, PROVIDENCE, 

RH. I., TECHNICAL 

HIGH SCHOOL. 



CANOE BUILDING. 

Egbert S. Cary. 

TO THE average boy there are few problems more fascinating than 
the building of a canoe. Every normal boy is interested in boats 
and their use, and canoe building attracts him for several reasons. 
The rapidity with which the work progresses in the early stages appeals 
to boy nature and the promise of a seaworthy craft in spite of the slips of 
unskilled hands holds his interest thru the more tedious hours of finishing. 
His innate love of display derives no small satisfaction from the somewhat 
spectacular features of the work and its result. 

It will not be possible within the limits of this article to cover all the 
details of canoe building but the conditions under which we work may be 
outlined, and a brief description given of our methods. 

Not the least of the influences that Westtown has thrown around the 
succeeding generations of Quaker youths and maidens thru a life history 
touching three centuries, has been that of her broad acres of woodland, 
field and stream. Long before the present awakening to the value of 
nature study in our schools her pupils were marked for their knowledge 
and appreciation of the book of Nature. 

In such environment other kindred outdoor interests have found a 
healthy growth, and a large part of the success of our manual training 
work is due to its coordination with these. 

To the "Master Thomas" of Dr. Van Dyke's "Between the Lupine and 
the Laurel," the senior member of our faculty and an ardent disciple of 
nature, is due the origin and development of canoe building at Westtown. 
Before the introduction of manual training he and various pupils made 
canvas-covered boats of the old lattice-work design, and after our course 
was organized the canoe building went on largely independent of it. Of 
, late years, however, the work has been systematized and has become a 
definite feature of our shop "hobby work," reaching its maximum both in 
quality and quantity last year, when twelve canoes were completed. 
None of these was made for sale, but the demand was such that all of them 
could have been sold and with few exceptions at regular market prices. 

This and other forms of "hobby work," as we call the projects which 
the boys carry on during out-of-school hours, have no direct connection 

61 



62 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

with their class work, which is along conventional lines. It is, of course, 
subject to the careful supervision of the instructor and provides greater 
latitude for self expression than is possible in a limited course. 

Under present conditions surprisingly little oversight is required on the 
part of the instructor. Boys who expect to build canoes watch carefully 
the progress of those being made, often giving hours of assistance for the 
privilege of "learning the trade." On the other hand, every boy who 
has made a canoe takes pride in directing the present builder and a wicked 
pleasure in subjecting his work to unmerciful criticism. 

All of our boys, unless excused by doctor or nurse, are expected to take 
active part in the outdoor sports of the season except on inclement days 
when such alternatives are offered as basket ball, shopwork, swimming, 
gymnastics, or perhaps a rainy day walk. Out of a total attendance of 
120 there are usually forty or more who elect shopwork on these days. 
Boys who are building canoes are excused from the above exercise require- 
ment for a limited time and devote this and some of the shorter between- 
school periods to the work. 

The large amount of time, between one hundred and one hundred fifty 
hours, necessary for building a canoe could scarcely be arranged for in any 
but a boarding school where the shop is an integral part of the school life 
and accessible at all out-of-school times. 

At the beginning of each school year boys who wish to make canoes 
hand in their applications stating which one of our three molds they wish 
to use, and by note from parents or otherwise, establish their credit to 
the extent of $15.00, the approximate cost of the material needed. After 
some consultation and perhaps drawing lots, an amicable agreement is 
reached as to the order in which those whose applications are approved 
shall use the molds. 

The applicants are usually older boys from the high school classes who 
have finished our woodworking course, although several good canoes have 
been made by boys who entered the school in the upper classes with no 
hand training. As a rule each canoe is the undertaking of a single boy 
who does practically all the work, calling on his friends for help at the 
times when two pairs of hands are needed. 

Our construction is quite different from that usually seen in that we 
use a narrow three-ply rib instead of the thin broad rib of the common 
type. This makes a light and exceedingly rigid boat, but is open to the 
objections that better wood must be used and that a grating in the bot- 
tom is more necessary than in the usual form. 



CANOE BUILDING. 



63 




64 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




CANOE BUILDING. 



65 



The following specifications cover the most important features of our 
canoes : 

Length, 15, 15^, and 17 feet. 

Beam, 31 inches. 

Depth amidships, 12 inches. 

Planking, fs inch white cedar. 

Ribs, 3-ply, 2 cedar, & inch x Yz inch; 1 elm, Y\ inch x Y* inch, half round. 

Stem and stern pieces, Y$ inch x Y inch, elm. 

Nails, 1 inch, No. 15, copper. 

Inwale, 1 inch x Y inch, spruce. 

Canvas, No. 10, finished with one coat filler, two enamel, one spar com- 
position. 

Woodwork finished one coat oil, one No. 1 preservative, two spar com- 
position. 

Decks and seat frames, oak or mahogany. 

Rubbing and cap strips, l x /4 inch x Ya inch, spruce. 

Bang irons, Yi inch, half round, brass. 

Keel, flat, Y* inch x 3 inches at center, tapering to 1 inch. 

We use the lines as shown in the drawing for all lengths of canoes, 
spacing the patterns proportionately. The following table gives the 
dimensions for making full-size drawings in the different sizes: 

TABLE OF OFFSETS 



Height 

Above 


Distance from Center Vertical Line at Pattern 


Base-line 


1 


2 


3 


4 


2" 

4" 

6" 

8" 

10" 

12" 

Sheer 


1t 5 6 
5% 

SH 

5% 
5M 


7i 7 « 

10* 

12 

11* 
10# 


Utf 

14# 

14X 


12H 
15H 
16^ 
16M 
16Ys 
15M 
15% 




Height above Base-line at Pattern 




1 2 


3 


4 


Keel 

Sheer 


Irl IfV 

17X 13^ 


X 

13 


A 
13 



The patterns are made by drawing the cross-section lines full size and 
then making a companion line inside of each at a distance depending upon 



66 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 





CANOE BUILDING. 



67 



the thickness of the planking, ribs and mold battens. In our case, using 
Y^" battens, this distance is \y%" . These lines are then transferred to 
the boards that are to form the pattern, taking off both the curved and the 
vertical line, and some arbitrary point, at which a ^4" hole is to be bored. 

The patterns are mounted on a 
heavy plank as shown in the accom- 
panying cuts and accurately lined 
by sighting thru the holes and ad- 
justed to the vertical with a plumb- 
line. When fastened firmly in place 
the battens, which are free from 
knots to insure smooth curves, are 
nailed on. If there is difficulty in 
bending them to the sharper curves 
at the bow and stern, the battens 
are sawed lengthwise for a few feet 
at the ends. One batten is nailed 
on the patterns following the sheer 
line or top edge of the canoe and 
another about two inches below 
this. The others are spaced about 
six inches apart on the center pat- 
tern except at the bilge or turn 
where they are not more than three 
inches apart. At this turn the bat- 
tens have their projecting corners 
shaped down to the contour of the mold. 

The pattern of the bow and stern is made in the same manner as the 
above, allowing for the thickness of the stem and stern pieces and is split 
vertically so that the canoe can be lifted off the molds. 

We buy white cedar in 1*4" plank, resawed to T V'> S 2 S, and crated 
for shipment. From these boards we cut strips 3" to 4" in width and use 
the waste for ribs. The elm ribs are worked at a nearby planing-mill 
from stock grown on our farm. 

The three-ply rib as specified gives a very strong and light rib that re- 
quires only soaking before bending. The half-round elm strip on the in- 
side takes the wear and firmly holds the clinched nails. As the ribs are 
bent on to the molds in planes parallel to the patterns, they are nailed to 
the middle and to the lower battens and at such other points as may be 
necessary to make them fit snugly to the mold. 




68 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

The stern pieces are steamed before bending and when dry they and 
the ribs are shaped down so that a batten placed along the mold will bear 
against a flat surface at every contact. Also the outside strip of each rib 
is beveled down for about 4" so that at the sheer line there are but two 
strips. This is done to avoid using an excessively thick inwale. Allow- 
ance is made on the pattern for this bevel which is shown in the sectional 
drawing of the gunwale. 

The following points are observed in putting on the boards : 

1. Use full length strips when possible. 

2. Splice under ribs using Yz inch bevel joint. (When wide rib construction 
use butt joint.) 

3. Do not force boards to position. Cut them to fit. 

4. Remember that it is the inside that shows when done. 

5. Drill holes for all nails with a drill but little smaller than the nail 
and space about 1 inch apart. 

6. Fasten boards to the stern pieces with Y% inch F. H. brass screws. 

7. Most important of all, as the planking proceeds remove the nails with 
which the ribs were fastened to the battens. 

It is our practice to use an oak strip, \ x /\" x ■£$", ror tri e last board or 
sheer strake, which is soaked and bent into place. This makes a strong 
and neat finish and gives a hard wood into which to drive the tacks for the 
canvas. There are no nails placed below the middle of this strip because 
the ends of the ribs are to be cut off at least x /z f below the top edge of the 
completed canoe. (See gunwale section.) 

After the sheer strake is in place the ribs are sawed off below it and a 
little careful effort, pulling outward and upward at successive points, 
lifts the canoe from the mold. To prevent spreading, the gunwales are 
tied across in a few places and as soon as possible, the nails, beginning 
at the center, are clinched with light strokes turning the points along 
the grain of the rib. 

Two extra ribs are now put in at each end where there is quite a space, 
the ribs for which could not easily be bent on to the mold. 

The inwale, which is usually put in before stretching the canvas, is 
made of straight-grained spruce soaked and bent on a form. When dry 
it is clamped in place while the positions of the ribs are marked, after 
which the holes are bored and cut out "U"-shaped and the strips beveled 
so that water and dirt will run out freely from the completed canoe. 

A cap strip of ]/\" elm is next bent around the stem and stern to give 
a good holding for the canvas tacks; then the outside is rasped to remove 
all inequalities and the boat is given a coat of raw oil. 



CANOE BUILDING. 69 

The canoe is now ready for the canvas which is first stretched length- 
wise as much as possible and kept under tension while stretching and 
taking the sides. With carpenter's pincers and the edge of the canoe 
as a fulcrum the canvas is stretched to its limit and fastened with X 1 /^ oz. 
tacks spaced Y\" apart. Beginning in the center, a few inches on each 
side alternately are tacked until near the ends there develops a tendency 
to wrinkle. The canvas is then cut on the middle line from the end to 
the point where it is under tension and after coating the surfaces to 
be joined with white lead, it is pulled around the end and tacked. Alter- 
nately working at the end and edge completes the stretching without a 
wrinkle. 

After many experiments we have settled upon the ordinary quartz 
paste as a canvas filler, altho, if properly seasoned, white lead putty does 
very well. The filler is mixed with oil and japan drier to a consistency 
that will work easily with a brush, and a heavy coat is applied to the 
canvas. After standing for an hour or more the excess of oil is absorbed 
and the filler can then be rubbed down with a leather glove to a smooth 
finish. 

Canoe enamel can be purchased at sporting goods stores, but we make 
our own by straining thru cheese cloth a mixture of japan, ground color, 
and spar varnish. 

No description of the finishing touches seems necessary except to men- 
tion that the rubbing strip is soaked and bent on the form used for the 
inwale, and that the keel is fastened from the inside with R. H. brass 
screws in copper washers, all holes through the canvas being treated with 
white lead. 

We endeavor to have all of our boats off the molds before the spring 
vacation, and the few weeks after the pupils' return are busy with the 
finishing touches in preparation for the climax of the year's work which 
is marked by two events, one an all-day picnic on the Brandywine for 
the boys, the other, an afternoon on our own pond when the girls, 
escorted by the proud builders, are given a chance to test and admire the 
canoes. 

A few years ago we made a small canvas covered motorboat which 
proved quite satisfactory in spite of its rather crude design. Profiting by 
this experience we have obtained from the board of G. F. Crouch, naval 
architect, plans for an 18-ft. runabout. These are well adapted to our 
construction, and the two boats in course of building give promise of 
being staunch and speedy little craft. 



EDITORIAL 

ON receipt of this number of the Magazine the readers will notice 
several changes. The most important of these is in the Current 
Items department. Clinton S. Van Deusen, who has been in 
charge of this department for six years has found it necessary to give up 
the work owing to other duties. This we regret very much, and we are 
sure our readers will share with us in this feeling. Little by little Mr. 
Van Deusen has built up his department until it has now become the 
most popular in the Magazine. This has required forethought, ability 
to gain the cooperation of a large number of people, and much discretion 
in selecting, editing and often rewriting the material received. What 
will be done in the future to supply Mr. Van Deusen's place is not yet 
certain, but for the present, at least, the other members of the staff will 
carry on the department. In this connection it should be stated that the 
department will be relieved of many personal items by the establishment 
of the new Field Notes department in the advertising section. This we 
hope will enable us to broaden the scope of the Current Items, thus ex- 
tending still further the progressive policy adopted by Mr. Van Deusen. 
Another change of considerable importance is in the character of the 
paper on which the Magazine is printed. The new paper has been 
selected after testing a large number of coated papers and we believe it 
to be the best that can be purchased for our purpose. The reason for this 
change was the large increase in the number of half-tone illustrations 
during the past few years. It is well known that these can be printed to 
show their full value only on a high-grade coated paper. We hope this 
change will be pleasing to our readers. 

An event of more than usual importance to American 

. teachers of manual training was the visit of Joseph H. 

Lecturers 

Judd, Superintendent of Handicraft, Manchester, Eng- 
land. He landed in New York on the eighth of July and sailed on the 
tenth of August. Most of this time was spent at Bradley Polytechnic 
Institute where he gave a course of seven lectures on Manual Training 
in England and conducted a class in light woodwork with his "Elbydee" 
equipment just as it is used in Manchester. The subjects of his lectures 
included the early history of manual training in England, training teach- 
ers, modern methods of instruction, preparatory work in the lower classes, 

70 



EDITORIAL. 71 

work in the middle grades, observations on school crafts, and the outlook 
for the future. Two of them were illustrated with models and lantern 
slides. It is certain that every one who listened to the lectures became 
conscious that his own manual training horizon was being enlarged, and 
was grateful to Mr. Judd for his frank, open treatment of each topic he 
presented. There was no suggestion of an attempt to prove that England 
had discovered the ideal system of manual training, no cant, no pretense. 
The whole series was an impartial and rather informal discussion of vital 
principles and important events by a man who spoke from experience 
rather than theory. He drove home his points with incidents and personal 
observations which were often very effective. His story of the beginnings 
of manual training in England and his statement of the present outlook 
were particularly interesting to his hearers because they contained so many 
facts previously unknown to them, and his discussion of fundamental 
principles and the practical problems of teaching and organization at- 
tracted attention because approached from a different angle — seen thru 
another man's eyes, and he a man working in another country under 
different school conditions. Mr. Judd's work surely emphasized our 
common experiences as teachers of manual training and will tend to 
strengthen the bond of interest and sympathy between the two countries. 
So far as personality, spirit and adjustability are concerned Mr. Judd 
left nothing to be desired. No one could have fitted into American con- 
ditions more quickly and more heartily than he did. This was well illus- 
trated on the night of his reception when in the large social hall of the 
gymnasium building, decorated with tree branches and the flags of the 
two nations, he was formally welcomed to America on behalf of the 
teachers of manual training and industrial education by Professor Charles 
F. Perry, superintendent of industrial education in the city of Milwaukee, 
and on behalf of Bradley Polytechnic Institute by the president of its 
Board of Trustees, Oliver J. Bailey. In his fitting reply and his evident 
enjoyment of a real American student's reception Mr. Judd won the good 
will of everybody. When Mr. Judd left, the bon voyage was most hearty; 
he has many friends in America. 

Important Any one at a ^ acquainted with the internal forces at work 
Changes in in English manual training will recognize the great sig- 
England nificance of two recent changes in the Board of Education 

inspectorate. We refer to the transfer of Sam Carrodus to London and 
the appointment of John Cooke as a Board of Education inspector of 
handicraft. Both of these appointments mean progress. 



72 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Mr. Carrodus is a native of Keighley in Yorkshire. He received his 
education in the Keighley Technical School, one of the earliest and best 
of its kind in the Kingdom. His skill in art work won for him a national 
scholarship at the Royal College of Art at South Kensington where he 
earned several gold medals. Leaving South Kensington he took the 
headmastership of the Ashton Under Lyne (Lancashire) School of Art 
and Technical Institution. It was here that the originality of his work 
secured the approval of the Government authorities and he was soon 
appointed an inspector of drawing and manual instruction in London. 
He was taken from this position and made inspector of handicraft for the 
Northwest, Midlands and the Southwest of England. This is the largest 
district covered by any inspector under the Education Department, reach- 
ing from the Isle of Wight to the Isle of Man. Now he returns to his 
previous field of labor in London as chief inspector of handicraft in the 
Metropolitan area. He will supervise and give advice concerning all 
grades of work from the infant school to the leaving age. He is a man 
of keen intellect and forceful personality, and with his thoro training in 
both art and handicraft, and his rich experience as a schoolmaster and 
inspector, Mr. Carrodus should be a large factor in the new and strong 
impulse that seems now to be setting in towards a national system of 
handwork for English schools. 

Mr. Cooke has been assigned to the Midland Central division of 
England. His appointment is significant for two reasons. In the first 
place, this is the first time that a man has been taken from the ranks of 
the teachers and made an inspector. In the second place, being the sec- 
retary of the Education Handwork Association and an ardent supporter 
of the fundamental principles of the Swedish sloyd, his appointment is 
essentially an acceptance of the principles of the sloyd, not as a finality, 
we believe, but as one of the important elements that is to go into the 
crucible out of which will come forth something better for English schools 
than either the Naas system or the present London system. His appoint- 
ment makes effective at headquarters a new group of forces that are 
primarily pedagogic rather than technical. 

The day looks brighter when such men are promoted. 

Dr Kirchen- ^ ^ as ^ een announced that Dr. George Kirchensteiner, 
steiner superintendent of schools, in Munich, will be at the meet- 

Coming Jng of the National Society for the Promotion of Indus- 

trial Education which is to be held in Boston, November 17, 18 and 19. 
Thru Professor Charles R. Richards, the president of the Society, we 



EDITORIAL. 73 

learn that plans have been made for Dr. Kirchensteiner to visit and speak 
in Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, and New York, as well as in Boston 
at the convention. It is expected that Dr. Kirchensteiner will spend four 
weeks in this country. His coming is a rare opportunity for American 
teachers. Dr. Kirchensteiner is the central figure in industrial education 
in Europe. His writings and his remarkable work in the city of Munich 
have won for him a leading place. Emperor William invited him to 
come to Berlin and take a higher educational position, but Dr. Kirchen- 
steiner, being a Bavarian, preferred to remain in his home city of Munich. 
We should give Dr. Kirchensteiner the warmest kind of a welcome, and 
take heed to what he may tell us about continuation schools. 

University The present demand for trained teachers in the manual 
Departments arts, especially in high schools, is beginning to arouse the 
of Manual universities to action. The universities are desirous of 
supplying all teachers for high schools and they are finding 
that in order to do some of the newer school subjects and to meet 
the popular demand for the extension of practical education, they must 
train teachers in the manual arts. One of the first of the universities to 
take effective action to meet the situation was the University of Missouri 
when two years ago it appointed Robert W. Selvidge professor of man- 
ual training. The results already gained from this action have fully 
justified the step taken. Then the University of Chicago called Walter 
Sargent and Frank M. Leavitt to develop a new department of art and 
manual training in connection with its School of Education. During 
the past summer the University of Wisconsin has taken action which 
in some respects is more significant than either of the others mentioned. 
It has established a new department of manual arts and called to its 
headship Professor Fred D. Crawshaw, assistant dean of the College 
of Engineering of the University of Illinois. This appointment is sig- 
nificant because Wisconsin is one of the older and more influential of 
the state universities, because of the close connection of the University 
with the high schools of the state, and because of the freedom given to 
Professor Crawshaw in the development of his department. With the 
full cooperation of the departments of pedagogy and engineering at the 
University and the support of the other forces in the state interested 
in industrial education, the possibilities of the new department can 
hardly be over-estimated. The selection of Professor Crawshaw for 
the head of the department will be commended by all who have known 
of his effective work with teachers, his organizing ability and his ex- 
ceptionally strong personal influence over young men. 



74 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

The place made vacant at the University of Illinois by the resignation 
of Professor Crawshaw has been filled by the appointment of one of 
our editorial staff, William T. Bawden, director of manual training at the 
Illinois State Normal University. This is a well deserved promotion for 
Professor Bawden, and with full knowledge of his efficiency and personal 
worth, we can heartily congratulate the University. 

When one man steps up another good one comes forward to take his 
place. Soon after Professor Bawden resigned at Normal his position 
was filled by the appointment of A. C. Newell, who for about fifteen 
years has been building up the manual training department in the public 
schools of Des Moines, Iowa, and during the past few years the summer 
school work for teachers at the Iowa State University. 

College O ur attention has been called to a circular issued by the 

Entrance High School Teachers' Association of New York City in 

Requirements reference to the articulation of the high school and the 
college. The circular opens with the statement that the forty thousand 
boys and girls who annually attend the nineteen high schools of New 
York City cannot be wisely and fully served under the present college 
entrance requirements. It deplores the present necessity of dividing 
high school students into two classes, one to prepare for college and the 
other to prepare for life. It points to Clark College as having perhaps 
the best entrance requirements ; any graduate of New England public 
high schools or other high schools with equivalent standard being 
admitted. It is stated that this method has proven satisfactory to the 
College. But if this cannot be adopted the Association asks for (a) a 
reduction in the number of required subjects, and (b) the recognition 
of all standard subjects as electives. The circular states that the speci- 
fied requirement of "two foreign languages, the meager electives in 
science, and the absence of recognition for drawing, music, household 
science and art, shopwork, commercial branches, and civics and economics 
constitute the chief difficulty." The Association would like to have the 
following credits allowed: — 

"Music 1 unit; mechanical and freehand drawing, each y 2 to 1 unit; 
joinery, pattern making, forging, machine shop practice, each l / 2 to 1 
unit ; household chemistry, botany, zoology, physiography, applied phys- 
ics, and advanced chemistry, each 1 unit ; modern history, 1 unit ; civics 
and economics, each Y% to 1 unit; household science and art, 2 units; and 
commercial geography, commercial law, stenography and typewriting, 
elementary bookkeeping, advanced bookkeeping, accounting, each l / 2 to 
1 unit." 



EDITORIAL. 



75 



There is every reason why this request should receive serious con- 
sideration by the Eastern colleges; it is but little more than is now 
granted by most of the great state universities of the West. It certainly 
ought to be true, and in many schools we are confident it is true, that 
a given number of hours spent in drawing or shopwork is fully equiv- 
alent in value either for college or for life, "to the same number of hours 
in the study and recitation work of a course in Latin or French or 
mathematics. If it is not true, let the manual training teachers enrich 
and standardize their courses until it is true everywhere, and then we 
believe such a demand as the New York High School Teachers' Asso- 
ciation is making will be irresistible. At least, it would be in the West 
where the universities are close to the people. 




ASSOCIATIONS 



The topic "Courses of Study in the Manual Arts" is engaging the serious 
attention of Association workers in a number of States. In addition to those 
instances noted in the following paragraph, several Associations have special 
committees at work: Ohio Art and Manual Training Association, Missouri 
Association of Applied Arts and Sciences, Southwestern Ohio Manual Training 
Round Table. The North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools, at its last meeting, created a committee of five to consider plans for 
vocational training beginning in the sixth grade. 

The fact that so many organizations are concentrating attention upon this 
important problem is certainly a significant sign of the times. The year just 
opening should see very definite progress in the direction of unification and 
standardization of public school work in the manual arts. 

One very hopeful aspect of the situation is the evident desire on the part of 
the leaders in this work to avoid the "cut-and-dried" in courses of study. 
Outlines are planned so as to be as flexible as possible while covering the 
essentials and are built on a foundation of "suggestive" processes and projects 
rather than a fixed course of models. 

It would be unfortunate for the committees in different sections of the 
country not to profit by the work accomplished by others interested in the same 
problems. The chairmen of the various committees should get into communi- 
cation with each other for interchange of ideas. The Associations Department 
of the Magazine is anxious to help in this work in any way possible, and the 
Editor hopes to be kept informed of events in the field. 

In ths connection, special attention is called to the "Directory of Organiza- 
tions" on pages VII and IX of this issue. An effort will be made to make this a 
complete directory of Associations having to do with the manual arts in 
education. Information that will enable us to correct errors appearing here, 
and facts concerning Associations not in the list that ought to be there, will be 
greatly appreciated. 

The Boston Manual Training Club held its first regular meeting of the 
year at the club camp on the Concord river, Billerica, Mass. This camp is an 
attractive bungalow, planned and built entirely (with the exception of fireplace 
and chimney) by club members. Shares in the camp are held by the members, 
who have the privilege of renting it for outings. The club has published a 
Bulletin of 28 pages which contains a roster of members, the constitution of the 
club, and two addresses: "What is Fundamental in Vocational Education?" by 
Dr. C. Hanford Henderson; and "The Essential Groundwork of Industrial 
Training," by Commissioner Andrew S. Draper. 

The Chicago School Arts Association had a successful year with four public 

76 



ASSOCIATIONS. 77 

meetings, October, December, February, and April. Owing to absence from 
the city of the officers, the annual luncheon and business meeting was postponed 
till October. 

The Wisconsin School Arts and Home Economics Association meets in 
Milwaukee, November 3 to 5, 1910. Among the speakers are: Miss Isabel 
Bevier, University of Illinois, "The Education of the Girl;'' Charles A. Bennett, 
Bradley Institute, Peoria, "Place of Manual Arts in Education;" Fred D. 
Crawshaw, University of Wisconsin, subject to be announced. 

The committee of ten, which has been formulating courses of study in the 
manual arts for the State of Wisconsin, will present a report at this meeting. 
The committee has held three meetings, one at Oshkosh in February, one at 
Madison in April, and one at Menominee in September. In accordance with 
the suggestion of State Superintendent Carey and High School Inspector Terry, 
the report of the committee is to be published in the next High School Manual. 

The Iowa Manual Arts Association has two special committees at work. 
One committee, with Charles H. Bailey, State Teachers' College, Cedar Falls, 
as chairman, is developing a course of study for Iowa, which is to be broad in 
outline, suggestive and helpful to teachers, and it is hoped it may have an 
influence in the direction of greater unity in the work and in the matter of 
college entrance credits. 

Another committee, with R. C. Kelly, Sioux City, chairman, is gathering 
a collection of tracings and formulating a plan for furnishing blue prints at cost 
to members of the Association. This should prove helpful in many ways and 
make available working drawings for a large number of supplementary projects. 

JJL 

The Illinois Manual Arts Association has had committees at work on courses 
of study for four years, and the published report which was presented at the 
Jacksonville meeting in February has been widely circulated in Illinois. The 
various courses, as outlined, are being tried out in the schools by members 
and others interested who, at the solicitation of the committee, have agreed to test 
them in their schools and present critical reports of the results at the 1911 
meeting. 

The Texas Manual Training Teachers' Association has been disbanded, and 
reorganized as the Industrial Arts Section of the Texas State Teachers' Associa- 
tion. The next meeting will be at Abilene, in December. 

THE HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE. 

An annual event of much interest to the high schools of Illinois is the 
High School Conference, which meets at the University of Illinois, Urbana, 
the week preceding Thanksgiving. The dates for this present year are 
November 17, 18 and 19. 

On Thursday evening there will be the usual round-table session. Friday, 
all day, is given to the Section meetings, which are the most important feature 
of the conference. This year the following sections are expected to hold 



78 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

discussions: Agriculture, Biological Sciences, Classical Languages, Commerce, 
Domestic Science, English, Manual Arts, Mathematics, Modern Languages, 
Physical Sciences, School Administration, Social Sciences. The programs for 
these sections will be announced later. The Manual Arts section is quite in 
accord with the Illinois Manual Arts Association. Several of the leading 
members of the Section are also members of the Association. 

Work is being done, thru committees, in the way of organizing courses in 
manual training and in drawing. , 

On Friday evening Professor E. C. Elliott, University of Wisconsin, will 
address the general conference on "Further Needed Adjustments in the High 
School Program of Studies." 

Saturday morning the general conference will be addressed by State 
Inspector Geo. B. Ailon, of Minnesota, on "The Minnesota Plan of State Aid 
to High Schools." This is the first of a series of presentations of different 
special plans for the special financial aid to high schools. 

WESTERN DRAWING AND MANUAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 

The Western Drawing and Manual Training Association is unique among 
educational organizations in several respects. In the first place, it is generally 
conceded that in very few Associations is there found on the part of the members 
so high a degree of interest in and devotion to the affairs of the Association 
and consequent regularity of attendance at the meetings. Secondly, the programs 
from year to year contain the names of the foremost men and women in their 
respective lines of work, and scarcely anywhere else can opportunities for 
inspiration be found equal to those afforded by these annual meetings. Thirdly, 
the published annual reports have been growing in dignity and professional 
worth until now there is a large demand for them even from non-members. 

In all of these, and other, respects the seventeenth annual convention at 
Minneapolis, May 10-13, 1910, maintained the high standards that have been 
set up. The accompanying illustrations are taken, by permission, from the 
published report of the meeting, which was issued during the summer. 

Mention should be made of the splendid way in which the visiting members 
were entertained by Minneapolis and St. Paul. Many pleasant memories will 
linger of the trips to the private galleries of Mr. T. B. Walker and Mr. James 
J. Hill, the Minnesota State Capitol, the Handicraft Guild, the automobile 
rides thru the beautiful parks, and other happenings of the week.. 

At the opening session one of the best addresses of the week was given 
by Henry Turner Bailey on "How to Study Pictures." This topic was inter- 
preted to mean "how to study pictures with children in such a way that they 
may come to know and choose the best in pictorial art." In "the best" we 
would include such works as the Sistine Madonna, and others that were named ; 
but the question was raised and discussed, Are these "the best" with which 
our children are to be made familiar? The kinds of pictures suitable for 
study by children, with reasons, were presented, and by means of stereopticon 
slides the following principles were illustrated and emphasized: (1) Select for 
study pictures which the children can understand; (2) lead the children to 



ASSOCIATIONS. 



79 




CHARCOAL AND INK DRAWINGS, FROM EXHIBIT OF CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 

MINNEAPOLIS. FROM THE 1910 REPORT OF THE WESTERN DRAWING 

AND MANUAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 



80 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

study the picture, rather than the life of the artist, the philosophy or history 
of the picture; (3) lead the child to appreciate the technic of pictures, that 
is, drawing, coloring, and composition; (4) keep in mind the future development 
of the children, the development of fine strong character. 

One of the most valuable papers for manual training teachers was that 
presented by Robert W. Selvidge, University of Missouri, on "Industrial Educa- 
tion from the Viewpoint of Organized Labor." A few sentences follow : "It 
is not so much an industrial problem as a problem of humanity. From certain 
sources we hear much of the 'demand of industry,' but organized labor is more 
interested in the needs of those engaged in industry. These two views of the 
question are quite distinct, one looks toward a more efficient producer, and 
the other toward a more efficient man. . . . The proposed elementary 
industrial school has received some well deserved criticism from labor men; 
it should receive criticism still more severe from school men. There is no 
more reason for organizing an elementary industrial school than there is for 
organizing an elementary arithmetic school or reading school. Matter pertaining 
to the industries should have an important place in our elementary school 
curriculum; but it should not overshadow everything else." 

Four departmental Round Tables were held for discussion of special topics: 
Drawing, Manual Training, Household Arts, University. The University 
Section has been especially active during the past year, and its Committee on 
the Condition of Art Work in Colleges and Universities, John S. Ankeny, 
Chairman, presented a valuable and comprehensive report. 

The officers for 1910-1911 were elected, as follows: President, Miss Lillian 
S. Cushman, Univ. of Chicago; Vice-President, Charles F. Perry, Milwaukee 
School of Trades ; Secretary, Miss Bertha L. Patt, State Teachers' College, 
Cedar Falls, Iowa; Treasurer, J. E. Painter, Minneapolis; Auditor, Oscar L. 
McMurry, Chicago Normal School. The Association voted to hold the 1911 
meeting in Springfield, Illinois. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION. 

The forty-eighth annual convention of the National Education Association 
was held in Boston, July 2-8, 1910, and, while not so largely attended as some 
of the preceding meetings, was greatly enjoyed by those who were privileged 
to be present. Various organizations and committees of local teachers, business 
men, and citizens provided everything that could be thought of in the way 
of entertainment and attention to the comfort and convenience of the thousands 
of guests. 

The magnitude of this summer educational convention is quite impressive. 
The printed program contained about seventy meetings in all, and in addition 
to the general sessions of the Association and the eighteen Sections, there were 
ten other societies holding meetings during the week. It is manifestly impossible 
for any individual to assimilate more than a small fraction of the good things 
offered. The most that can be undertaken in this report is to present a few 
disconnected thoughts gathered here and there. 

One suggestion that it would be well for manual training teachers to think 



ASSOCIATIONS. 



SI 




PART OF THE SAINT LOUIS EXHIBIT, MINNEAPOLIS. FROM THE 1910 REPORT, 
WESTERN DRAWING AND MANUAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 



82 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

about is taken from the paper by Supt. W. H. Maxwell, of New York City, on 
"The Economic Use of Education Plants," which was read before the National 
Council. One paragraph is as follows: 

"During the long summer vacation school premises should be used for 
continuation schools for pupils who have failed of promotion in June, for manual 
training work for children who are compelled to reside in the city during the 
heated term, and for playgrounds. All high schools should be maintained 
thruout the year, summer as well as winter. Workshops and cooking rooms 
should be kept in operation every afternoon and on Saturday morning for the 
sake of those children who cannot get sufficient eye and hand training during 
the regular school hours, and for children preparing for the trades. In cities 
in which foreign immigrants settle in large numbers, summer evening schools 
should be established to teach English to foreigners.'' 

Under the chairmanship of Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, the first meeting of the American Home Economics Association 
was held on Tuesday afternoon. 

"If home life is to be saved, if the old-time virtues are to be perpetuated, 
new forms must be found suitable for the time," said Mrs. Richards in her 
opening address. "For the next ten years, therefore, let us not crystallize our 
work or our plans into unalterable forms, but keep ever ready to take new steps 
— and the right solution of keeping a happy, healthy home will come at last." 

Miss Helen Kinne, Teachers' College, introduced the topic of the meeting: 
"Presentation of Subject Matter in Household Science and Arts to Elementary 
Pupils." The paper, "How to Make the Household Arts Effective in the 
Schools and Community," read by Miss Ednah A. Rich, Santa Barbara, Cal., 
was of much interest, dealing with the presentation of these household problems 
in the most effective manner before the student. Other papers were "Practical 
Methods in a Household Arts Lesson," by Miss Emma S. Jacobs, director of 
domestic science, Washington, D. C. ; "Methods of Teaching the Principles of 
Right Living to Little Children," by Miss Frances Stern, Louisa M. Alcott Club, 
Boston; "A Lesson in Cookery in the Elementary Schools," by Mrs. Alice P. 
Norton, School of Education, University of Chicago; "Our Penny Lunch Problem 
and How to Solve It," by Miss Emeline E. Torrey, Winthrop School, Boston ; 
"How to Study House Construction," by Mrs. Ethel Fifield Brooks, lecturer on 
house construction at Yonkers, N. Y. ; "The Teaching of Household Furnishing 
and Decorations," by Mrs. Mary E. Williams, director of domestic science, 
New York. 

In the Department of Manual Training, Tuesday morning session, Edward 
A. Rumely, La Porte, Indiana, made a strong plea for modification of educational 
methods in a paper entitled, "Our Public Schools as Preparatory Schools for 
Life." He said in part: 

"A few individual manufacturers, pressed by this need of skilled workers, 
have started schools of their own, only to find that often the results are lost to 
themselves when their employees move to other cities. A few of our larger 
cities have established separate trade schools, but our problem is nation-wide, 
and nothing but a reorganization of our whole public school system will meet 
it. How can we make our schools, upon which we spend more money than any 



ASSOCIATIONS. 83 

other people, fit our children for their life's work, and furnish our industries, 
the source of our national wealth, with their army of skilled and willing 
workers. ... 

"Now industry has passed forever from the home into the factory system. 
Sciences like physics and chemistry have become vital factors in the productive 
processes. Skill and accurate knowledge are needed as never before. The 
home can no longer give the boy and girl training for their life's work. The 
school must assume this function. 

"Work must now become part of the school course. How shall we prepare 
a vast army of teachers, capable of imparting training for industrial work? 
How can we create the New American School ?" 

RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL DEMANDS. 

Charles H. Keyes, Hartford, Conn., in a paper on "Better Preparation for 
Life Needs of Industrial Demands," said: 

"Our instincts, educationally, taught us the value of motor education before 
we reasoned the matter out by philosophy. We have reached the time when 
we must stop and ask ourselves what we mean by 'pure culture.' A boy is ready 
for promotion when he is working at the top of his bent, no matter what the 
field of his endeavor. It is the power to address oneself continuously to a 
particular thing that brings results. What may be easy for one boy to apply 
himself to, may be an impossibility for another. There must come after us 
men and women to run our factories and industries as well as lawyers and 
medical men. It's the boys and girls who have been committed to our care who 
will be in the mills, and we must stop contending that some of our schools 
must not be trades schools. 

"The business of the school is to fit for life's demands. To do this we 
must put into our schools the things which are demanded by the largest number. 
Bookkeeping may do for one boy what Greek and Latin could never do. It 
would fit him for the part he is to play in life." 

Arthur D. Dean, Chief of Department of Industrial Education, Albany, 
N. Y., presented "A Practical System for General Training in Industrial 
Education,'' from which the following sentences are taken: 

"Agitation for industrial education does not mean there is to be any 
educational revolution, but rather the continuance of that evolution which has 
been, and one hopes always will be taking place. This form of education is 
not antagonistic to the general function of all education which is to develop 
and train the mind. Some subjects and processes are best for certain groups, 
and every school should be the natural expression of the life of its community. 
It all means a redirection of our public schools and involves a comprehensive 
treatment of the pressing needs of our schools, our children and our industries. 

"The school system may well begin to separate at the end of the sixth grade 
into three distinct branches, leading, first, to the present high school system; 
second, to higher business schools; third, to higher schools which train workers 
in industrial and agricultural vocations. 

"A far-reaching phase will be the establishment of continuation schools. 



84 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Employers must regulate their affairs so that boys and girls between fourteen 
and sixteen years of age may be excused from factory and store work to attend 
these schools for a few hours a week in order that American citizenship may 
be preserved and some notion be given these immature children of industrial 
and commercial practice. 

"At present there is little connection between school, shop and store. Chil- 
dren go to work because they have to become breadwinners. Meanwhile, the 
public schools are carried on for the benefit of those who are fortunate enough 
to be able to continue in their school work. By little effort the schools and 
factories can cooperate for training and industrial and civic efficiency." 

Michael W. Murray, director of manual training in the Technical High 
School of Newtonville, said that much to be said about teachers for the vocational 
schools might apply with equal force to teachers of manual training. The 
manual training teacher has too much work to do, in the first place, and in the 
second place, the teachers are underpaid. In industrial teaching the selection 
of teachers is of prime importance. The higher grammar grades should be 
closely related to industrial life, but they are practically getting little or no 
manual training, and the high schools are getting manual training that educates 
beyond the grade of workmen. Teachers of industrial schools should be school- 
trained men and the broadest and best-taught workmen we can find. The ideal 
for teachers would be a normal schoolday course, but practically it must be 
given in a continuation school. They must learn so that they may teach more 
than one part of shopwork, they must teach the mechanical work, and they must 
be able to teach an academic subject. They must appreciate the need of 
industrial training, and we should have teachers as skilled as the most successful 
teachers we have in any schools. 

RECOGNITION IN ENTRANCE CREDITS. 

In the Department of Secondary Education much interest was aroused in 
the discussion of a proposition to demand of the colleges fuller recognition 
for work in the manual arts. Resolutions were adopted which contained 
reference to work done in high schools in "manual training, commercial 
branches, music, home-making science and art, agriculture, etc.," and the claim 
that these 'when well taught and thoroly learned are justly entitled to recog- 
nition in college entrance credits." 

In the discussion of the general topic "The Practical Aspects of Science 
in Secondary Education, with Special Reference to the Introduction of Materials 
from Agriculture, Household Arts, Technical Industries, Etc.," Louis Murbach, 
Detroit, said in part: 

"In both nature study and elementary science the problems have been 
invented for the lessons. Nature problems and useful applications will be the 
rule in the future. The manual arts are working along this line and have made 
extraordinary progress in their introduction into almost all grades of the school 
work. 

"It will be far better to articulate the new studies such as agriculture and 
the manual arts, in some way with the high school curriculum than to further 



ASSOCIATIONS. 85 

encourage the establishment of special schools for these subjects. The training 
in such schools is likely to impress their graduates with a feeling of having 
finished rather than having only begun to learn." 

DRAWING AND THE ARTS AND CRAFTS. 

In the Department of Art Education, William C. A. Hammel, State Normal 
College, Greensboro, N. C, read a paper on "Drawing and Its Relation to the 
Arts and Crafts in the Public Schools." After reviewing briefly the conditions 
that obtained in the public schools some years ago relative to the study of 
drawing, he went on to say that gradually it was recognized that drawing 
really had a reason for being and it then began to be correlated with other 
studies. Continuing, he said: 

"While we have come to the point of having intellectual producers it is 
still rare to find the artist craftsman. We have come to recognize that there 
is a vital need of art in our daily life rather than a need for a $5,000 picture 
in some gallery. It is necessary that we train the child from the very beginning 
in an appreciation of the beautiful, and to understand that it is impossible 
to dissociate craftsmanship from design. The ideal craftsman is one who 
works from his own design, and the best combination in the artist is that 
which combines skill with clear thought. It should be made plain that nothing 
a child does is unrelated to his life and as he learns to make things they 
should be with the idea not only of usefulness, but there should ever be present 
the idea of the beautiful, the artistic. With the doing there should also be 
the thinking and the play of the creative instinct should be given wide latitude. 

"In drawing is the very bone and sinew of the arts and crafts. To teach 
the arts and crafts without a knowledge of drawing is wrong and will result 
in failure and utter defeat of one's purpose. There is a great opportunity for 
the arts and crafts movement and it should have its most vital influence in 
directing the public taste, in improving the quality of manufactured articles, 
especially in house furnishings, thereby creating a demand for better things 
in the way of design. The person well educated in artistic lines can compel 
manufacturers to put out more artistic wares and in the simpler homes one 
should gradually learn to harden his heart to monstrosities too long tolerated. 
People can refuse longer to live in ugliness, and with this spirit given wider 
play its effect will soon be seen in civic conditions and it will make for greatness 
all around." 

At the Friday morning session devoted to Manual Training and Art two 
strong papers were presented dealing with the problems of household arts. 
Miss Helen Kinne, Teachers' College, New York, in discussing "The Vocational 
Value of the Household Arts,' - said: 

"If the household arts are to be truly vocational, we must insist on a 
thoro training for home keeping, or for work that will train the girl to earn 
her livelihood. The average course is too scrappy. More time should be 
allotted to the work, and the courses should be better organized. The matter 
of foods and cookery is only one element in our subject. We should also teach 
the girl to know the difference between fresh turkey and one that has been in 



86 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



cold storage for a couple of years. We must teach her not to buy jam made 
out of turnip pulp, flavored with analine products, and mixed up with a little 
havseed. We must go further into textile work, and teach her about sweat-shop 
work, and the prices which must be paid for clothing in order to insure decent 
conditions. Economy and the cost of living is another neglected topic." 

Miss Ednah A. Rich, State Normal School, Santa Barbara, Cal., made a 
special plea for better prepared teachers. She said in part: 

"The teacher who goes into this special work must be a woman of experience. 
It is not fair to put a girl of eighteen just out of high school, who knows nothing 
of buying and money values, in to supervise older teachers. We must make the 
work vital. In the elementary and grammar grades, we must make the work 
like home rather than like school. As a part of home making, we must take the 
school atmosphere away from the room, and give the children greater freedom 
for self-expression and an interchange of ideas." 

The officers of the Department of Manual Training and Art were elected, 
as follows: President, Clifford B. Connelly, Carnegie Technical Schools, 
Pittsburg, Pa.; Vice-President, Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Boston; Secretary, Miss May Gearhart, Los Angeles, Calif. 




CHICAGO ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS, MINNEAPOLIS. FROM THE 1910 REPORT OF 
THE WESTERN DRAWING AND MANUAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

George A. Seaton, Editor. 

WINDOW VENTILATOR. 

This frame is intended to be used in the winter time by covering it with cheese 
cloth, or in the fall and spring by using wire screening. The little strips which 
hold the covering material in place are not shown in the drawing. They may be 
placed either within the frame or on the outside. The length of the frame is 
such that it will just clear one stop when placed against the window frame and 
between the stops on the opposite side. The drawing is taken from a blueprint 
used by Hans Schmidt in St. Paul. 

MORRIS CHAIR. 

Allison P. Ball, Worcester, Mass., who sends in the working drawings for 
(he Morris chair, says that it is very satisfactory tho composed of few pieces. 
As all the joints are to be glued and pinned it will be necessary to cut some 
twenty-four dowel-pins which are not shown in the plate of details. Eight of 
these dowels which are to be used in fastening the slats in the back are 7/% 
long while sixteen which are to be used in attaching the rails to the legs are 
\5/&" long. Tho the drawing is not so made, it will be possible to have a pleas- 
ing variation by extending the tenons at the top of the legs entirely thru the 
arms. The arms of the chair incline slightly from the horizontal, which is ac- 
complished by making the back legs a trifle shorter than those in front. This 
is indicated by the two dimensions given, tho but one drawing is shown for front 
and back legs. The back is hinged to the back legs by means of the back pins 
and rests against the back stops which fit into holes in the arms. The two 
washers called for in the detail drawing are placed on the back pins to keep the 
back in proper position. 

DINNER BELL. 

This drawing is really that of a little house or canopy under which a bell is 
to be hung. When placed upon the dining room wall it not only serves its 
useful purpose in assembling the family for the meals but it also serves as a 
decoration. Dee K. Hiett, of Kane, Pennsylvania, who submitted the drawing 
suggests that the bell rocker be made in the lathe if possible. If such a machine 
is not available large dowels may be used to form the cylindrical ends of the 
bar, tho great care must be exercised to get these exactly in line in order that the 
bell may swing easily. The heavier the bell the less trouble there will be in 
operating it. Upon the tablet shown some appropriate motto should be carved. 
A suggested combination is the use of red gum for the tablet, while the balance 
of the bell house is finished in a Flemish oak. 

87 



88 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS. 



89 




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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS. 



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92 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



SHOP COAT. 



While few of us can afford the automobile, the automobile coat has proven 
highly satisfactory for use in the wood-turning room. This is especially true 
where a pupil must hasten from the shop to a recitation. The coat can be 




slipped on and off in quick time and it affords such a protection to the clothing 
that it is seldom necessary to use a clothes brush. The idea is equally good 
for the teacher. The coats are purchased for one dollar here in Cleveland. E. 
H. Masters, of South High School, is the originator of the idea. 




CURRENT ITEMS 

Observant travelers thru some parts of New York, New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania this year cannot fail to notice the large number of chestnut trees that 
are either dead or rapidly dying on account of the spread of the chestnut 
canker that is threatening to exterminate this popular American tree. In the 
September number of the Munsey magazine is an article by Bailey Millard on 
"The Passing of the Chestnut Tree," which treats of this tree scourge from a 
sentimental, then scientific and finally a practical standpoint. It points out how 
the beautiful broad-spreading shade trees of New York state are dying in spite 
of the strenuous efforts of scientists to save them. Of the twenty thousand 
chestnut trees in Forest Park, Brooklyn, about seventeen thousand have been 
killed and cut down and it is expected that the remainder will be dead within 
a year. All efforts to save the trees by spraying or cutting off the parts 
supposed to be infected, are futile, as the grim disease spreads thru the inner 
bark as soon as the tree has once been inoculated. Not a single tree has yet 
been saved, tho thousands of dollars have been spent in vain efforts to discover 
a remedy for this insidious disease. The canker spreads rapidly from tree to tree. 
"Under the stimulus of the warm summer sun, the fruiting pustules of the fungus 
push thru the bark crevices, millions of minute spores emerge from day to day 
in brown masses. These are whirled away by the wind, spreading the infection 
far and wide to other trees of the same species." Other agencies also assist. 

Besides destroying many of the largest and most highly prized shade trees 
in the East, baffling the scientists of the Department of Agriculture at Washington 
and at the New York Botanical Gardens, and taking away the sport of the 
small boy who goes nutting in the cool autumn day, this canker is having a 
very serious effect upon the lumber market. Chestnut is largely used for interior 
finish and for the cheaper grades of furniture. It is especially useful for fence- 
posts, electric light and telegraph poles, and for railroad ties, because it will 
remain in the ground a long time without rotting. It is stated by Mr. Millard 
that the lumberman's annual output is now about twenty-million dollars worth 
of chestnut lumber and three million dollars worth of railroad ties. The 
immediate effect of the canker upon the lumber business is that owners of 
woodlands in the neighborhood of the infected trees are harvesting their chestnut 
timber as rapidly as possible, tho it is not expected that this will materially 
reduce the price, as the lumber will be kept for future sales. It is prophesied 
that within the next five years chestnut lumber will be twice as expensive as oak, 
and that in ten years it will be as rare and costly as mahogany. This is sad 
news for the manual training teacher who has found chestnut less expensive 
and easier to work than most varieties of oak, and capable of wonderfully 
rich brown finish by the fuming process, especially if previously treated with a 
solution of tannic acid. 

It is feared by some that the epidemic will spread to the chinkapin oak, 
which has already been known to contract the disease. If this should prove 
to be the case, large forest lands in the South would be affected. At the present 

93 



94 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

time the work of the chestnut canker has been confined to the territory east of 
central Ohio. 

NORTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

A movement has been started in Boston for the establishment of vocation 
bureaus and for the introduction into the schools of methods of guidance in the 
choice of occupation. The first national congress for vocational guidance will 
be held in Boston November 15 and 16, and will co-operate with the annual 
convention of the Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, to be held 
in the same city November 17, 18, and 19. The purpose of the congress is to 
call attention to the waste of what it considers the present haphazard system 
of dumping young people into the world from school, and even from college, 
unprepared to face the problem of choosing a life-work. Emphasis is to be laid 
upon the unhappiness of the individual as well as upon the loss in production 
and the waste of human resources. The second purpose of the congress is to 
devise methods of meeting the problem. Consideration is to be given to such 
propositions as the establishment of vocation bureaus, the training of school 
teachers to advise children, the production of handbooks and other literature 
setting forth the requirements, advantages and opportunities of various occu- 
pations. 

The State trade school at Bridgeport, Connecticut, opened for day students 
on the 15th of August and for evening students on the 22d. The number of 
applicants for evening work was so large that about two-thirds of them were 
turned away on account of lack of room. Work was offered in the machine 
shop department under A. L. Graffam; woodworking, under G. W. Buck; dress- 
making, under Mrs. N. B. Judy; mechanical drawing, under L. R. O'Neill. The 
principal of the school is Alfred P. Fletcher, who comes from Rochester, New 
York. Mr. Fletcher is a graduate of the University of Rochester, taught three 
years in the Rochester Mechanics' Institute, was principal of a grammar school 
for three years, and since 1906 has been director of manual training and 
industrial education. In December, 1908, he organized the Rochester Factory 
School, which was the first trade school opened in New York under the recent 
Act providing for trade schools. Six months later an elementary industrial 
school was organized to prepare boys for this trade school, and during the past 
few months Mr. Fletcher has been engaged in organizing a girls' trade school. 
In characterizing a trade school recently, Mr. Fletcher said : "The trade school 
is a typical little factory, with the emphasis on the boy and not on the product." 
It seems evident that Mr. Fletcher will live up to this definition in his new 
position. 

Another trade school is being established in Connecticut under the State 
Board of Education. This one is at New Britain and is under the direction of 
Clarence H. Woolsey, formerly of Middletown. Instruction will be given in 
machine-work, tool-making, die-sinking, pattern-making, and carpentry. Me- 
chanical drawing, shop arithmetic, English, business methods of the trade, and 
the sources and preparation of material will be included. 



CURRENT ITEMS. 95 

A school experiment is being carried on by the H. H. Franklin Manu- 
facturing Company of Syracuse, New York. This company has established what 
it designates as a technical class for which it provides a four years' course 
of instruction. During the entire four years students are employed at a definitely 
pre-determined wage, graduated from 8c an hour at the start to 20c an hour 
at the end, with a bonus of $100 at the time of the award of the school diploma 
for the completion of the course. Students will be given instruction in arithmetic, 
plane geometry, trigonometry, elements of machine design, shop mathematics, 
mechanical drawing, analysis of machines, in addition to their instruciton in 
the shop. To be eligible for entrance to the technical class an applicant must 
be between sixteen and twenty years and must have had a grammar school 
education or its equivalent. He must also be physically sound and of good 
character and appearance. During the first twelve weeks he will be on probation, 
that time being designated as a term of trial. Each year the course consists of 
twenty-seven hundred working hours. 

The manual training and domestic science departments of the Braddock, 
Pennsylvania, public schools were discontinued about four years ago by the 
school board in its endeavor to cut down expenses. This year both of these 
departments are being resumed, the manual training to be in charge of Mr. 
F. C. Steltz, of State College, Pennsylvania. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

In Athens, Georgia, they are seeking to rear a monument to the Old 
Black Mammy. This will not be a shaft of stone, but an industrial school 
for the training of negro girls. Five acres of land have been secured in the 
eastern section of Clark County, and more has been promised. Money is being 
raised to further the project and it looks as tho the white people of the neigh- 
borhood will put the school on a good working basis. The Atlanta Constitution 
says of it: What is to be the destiny of this particular school we do not know. 
But every white Southerner knows that if it is conducted with the sound sense, 
if it inculcates the unswerving fidelity of the type of negress for which it is 
named, it should prove a benefaction to its environment. Do we not need 
more of these Old Black Mammy schools in the Southern states? The very 
spirit of the phrase spells the life-blood of that solution of the racial problem 
the Constitution has been urging upon the churches and the whites and the 
blacks of the Southern states." 

JUL 

The Georgia Legislature has passed a bill which has been recently signed 
by the Governor appropriating $35,000 for the Georgia School of Technology 
on condition that $15,000 will be raised by private subscriptions. The purpose 
of this fund of $50,000 is to construct a new shop building, thus making room 
for several hundred more students in the school. 

A commission on industrial education appointed by Governor Crothers 
of Maryland has recently made its report. This presents a strong plea for 



96 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

industrial education in all public schools, both urban and rural. They insist 
that the success of maintaining industrial education depends upon state funds. 
Cities and counties should be encouraged by liberal state support because 
industrial schools will be a factor in advancing the industries of the whole 
state. From this it follows that the control of the industrial education should 
be in the hands of the State Board of Education who would work thru County 
Boards, strengthened, if need be, by the addition of advisory committees of 
citizens. The report points out that in industrial education for the rural schools 
there must be a very close cooperation with the home. It also adds that 
before entering upon industrial training pupils should have had some form 
of handwork in the elementary schools, and they estimate that the amount should 
be one hour a day. Industrial training should begin after the ordinary school 
work is fairly completed. Under ordinary conditions the vocational schools 
should be open to pupils who are thirteen or fourteen years of age. 

*&£ 

The address of President Joyner of the National Education Association 
in Boston last summer has received considerable attention from the press of 
the country. A Boston paper says: 

"It is President Joyner who utters most earnest warning against going 
to extremes in industrial education. He sees the danger that the 'apostles of 
this new light, blinded by its first dazzling burst of light, may lose their 
educational perspective and forget that education has any other end but the 
vocational.' He urges with force that in swinging from one extreme that 
produced men with an education, we must not swing to the other extreme that 
will produce men with a vocation without an education." 

-JUL 

Manual training in the city of Washington, D. C, has not been forgotten 
in the recent appropriation bill. The sum of $22,000 was provided for fur- 
nishing an extension to the McKinley Manual Training School; $42,000 for a 
new manual training school to replace the old High Street school ; $65,000 for 
an addition to the Armstrong Manual Training School, and $40,000 for a 
manual training school to be placed on the grounds of the Cardozo school. 

CANADA. 

Canada has a Technical Education Commission which began its work July 6. 
This Commission was appointed at the request of the prime ministers of all the 
provinces. It is hoped that its work will lead to a sound national policy with 
reference to industrial and technical training, based upon the abilities and 
opportunities of the Canadian people. The members of the commission are: Dr. 
J. W. Robertson, of Montreal, chairman ; Hon. John N. Armstrong, North 
Sydney; Dr. George Bryce, Winnepeg; Mr. Gaspard DeSerres, Montreal; 
David Forsyth, Berlin; Gilbert M. Murray, Toronto; James Simpson, Toronto; 
and Thomas Bengough, secretary. 

Professor Robertson is widely known on account of his work as the first 
commissioner of dairying and agriculture for Canada, for his connection with 
the Macdonald Sloyd School Fund, and later as the organizer of Macdonald 



CURRENT ITEMS. 97 

College. Hon. John N. Armstrong is a barrister, a graduate of Harvard 
University and a member of the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia. Dr. 
George Bryce is one of the founders of the University of Manitoba and was 
for a number of years the head of its faculty of science. He is president of the 
Royal Society of Canada, a noted scientist, and author of works in history, 
forestry, botany and agriculture. Gaspard DeSerres is the president of the 
Montreal Technical Schools and a director in many philanthropic organizations 
and industrial and commercial firms. Gilbert M. Murray is the editor of 
Industrial Canada, the organ of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association. 
David Forsyth is president of the Berlin Commercial and Technical Institute. 
James Simpson is the representative of the Dominion Trades and Labor Con- 
gress. Thomas Bengough is president of the Canadian Shorthand Reporters' 
Association of Ontario. 

Beginning with the maritime provinces and working westward, the com- 
mission aims to make a personal inspection of the leading establishments of the 
Dominion, to interview employers and men, and hear representatives of boards 
of trade, factory inspectors, trade unions and employer's associations. After 
touring Canada and the United States, it plans to go to Europe, spending, in 
all, a full year in its work. The initial meeting of the commission was held 
at Ottawa with the Minister of Labor, immediately after which it went to 
Halifax, N. S. 




The Chess Board shown above is the work of a seventh grade Icelandic 
boy sixteen years of age in Winnepeg. Before making the board the boy 
made a drawing and blue-print of it. The design for the carving was adapted 
to the size of the frame from a design given him for a frame two inches larger. 

NORTH CENTRAL STATES. 

The retirement of Principal C. E. Emmerich at the close of the last school 
year marked the end of what may appropriately be called the first chapter in 
the history of the Indianapolis Manual Training High School. Mr. Emmerich 



98 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

can truly be called the father of this great school. It was under him as 
principal that the building for the school was constructed and a course of study 
outlined some seventeen or eighteen years ago. This early work of Mr. 
Emmerich was done so well that the school became popular at once and has 
since become well known thruout this country, and even in foreign lands. It 
was with some difficulty that the exact nature of the school was determined, 
but Mr. Emmerich saw that the work done in the school must be practical, and 
at the same time include the fundamentals of a good general high school training. 

As the school was somewhat of an experiment, the outcome being uncertain, 
the building was designed to accommodate only 600 pupils. To the surprise 
of all connected with the school, when it first opened its doors in February, 
1895, the enrollment was 526, including both boys and girls. Under the wise 
and careful management of Mr. Emmerich the enrollment has steadily grown 
until last year it almost reached 2,000. 

Having given forty-one years of continuous service to educating the young, 
nearly all of which time was spent in Indianapolis, though born and educated 
in Coblenz, Germany, and feeling his health breaking, Mr. Emmerich considered 
it his duty to retire and lead a less active life. His work has produced a 
lasting effect upon the lives of the many pupils and teachers who have been 
connected with the school, and upon the kind of education for which it stands. 

Milo H. Stuart, the assistant principal, has succeeded Mr. Emmerich to the 
principalship. Two years ago he was principal of the Cleveland High School 
in St. Paul, Minn., and from there came to Indianapolis last year. 

JUL 

The Illinois Educational Commission has appointed a committee to make 
a thoro study of agriculture, manual training and domestic science, as subjects 
of instruction in the common schools. This committee is to cover the ground 
of the aims and purposes of these subjects, the matter and method for course 
of study in them, as well as the preparation of teachers for teaching them. 

This committee consists of Dean Eugene Davenport, chairman, University 
of Illinois; President David Felmley, Illinois State Normal University; Dr. 
T. C. Burgess, director Bradley Polytechnic Institute ; Miss Bertha M. Miller, 
head of the Domestic Science Department, James Millikin University; Mrs. 
Henry M. Dunlap, president Domestic Science Department, Illinois Farmers' 
Institute; Dr. Frank H. Hall, Superintendent Illinois Farmers' Institute. 

This committee will make its report to the Educational Commission not later 
than November 1st. 

JJL 

A special committee of the Legislature of the State of Wisconsin has been 
appointed to draft a bill for continuation schools. This committee is considering 
the advisability of compulsory education in trade or continuation schools for 
children who have passed the age of compulsory education in common schools, 
and are not voluntarily attending any other trade or domestic science schools. 
No doubt this action has been inspired by the success of compulsory continua- 
tion schools in Germany. 



CURRENT ITEMS. 99 

Manual training schools for children at summer resorts are quite in 
harmony with the spirit of the times. They spring from the same source as 
the vacation schools for children in large cities. Such schools as the one at 
Chautauqua, N. Y., and Bay View, Mich., are a boon to many a child. At 
Bay View during the past summer Miss Anna S. Lagergren aroused much 
enthusiasm among her pupils by teaching them how to make doll furniture. 

Thru W. S. Hiser we learn that Richmond, Indiana, is completing a $200,000 
high school which will provide four rooms for manual training, one for bench- 
work in wood, wood-turning and pattern-making, forging and machine shop work. 

In a recent editorial the Cleveland Leader pays a high tribute to manual 
training as a means of giving boys the right ideas with reference to work. 
After speaking of the tendency that was especially strong a generation ago for 
boys to gravitate to occupations in which they could "dress like a gentleman,'' 
the article states that the day of this sort of nonsense has practically passed away. 

"The present industrial age has placed the crafts side by side with the 
professions. The colleges, every year, are graduating professional men who 
immediately don overalls and jumpers and proceed to work with their hand$ 
in mines, factories and iron mills. The manual training embodied in the modern 
system of public education has imbued thousands of boys with the ambition to 
produce something of value out of raw materials." 

It is reported that a trade school established last year in the public school 
system of Saginaw, Michigan, has shown substantial progress and that other 
cities in the state are watching the experiment with great interest. 

WESTERN STATES. 

In a recent lecture before the State Normal School at Greeley, Colorado, 
Dr. G. Stanley Hall made some striking statements concerning industrial educa- 
tion. In his characteristic way he said that sloyd is the most sophisticated of 
all types of industrial education. It is purely mechanical. A manual dexterity 
without being wedded to enthusiasm is of no use. Dr. Hall predicted that 
within the next ten years we shall see the greatest revolution in the history 
of education, and that we shall see industrial education given its true value. 

Inspired by the example of Paulham and Curtiss at the aviation meet, 
the boys of the Los Angeles public schools, in their annual kite tournament 
this year, produced scores of biplanes, multiplanes, and other aircraft in 
miniature. But Los Angeles is no longer the only city in which a kite tourna- 
ment is held. It was part of the program of the vacation school work in 
Springfield, Mass., and was inaugurated in one form or another in several 
other cities. 



REVIEWS 

Modern Cabinet Work, Furniture, and Fitments. By Percy A. Wells and 
John Hooper. B. T. Batsford, London, and John Lane Company, New York, 
1910; 10^4 x 7 in.; 384 pages, and 48 double-page and photographic plates. 
Text richly illustrated with more than 1,000 line drawings and photographs. 
Price, $5.00 net; postage, 50 cents. 

This is a most satisfying book. From the standpoints of scope, selection 
of material, style of writing, arrangement, type, presswork, quality and number 
of illustrations, wealth of suggestions for designers, and practical help to 
workmen in the shop, this book leaves little or nothing to be desired. One 
feels that he has a half-dozen excellent books in one unified production. 

The book is written by men of high standing. Mr. Wells is at the head 
of the cabinet department of the Shoreditch Technical Institute and advisory 
instructor at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London. He is also silver 
medalist of the Royal Society of Arts. Mr. Hooper is an honors silver medalist 
of the City and Guilds of London Institute. 

After the introductory chapter dealing with the craft of cabinet-making, 
the book devotes a chapter to tools, appliances and materials. Following this 
is one on drawing, geometry, design and technical terms, and another on joints 
and their applications. The fifth chapter deals with workshop practice and 
construction, including "carcase" construction, door-making, drawer work, and 
curved work, besides the more elementary processes of woodworking. Chapters 
six, seven, and eight, covering 122 pages and dealing respectively with tables 
and framed-up work, "carcase'' work, bedsteads and miscellaneous furniture, 
contain a wealth of practical help for both designer and workman, much of 
which we have never found in any other publication. Chapter nine is devoted 
to veneers and veneering, marquetry and inlaying, and especially gives practical 
instruction on these subjects. Foreman's work — practical setting out and applied 
geometry, is the subject of the tenth chapter; this includes some of the cabinet- 
maker's most difficult problems. Then follow notes on the historic styles of 
furniture, with examples of modern work; a chapter on hardware; one on 
machine tools, machinery and mouldings; one on interior finish for buildings; 
one on special furniture for shops, offices, and museums; and one on chair 
making. The last chapter is on woods, English and foreign. At the end of 
the book is a glossary of technical and workship terms, and a short list of books 
on historic furniture. 

If one is looking for the best and most comprehensive book on cabinet- 
making, there is no other book to buy; it is the only one of its kind. It is a 
rare book of reference. We recommend it to libraries in technical, manual 
training and industrial schools where any advanced work in furniture con- 
struction of design is undertaken, and to public libraries interested in purchasing 
books that will help in raising the American standard of art and craftsmanship. 

— C. A. B. 

100 



REVIEWS. 101 

The Potter's Craft. By Charles F. Binns, Director of the New York State 
School of Clay Working and Ceramics. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, 1910; 
S l A x 8 in., 171 pages, 21 plates and 20 diagrams; price $2.00 net. 

It is not too much to say that the standing of Professor Binns is so high 
among the teachers of pottery that any book on pottery written by him would 
be looked upon as authoritative in its statements. In this work Professor Binns 
has set forth in simple, explicit language the method of making and finishing 
pottery as he teaches it to his pupils. The book is the result of many years 
of experience as an artist-potter and teacher in this country and at the Royal 
Porcelain Works in Worcester, England. The earlier chapters are on the prepar- 
ation of clay, mold-making, building by hand; then follow chapters on turning, 
casting, tiles, glazes and glazing, decoration, and firing. The last chapter dis- 
cusses clay-working for children. 

A Primer of Architectural Drawing. By William S. B. Dana. The 
William T. Comstock Company, New York, 1910; 5 x lYz in., pp. 153 ; price, $.25. 

This is a course of twenty-five problems by an instructor in the Mechanics' 
Institute, New York City. It begins with the drawing of brickwork — mere 
horizontal and vertical lines — includes the drawing of plans, elevations, details, — 
and ends with the study of a fireplace. The text is written in simple style, as 
one would talk in a classroom. Unfortunately the drawings are not all up to 
the desired standard and some of them are reduced too much to be satisfactory. 

The A polio Collection of Songs for Male Voices. By Frederick E. Chapman 
and Charles E. Whiting. Ginn & Company, Boston, 1910; 9 x 6 l A in.; 264 pages, 
price, $1.00. 

This collection of songs has been prepared especially for boys, and is 
intended for use in preparatory schools, colleges, and glee clubs. Careful 
attention is paid to the range of each voice and directions for the classification 
of voices are given in the foreword. 

The Art of Curative Gymnastics. By Tell Berggren. The Good Health 
Publishing Company, Battle Creek, Mich., 1910; 10 x 7 in.; 119 pages, illustrated 
with many half-tone engravings; price, $1.00. 

This book is written by the teacher of Swedish gymnastics at the Normal 
School of Physical Education, Battle Creek, Mich. 

What to Do at Recess. By George E. Johnson, superintendent of play- 
grounds, park and vacation schools, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Ginn & Co., Boston, Mass., 
1910; 7 x Wi in.; pp. 33, including many illustrations; price, 25c. 

This book is intended to show the teacher how to make the playground a 
physical, mental and moral tonic for the children. 

IV enltvor th's Plane Geometry. Revised by George Wentworth and David 
Eugene Smith. Published by Ginn & Company, Boston, 1910; 7 l / 2 x 5 in. ; pp. 
287; price, 80c. 

This book is an effort not only to preserve but to improve upon the simplicity 
of treatment, clearness of expression, and the symmetry of page that have 
characterized previous editions of the Wentworth's Geometry. 



102 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

RESERVED FOR LATER NOTICE. 

School Drawing — A Real Correlation. By Fred H. Daniels, director of 
drawing, public schools, Newton, Massachusetts. Published by Milton Bradley 
Company, Springfield, Mass. 

Nature Drawing from Various Points of View. Edited by Henry Turner 
Bailey, editor of The School Arts Book. Published by the Davis Press, Worcester, 
Mass. Price, $1.50. 

Modern Lettering, Artistic and Practical. By William Heyny. Published 
by William T. Comstock, New York. Price, $2.00. 

The Educational Meaning of Manual Arts and Industries. By Robert Keable 
Row. Published by Row, Peterson & Company, Chicago. Price, $1.25. 

Simple Jewelry. By R. L. B. Rathbone. Published by D. Van Nostrand 
Company, New York. Price, $2.00. 

Vocational Education. By John M. Gillette, professor of sociology in the 
State University of North Dakota. American Book Company, New York. 

Shop Mathematics. By Edward E. Holton, head of department of machine 
shop practice in the Technical High School, Springfield, Mass. Published by 
The Taylor-Holden Company, Springfield, Mass. 

Shop Problems in Mathematics. By William E. Breckenridge, chairman of 
the department of mathematics, Samuel E. Mersereau, chairman of the depart- 
ment of woodworking, and Charles F. Moore, chairman of the department of 
metalworking, in Stuyvesant High School, New York City. Published by Ginn 
& Company, Boston. Price, $1.00. 

Woodwork for the Grades. Parts I, II, III and IV. Published by Orr & 
Lockett Hardware Company, Chicago. 



The Logic and Method of Industrial Education. By Dr. Calvin M. Wood- 
ward, St. Louis, Missouri. Reprint of the president's annual address, from the 
proceedings of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

Indo-Malayan Woods. By Fred W. Foxworthy. The Philippine journal of 
science, October, 1909. Published by the Bureau of Science of the government 
of the Philippine Islands, Manila, P. I. This is a monograph of 182 pages and 
nine full-page plates of half-tones showing sections of different kinds of wood. 
It covers the properties of the several woods of the East, the suitability of these 
woods for special purposes, the timber area and future supply, and gives many 
other important facts, both scientific and practical, concerning the woods of 
the Orient. In this monograph one finds a description of many of the rare 
woods seen in this country chiefly in museums. Such an authoritative publication 
would be of value in many school libraries where attention is given to the study 
of woods. 



REVIEWS. 103 

The Place of Industries in Public Education. Report of a Committee of the 
National Council of Education, Jesse D. Burks, chairman, presented in Boston, 
July, 1910. An extensive report covering many phases of the problem. This 
report can be obtained from the secretary of the National Education Association, 
Dr. Irwin Shepard, Winona, Minnesota, for 15 cents a copy. 

Addresses and Papers. By Andrew S. Draper, Commissioner of Education 
for New York State. Published by the New York State Education Department, 
Albany. This volume of 178 pages contains one chapter on "The Essentials 
Groundwork of Industrial Education," an address given before the Massachusetts 
State Teachers' Association, November, 1909. 

A Descriptive List of Trade and Industrial Schools in the United States. 
Bulletin No. 11, published by the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial 
Education, Edward H. Reisner, Secretary, 20 West Forty-fourth Street, New York 
City. Contains 128 pages of data well selected and conveniently arranged. 

The Factory School of Rochester. By George M. Forbes. The National 
Importance of Industrial Education. . By Rush Rhees. Two addresses before 
the second annual convention of the New York State Branch of the National 
Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. Issued in pamphlet form by 
the Branch, Arthur L. Williston, Secretary, Pratt Institute. 

The One-Room Country Schools of Illinois. By Francis G. Blair, State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. This is a well-illustrated pamphlet of 
ninety-two pages giving plans and specifications, data concerning heating systems, 
etc. It deals with buildings costing from $800 to $1,650. The pamphlet is full 
of information intended to help in a forward movement in the country schools 
of the state. 

Vocational Training. By T. S. Inborden, principal of Joseph K. Brick 
School, Enfield, North Carolina. 
A booklet of forty-seven pages. 

The Society of Arts and Crafts. Thirteenth annual report of the Society 
of Arts and Crafts, Boston, Mass. Frederick A. Whiting, Secretary, 9 Park 
Street, Boston. 

Year Book, iqio. The annual publication by the students of the Lane Tech- 
nical High School, Chicago, Illinois. A creditable publication giving an 
unusually large amount of space to the plans and equipment of the building and 
to the work done in the classes. The whole publication suggests that the spirit 
of this school is earnest work and good fellowship. 

Mission Furniture. How to Make It. Part 2. Published by Popular 
Mechanics Co., Chicago, 111. This is the second volume on this subject, and 
No. 3 in the 25c handbook series. It tells how to make thirty-two pieces of 
furniture; it gives working drawings, stock lists, and half-tone illustrations of 
the completed pieces. In some cases details of construction are shown in separate 
drawings, as for example, the method of making screws hold in the end grain 
of wood, the method of cutting tenons with a handsaw and an easy way of 
making dowels. Most of the designs are very satisfactory. 



104 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

City and Guilds of London Institute. Program for the season 1910-11; 
containing regulations for the registration, conduct, and inspection of classes, and 
syllabi of technological subjects in which examinations are given. This is a 
paper-covered book of 352 pages and is sold by John Murray, Albermarle Street, 
London. Price, ninepence net. It includes courses for teachers of manual 
training. 

Nineteenth Annual Report of Board of Education, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
This contains the reports of the Art Department, the Manual Training Depart- 
ment, the Sewing Department, and the Vocational School. 

Manual Training Studies. By George Fred Buxton. Published by Stout 
Institute. This is an outline of topics covered in the course in organization, 
teaching, and supervision of manual training at Stout Institute. 

Manual Training. Advance sheet of syllabus for secondary schools, 1910. 
New York State Education Department, Albany. Covers the subjects of joinery, 
wood-turning, and pattern-making, and gives lists of equipment and books on 
each subject. 

Courses in Manual Training, Domestic Science and Domestic Art. Detroit 
Public Schools. This covers cardboard construction, mechanical drawing, bench- 
work in wood, domestic art, domestic science, joinery, wood-turning, pattern- 
making and machine-shop practice. The work in cardboard construction is 
given in great detail and each problem illustrated with a working diagram. 
The same is true of the woodworking for the grammar grades. 

Independent Industrial Schools. A reprint from the annual report of the 
Massachusetts State Board of Education. David S. Snedden, Commissioner, 
Ford Building, Boston, Mass. 

Drawing. Advance sheets of a syllabus for secondary schools, 1910. New 
York State Education Department, Albany. This pamphlet covers freehand 
and mechanical drawing and includes nine plates of mechanical drawing. It 
gives conventions and rules of practice and outlines four courses in mechanical 
drawing and one in architectural drawing. 

Home Economics. Advance sheets of a syllabus for secondary schools, 1910; 
New York State Education Department, Albany. This covers foods and house- 
keeping, and domestic art. 

Course of Study. A syllabus for elementary schools, 1910; Education 
department bulletin, May 15, 1910; published by the University of the State 
of New York, Albany. This syllabus went into effect in September, 1910. It 
contains illustrations of pictures for study, school buildings, problems in drawing 
and elementary handwork, shopwork, sewing, and cooking. The outline is 
especially well presented. 

Proceedings of the Department of Superintendents. National Education 
Association. Dr. Irwin Shepard, Winona, Minnesota. This report of the India- 
napolis meeting is sold at 25c a copy. 



VOLUME XII. NUMBER 2. 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE 



DECEMBER, 1910 



THE VOCATIONAL MIDDLE SCHOOL. 

Arthur H. Chamberlain. 

AN attempt to strike a new note, other than a discordant one, — a 
note full in harmony with the truth and the time on the subject 
of industrial education, would require a mind at once either brave 
or ignorant. For a score of years the clearest thinkers of our day have 
kept alive the fires of the industrial discussion, and every possible phase 
of the question has been repeatedly brought before us. Platform and 
press have been so aggressively active that the value of industrial education 
in the schools, in one or another form is no longer a matter for argument. 
As one writer puts it: "To the front with the men and the women who 
will give us a well-matured, feasible scheme of industrial education for 
our young people. Further discussion of the theoretic need of industrial 
education is simply churning buttermilk." 

To this sentiment we can only give assent. That we are agreed 
as to the "theoretic need" of industrial education is a mighty step 
toward the accomplishing of results. To develop a "feasible scheme 
of industrial education for our young people" requires time, thought, 
and experiment. 

In our primary and grammar schools we have in vogue, in all the 
more progressive larger cities in the country and in many of the smaller 
cities and towns, a more or less definite scheme known as occupation 
work, handwork, manual training, industrial education. Many ele- 
mentary schools, both public and private, have fashioned their curricula 
with manual training as a leading feature. The polytechnic or manual 
training high school is a well-established part of our secondary scheme 
of education in all the more favored sections. Here and there is to 
be found a so-called technical high school, giving especial attention to 
industries, and now and again there springs into being an institution 

105 



106 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

teaching trades at public expense, and vocational and continuation schools 
are clamoring for a place. It will, however, require neither a brave 
man nor a wise one to declare without fear of contradiction that in few 
instances does practice in any or most of these schools bear out theory. 
Manual training work is the order of the day; real industrial education 
is not given. 

A GENERAL TRAINING FOR ALL. 

The exponents of industrial education are at the moment divided. 
There is one party with two wings. Every conference in which the 
subject receives consideration shows clearly this division. First, there 
are those who hold it the birth-right of every child to receive an educa- 
tion in the fundamentals. To be able to speak and read correctly, to 
write a clear, legible hand, to use figures accurately in ordinary business 
transactions, to be on speaking terms with the important facts and 
forces of history, to understand something of the geography of the 
earth and of man's relation, industrially and socially, to his environ- 
ment, to appreciate good literature and to know the common laws of 
sanitation and of health, — all this is of first importance. In the grades, 
therefore, they insist, only general or typical forms of manual training 
shall be given, and no child, boy or girl, should be encouraged, or even 
allowed, to take up a particular or special line of work looking toward 
a vocation, trade or profession, until the eight grades of the elementary 
school have been completed. It is further insisted that before this time 
the student is entirely too immature to attempt a choice of vocation or 
calling; that the parent is likewise unable to choose wisely for the child 
younger than the high school admission age, and that frequently when 
such early choice is made, failure and disaster result, owing to lack of 
fitness and adaptability in the field chosen. 

Again, a second class who look upon industrial education with favor 
say that thruout the country and especially in the congested districts 
of cities and manufacturing and industrial centers, it is absolutely 
imperative that boys, on leaving the grammar school, or at the expiration 
of the compulsory school age (usually fourteen years), step into wage 
earning positions. The necessities of the case demand this. The boy's 
own future demands it. The conditions of the home frequently demand 
it. An invalid father or one of little education and low wage-earning 
capacity, a widowed mother, a large family too young to assist in 
bread winning, financial reverses, sickness, disaster or other unfortunate 
condition exists and is more often the rule than the exception. If on 



THE VOCATIONAL MIDDLE SCHOOL. 107 

leaving school the boys and girls of this class have received no training 
other than that afforded in the regular grammar grades they are entirely 
unfitted to take up the duties of life. They must assist in the support 
of the family at once. And even in the event their services can be spared 
from the home for a longer or shorter period, there is no possibility of 
financing their way in a paid trade school for six months or a year. The 
high schools do not, of course, meet the needs of such students, even 
tho they should be able to attend them. These are the arguments 
presented to back up the proposition of the necessity for real industrial 
work in the last two years of the elementary school. Provision must 
be made in the seventh and eighth grades to meet the demands suggested 
and the early years of the high school must recognize the conditions 
and be prepared to develop further along vocational lines, those boys 
and girls who, with a particular end in view, seek its advantages. 

A NEW TYPE OF SCHOOL. 

When this second of the two platforms is analyzed we note that there 
arises a pair of possible alternatives: First, shall the grade school be 
so divided at the close of the sixth school year (at which time many boys 
and girls leave school, being then beyond the compulsory age limit) as 
to preserve for those who desire, the school work in its traditional form, 
and also to offer those who may so elect, a type of work looking towards 
one or the other of the more common vocations? or, second, shall the grade 
school and the high school be preserved intact as now, and a new type 
of school be organized covering the last two years of the elementary 
and the first two years of the high school ? Either change would induce 
many to continue their education, not only into the seventh and eighth 
grades, but beyond this elementary stage into the secondary school, when 
otherwise they would leave at the close of the compulsory age. 

Those who have followed closely the discussion thus far will realize 
that we are opening up the whole problem of elementary and high school 
instruction. This is inevitable, since the traditional barrier so long 
existing between the elementary and secondary school must be swept 
away. So far as time is concerned the eight and four year periods are 
to become twelve. In any readjustment of our elementary years of 
school we shall have in mind those school years that are to follow. 

Boys especially leave the school in large numbers at the close of the 
sixth year because, first, the compulsory age limit permits them so to do; 
second, the work offered does not appeal to them ; third, the organization 
of the elementary school wherein the work is given by one teacher, and 



108 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

usually a woman, does not fit the needs of many boys. It is in the 
seventh grade that differentiation should take place. More and more 
boys should come under the influence of men teachers for a part of the 
school day at least, and the departmental system should prevail, thus 
giving not only a change of teachers, but specialists as teachers. 

As early as 1903 in Boston the present writer emphasized the necessity 
of an "educational trade school" or a "vocational middle school." Such 
school should, as to grade, lie between the sixth school year on the one 
hand and the third high school year upon the other, with vocational 
training as the dominant element in its curriculum. This would pro- 
vide for boys and girls who expect to close their school careers with 
the completion of the eighth grade and would hold many others who 
otherwise would leave at the close of the sixth year. 

The seventh and eighth school years would thus be offered in two 
branches, — the one much as at present, and caring for those who are 
undecided as to their future or who are looking forward to specific work 
in the high school or beyond. The other branch will provide for those 
who desire training in a particular field. The work here would be well 
balanced. The humanities or so-called culture studies would be largely 
applied. The English should be of the every day available character; 
the geography should relate specifically to trade, commerce, industry; 
the history should embrace practical politics, lay a foundation for true 
citizenship and relate itself intimately to geography; the mathematics 
should be entirely applied to enable the student to handle his problems 
logically and easily and with perfect understanding. 

But the general subjects should be none the less cultural on account 
of their being of real value. It would never do to lose sight of the 
imaginative element ; the necessity for general training should always 
be kept in view. To think clearly, to judge honestly, to reason sanely, 
to act wisely and to preserve a wisdom that shall carry out and beyond 
the narrow field of one's individual activities is absolutely essential to 
happiness and to growth. For by "vocation" is implied not a trade of 
the shop simply, — the manipulating of tools and the handling of ma- 
chines. The vocational middle school is not a trade school, but one in 
which the student shall be prepared or fitted to later learn the details 
of a trade. In this school there is added "to increased skill in technique 
and increased capacity on the quantitative side the ability also to plan 
and carry forward new lines of work. Nor is this all. The view is 
broadened; the work becomes less of a burden, and loses its aspects of 



THE VOCATIONAL MIDDLE SCHOOL. 109 

drudgery; and the individual is led to see his place in, and necessity to, 
the great social whole. Existence becomes life." 1 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

This school shall include two years of high school work. Many who 
enter the first year of the course expecting to leave at the close of the eighth 
school year will desire to continue, and many who complete the regular 
eighth grade and to whom the traditional high school offers no appeal, will 
throw themselves with energy and enthusiasm into the vocational high 
school work. The courses shall be flexible, and at the same time so com- 
pletely rounded out, that whenever a pupil leaves school he shall find 
himself in possession of that which is of immediate value to him in working 
out his life's problems. 

In addition to regular book and traditional work, largely applied as has 
been shown, in business mathematics, history, government, commercial 
and industrial geography based on a physical and political background, 
English, drafting, design, the essentials of science instruction, physics, 
chemistry, biology, and such other work as is necessary, particular atten- 
tion is to be given the industries. In this type of school more than a 
general knowledge of some one industry or trade may be secured and 
boys may specialize in cabinet-making, wood-turning, pattern-making, 
forge and foundry work, machine-shop, plumbing, painting, decorating, 
sign-writing, printing, bookbinding, designing, drafting, agriculture, 
horticulture, bookkeeping, accounting, photography, and many other 
lines of opportunity that may open to boys prepared in the vocational 
middle school. 

Girls pursuing courses here may take their places as milliners, seam- 
stresses, dress-makers, designers, bookkeepers, printers, photographers, 
landscape gardeners, laundresses, illustrators, bookbinders, workers in 
the metal crafts, etc. And in each instance the list may be lengthened 
to include all lines of occupation that naturally call to boys and girls 
of fourteen to eighteen years of age, and the fundamentals of which 
are adapted for instruction in the years of school indicated. 

This, says some, is not a new doctrine. A beginning in these direc- 
tions has already been made in several localities thruout the country. 
Segregation in certain localities has taken place at the close of the sixth 
school year ; departmental work is being tried ; special emphasis is laid 
upon the vocations; the traditional lines of work are being applied practic- 

1 Boston Address, N. E. A. Proceedings, 1903. 



110 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

ally in the industries. While this is true, it is, however, a fact that force 
of circumstances has confined these experiments to a very limited field. 
In practically every instance where vocational work is given at public 
expense, it is carried on in a special school, with special equipment, 
under special teachers, and in such a way as to relate itself much more 
intimately to the trade than to education. The surroundings take on 
too early the shop atmosphere. That culture so necessary to the me- 
chanic as well as to the musician, that in clerk and in clergyman alike 
is an essential element, comes not from books chiefly, but from association 
and contact with the best that society and the school can give. Hence 
the general and the vocational courses should be offered, not by different 
institutions of learning, but by the same school. 

Another reason for this is that class distinctions are overthrown and 
discrimination as between the work of the shop, the office, and the 
platform is done away with where all work in company while pursuing 
different occupations. Class organization would, of course, be distinct, 
but the school family would be a unit. This method is also most 
economical as certain equipments may be used by all. Shops, libraries, 
studios, would in some instances require no duplication, and frequently 
there could be a profitable interchange of teachers. Those students 
inclined to the trade or vocation would, with better spirit, take hold of 
the distinctly school work demanded, while the presence of the industrial 
side would, little by little, make more real the traditional courses, and 
induce many to sympathize with or participate in them. 

Students will also be led to appreciate the part played in the evolution 
of our civilization by the machine of the Yankee as well as by the myth 
of the Greek. They will understand the morality of labor as well 
as the ethics of the literary or professional world. They will preach 
the classics of industrialism and practice the gospel of equality. 

Not long hince I visited the home of the General Electric Company 
in Lynn, Massachusetts, to study the apprenticehip system of that mar- 
velous institution. Here come daily six hundred boys for practical work 
in the shops and for such other school studies as the authorities believe 
to be essential in the trades, emphasis being placed upon mathematics. 
These boys must have completed the eighth grade of the grammar 
school, or must pass an equivalent examination. For four years they 
pursue their work as mechanics, foremen, designers, etc., receiving from 
the beginning a small salary. Any indication of incapacity for the work 
in hand is a warning that the student is subject to dismissal. 



THE VOCATIONAL MIDDLE SCHOOL. Ill 

THE LESSON OF THE APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOLS. 

At a lathe in a machine shop was a boy turning out a simple machine 
part. This boy was serving his first year, and had piled beside him a 
score of completed parts, duplicates of the one upon which he was then 
at work. His average time required to complete the piece was onf 
hour. The shop men who elsewhere in the institution had worked 
upon this same project required one hour and fifteen minutes average 
time. As a result the shop men have been relieved of this problem, it 
now being entirely in the hands of the boys. 

This seeming discrepancy is accounted for on the part of the author- 
ities by the fact that the men are engaged in piece-work. Hence, 
being anxious to turn out as many pieces as possible, they are careless 
and take inexcusable chances, thus ruining many pieces and increasing 
the average time for completing a perfect piece. The boys on the other 
hand, being paid for their time, are less likely to mistakes, and lower 
the average time. To me, however, there is a more fundamental expla- 
nation which gives an added significance to the whole matter. That 
young and inexperienced boys are, even in this simple operation, the 
superiors of men who have grown up in the shop may be, first of all, 
because the selective process has been carried on, only those being retained 
in the school, after a three months' probation, who give promise of 
thoro adaptability. It must not be overlooked, however, that the com- 
bination of school and shop training to which these boys are subjected 
and which the men never received, is, perhaps, the greatest asset. 

The old apprenticeship system would have dictated, as suggested by 
the director, Magnus W. Alexander, that the boy on entering the 
machine trade devote his time to sweeping the office, dusting the fur- 
niture, or piling away stock. Time was consumed and the boy made 
no more efficient in his line of work. By combining the school and shop 
features and by entering at once upon the work in hand the boy is well 
on his way to a fair knowledge of the trade before he of the old system 
has touched his tool or machine. Moreover, the boy is at an impression- 
able age, receiving a training in the co-ordination of practice and theory, 
such as to make for his rapid advancement. 

There is a significance in all of this for the school of today, and par- 
ticularly for the vocational middle school. The happy combination of 
the particular industry involved and the distinctly class work brings quick 
and profitable returns. Whether the shop practice and class work are to 
be given, a half day of each, day and day about, or on alternate weeks 



112 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

should depend somewhat on circumstances and conditions. With those 
beginning the course it is best that part of each day be given to shop 
practice, thus making early application of the class work possible. Later 
in the course the alternate day method would be satisfactory and as the 
student develops, the half week or the weekly change may be desirable. 
As the schools more and more work in harmony with the commercial 
and industrial, the civic and the social interests, the latter method would 
prevail. Tradesmen will work in harmony with the school, taking the 
students in the final years of their courses and in some instances allowing 
a small compensation, this to be increased as the ability of the student 
warrants. The school is thus brought face to face with the problems 
of the every day world, and this contact can not but result in a better 
understanding by the business man of the school and all for which it 
stands. And on its part the school will by this contact grow out of much 
of the superficiality and theory and superstitution that has long attached 
to it. 

THE SPECIAL AND THE GENERAL SIDE BY SIDE. 

An additional reason, moreover, for developing the vocational middle 
school side by side with the grade and the high school lies in the fact 
that many who enter the vocational school, who otherwise would drop 
out entirely, will experience after a time a desire to complete the regular 
high school course and in some instances to go forward into the technical 
school or college. The contact with the general school work will aid 
pupils in reaching wise conclusions. This means that the work in both 
schools must be so flexible that without any serious difficulty students 
may pass from one year of either school to the next year of the other. 

Whether the seventh and eighth grades of the regular school are housed 
with the other elementary years or in a building provided for the upper 
grades only, the vocational course boys and girls of like grade should, 
if possible, be housed with them. 

So far is the regular high school has to do with this problem the 
courses therein must be modified and enriched to meet the growing 
demands of the day. The strong movement of the past few years 
toward the technical high school has been in the right direction. Now 
that attention has been universally called to the necessity for developing 
our secondary schools on the industrial side and because we have swung 
to the extreme in our desire to place in the field with the classical high 
school, the so-called commercial and technical schools of like grade, the 
reaction is already noted. "It is evident that the danger and friction 



THE VOCATIONAL MIDDLE SCHOOL. 



113 



resulting from the presence of two or more distinct types of high schools 
in one locality, the classical upon the one hand and the technical upon 
the other, aside and apart from each other, is becoming increasingly 
apparent. My observations convince me more strongly than ever 
that the high school of the future is to be not a technical, an industrial, 
a classical, a commercial high school, but a high school. It is to be a 
school combining all the desirable features and subjects of instruction 
and one in which over emphasis will be given no narrow side of the 
work. Such a school is handled most economically and each student 
is given an opportunity to participate in those lines of work best suited 
to his needs." 2 

Such, then, is the type of school by the side of which shall develop, 
during the first two years of high school, the third and fourth years of 
the vocational middle school. And here again the work should be so 
flexible that interchange would be not impossible and class distinction 
never thought of. And thruout "I am pleading for a school, call it 
what you will, that shall be broad in its tendencies and thoro in the 
instruction offered ; a school that shall have as its dominant idea such 
training in the industries as shall fit the boy to accomplish in the least 
time the maximum of work; a school that projects into its instruction 
thought and reason ; a school that shall lead the boy to a more complete 
knowledge of the industries and of that for which they stand, and that 
shall help him to appreciate the lives, words and deeds of his fellows, that 
they may serve as a stimulus in the enrichment of his own life." 3 

2 From a report by the present writer to the Board of Education of the City 
of Pasadena, April, 1910. 

"Boston Address, N. E. A. Proceedings, 1903. 




BOX FROM NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK, 
TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL. 




HOW "suburbanhurst" looked when laid out on exhibition. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING IN THE MARYLAND 
INSTITUTE. 

I. COMMUNITY BUILDING UNDER GIVEN 
CONDITIONS. 1 

James Frederick Hopkins. 

THE courses of architectural drafting in the Maryland Institute of 
Baltimore are an important part of the program arranged for the 
students of its night schools. The aim of this work is to develop 
that thoroly practical character and professional draftsmanship without 
which our students could be of little service in the architect's office, and 
that knowledge of methods and materials so necessary to the contractor 
and building superintendent. The result of this instruction show them- 
selves in the manhood of the Institute's graduates, who have been widely 
influential in shaping the constructive activities of Baltimore. 

In reorganizing and extending its courses in the architectural field, 
the Institute faced conditions, which, while they may not have been 
unusual or unique, were most interested, influential, and far-reaching. 
The interested elements of the problem were represented by the Board 
of Managers and the faculty, the majority of whom were actively 
identified with important establishments of the city and in the govern- 
ment departments in Washington. The influential forces that were 
brought to bear in friendly advisory fashion were the architects, mill- 
men, contractors, and builders. The far-reaching elements of this effort 
were the students of the schools, who came to us because, in the daily 

' Copyright, 1910, by James Frederick Hopkins. 

114 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



115 



routine of their busy wage-earning lives, they needed the instruction 
which the Institute offered. The problem which these conditions pre- 
sented was not one which could be hidden from public view and a 
successful solution was not only vital but sure to carry with it increasing 
confidence and public appreciation. 




On seeking counsel from architects one finds that they are by no 
means as united in opinion on the best methods of instruction in archi- 
tectural drafting, as is the case among the engineers, machinemen, and 
constructors in the parallel subject of mechanical drawing. The archi- 
tect, of necessity, is a man who knows and feels form, proportion, and 



116 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



decoration to such an extent that he is more in the class with the artists, 
and consequently is a man of individual opinion and usually one who 
does not hesitate to express himself concerning educational courses. 
Probably the builders and millmen in any city could testify to an equally 
wide divergence of opinion among their architect friends concerning 
details and problems of their trade. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

In developing the study of these plans, the drawings were first made on iV 
scale, later checked and corrected on the %" scale plan, and finally 
completed, as here shown, on the %" scale drawing. 



Millmen, on the other hand, have none the less important advice to 
offer, altho theirs is, of course, from the constructive and not the artistic 
point of view. They desire draftsmen soundly trained on "details" and 
able independently, accurately, and consistently to lay out full scale 
drawings for service in the mills or on the buildings. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



117 



Architects and millmen, however, are of one accord in doubting 
the wisdom of allowing some of the elaborate studies found in night 
schools, for the reason that few students, even those of a course repre- 
senting four winters' effort, could possibly reach the state of mind or 
the power to do more than copy or render such ambitious projects. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 

Into this study of planning went all the knowledge of details, construction, room 
arrangement, and domestic economy gained during the 
previous three years study. 



UNITY IN EACH YEAR S WORK. 

should be given the utmost possible training and have his work so 
The work of any night school, whether in the field of architectural 
or mechanical drawing, should be so organized that each section under- 
taken by the student will represent a complete unit of work. This is 
in keeping with a practice which is becoming very general thruout the 
country and which rests upon the policy that a man who enters a course 



118 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



arranged that it rounds out, as far as may be practical, within the period 
for which he pays tuition. Therefore, in arranging, for instance, the 
work of a first year, we should not, as night school teachers, say to our 
students, "do this or do that and it will help you in your next year's 
work", or "start this train of thought and it will complete its story 
some time in the future" ; rather should we make each exercise complete 




ATTIC FLOOR PLAN 

In enlarging these plans to the %" scale, the students were greatly aided by a 
knowledge of roof intersections gained in preparing the 
model of the house, (see p. 129). 



in itself, yet a step in a logical sequence, and so arrange the work that 
a student will go away from the classroom even on the first night, 
feeling that he has received a portion at least of the value for which 
he has just paid in tuition. 

The first year work, therefore, arranges as a unit, the purpose of 
which is to give to an artisan who can spare only one year in study, 
the ability to read any ordinary drawings which may come to him in the 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



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field of building operations. To the man who can go on, the first and 
second years group as a unit, for while many men can enter only for 
one year and simply desire the ability to read drawings, others can go 
on and intend when they enter, to cover a two years' course. This 
continues the interest into details, framing, full-size detailing and special 
problems like stair-building in the field of frame construction. Those 
students who pass the second year and enter the third winter's work 
do so with good prospects of continuing to the end, yet for them the 
three years of study should be arranged as a unit. In such a case the 
specific work of the third year will carry forward the knowledge already 
gained into the field of masonry and framing details, full-size drawings, 
and the special problems incidental to brick, stone, and concrete con- 
struction. In addition to this purely constructive training, the students 
leave the third year reasonably well acquainted with practical methods 
of drawing the proportions of the orders of architecture, thus giving 
the knowledge necessary to lay out the detail drawings of porches, exterior 
or interior columns, pilasters, or moldings for the millmen. 

The fourth year should suggest a course of study offering opportunities 
for assembling the known details studied thus far into constructions 
which should be of the nature of solutions of problems worked out under 
given conditions. 

THE FOURTH YEAR PROBLEM. 

Possibly a word concerning the conditions which had grown up in the 
fourth year class of the Institute may be of assistance to other teachers 
and suggestive in the solution of similar problems elsewhere. It should 
be stated at this point that the ambitious efforts of the students of this 
class were decidedly fostered by the fact that at least four money prizes 
awaited the successful graduates. Slowly but surely our boys, ambitious 
for these prizes and relying upon an unusual technique, had been under- 
taking problems which were in reality farther and farther beyond their 
depth. At the end of the year before the course was finally reorganized, 
we reached the limit of possibilities in this direction, in a series of sheets 
so remarkable in execution, so ambitious in size, and so unusual in 
technique that had they represented original work they would have 
suggested minds and hands mature enough and of such practiced skill 
that they could have been trusted with any reasonable problem. Prac- 
tically, however, these beautiful drawings, while not actually out and 
out copies, were enlargements of projects so slightly modified that they 
consumed more time than the average student could possibly offer, and 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



121 




122 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

were rendered in a style so thoroly in keeping with office practice that 
no visitor to the exhibition had any difficulty in picking out the students 
who were actually employed in architects' offices during the day. Under 
these conditions it was not unusual for our boys to spend time during 
the summer hunting up material and even securing blueprints from 
professional offices in order to find some project sufficiently ambitious 
to shine above their classmates. The year the Institute occupied its 
beautiful Mt. Royal Avenue building, itself an epoch marking structure 
in American architectural practice, one fourth year student entered the 
school with his heart set on drafting that structure. He was only pre- 
vented from carrying out his ambitious project by the absolute refusal 
upon the part of his instructor to allow him to entertain the project. 

How to preserve all this enthusiasm, conserve all the power of tech- 
nique accomplished in the preceding years, and at the same time to limit 
the work to a field of reasonable accomplishment has been a most inter- 
esting problem. It is useless to expect that any school could, during 
three years of about seventy sessions per year and representing, therefore, 
one hundred and forty hours of night classroom study per year, and 
possibly the same amount of home work, to bring a body of students 
to the point where they could actually originate, design, and delineate 
in the fourth year, even the most reasonable architectural proposition. 

PLAN OF FOURTH YEAR'S WORK. 

It was decided that the new work in this year should be limited to the 
constructive study of selected buildings of which illustrations of exteriors 
could be provided. The specific problem of each pupil was to take a 
chosen structure and from the elevations provided in photographic and 
half-tone prints, and with the knowledge which the previous three years' 
work had developed, to draw the plans, elevations, sections, and details 
of such structure in the most workmanlike manner possible. 

In order that a community spirit might be developed and a study of 
civic centers, street lay-outs, restrictions, and local interests be developed, 
a town site was imagined, its streets laid out, building sites plotted, and 
simple restrictions imposed. "Suburbanhurst" or, as the students of the 
class jokingly called it, "Spotless Town", came into existence, and the 
plat of the town was drawn out to scale for the students on the first 
night of school. 

If our students came with too ambitious projects in mind for their 
winter's work; if they saw visions of libraries, court houses, post offices, 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



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banks, country clubs, and mansions which were to grow upon their 
drawing-boards, they forgot them all in the instructor's interesting talk 
of how the town site came into existence. After his story of the village 
growth at the intersection of two turnpikes; — how the railroad came to 
town in later days, and a street was extended to the station ; when the 
lake began to be appreciated, and where the boat-house was built; where 
finer churches replaced the earlier chapels; where the golf links were 
planned ; how the woman's club was erected ; and where the homes of 
the citizens were dotted thru the park-like development, — there was no 
question about preserving enthusiasm. If the students still had ideas 
of large size sheets which would astonish the judges when it came to 
later awarding the prizes, these thoughts were forgotten when they found 
that no building lot in "Suburbanhurst" was of sufficient size to be 
treated on other than an imperial sheet. Thus we tried to conserve all 
their power of technique, and at the same time to limit the work to a 
field of reasonable accomplishment. If they still had hopes of excelling 
their classmates in friendly rivalry, they found their problems enriched 
rather than complicated in the necessary recognition of the community 
spirit brought out under the simple restrictions laid down. So they 
drew lots for the projects suggested, after wisely giving the only woman 
in the class the opportunity to do the woman's club. 

The results of all this effort showed in a year of unparalleled enthusi- 
asm and in an exhibition of work which was more uniform than ever 
before in standard and technique. Not alone were the carefully executed 
sheets placed on view, but the models of the buildings which had been 
made at a certain stage during the year were also on exhibition under an 
arrangement which suggested the original town lay-out offered on the 
first night of the session. 

In bringing these students thru a four years' course we have tried to 
place the work upon a basis which would appeal to the artisan. The 
work has been taught in a spirit like unto that which might have existed 
if in the first year classroom a boss carpenter had sat nightly upon the 
platform and looked down to see if the men were learning to read 
drawings. In the second year it has been as if the most expert millman 
looked over the room to see if students were making details which he 
would accept and could work from in his mill. In the third year the 
spirit has been the same as if a building superintendent was present to see 
whether the work offered in masonry and concrete construction was 
practical, and as if the broadest minded architect in town sat nightly 
in the fourth year room to see that the students acquired power which 
he could consistently employ in his own office. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



127 




SHEET OF DETAILS SHOWING METHODS OF LAYOUT AND DISPLAY. 

The reader should bear in mind that all of these illustrations have been given very marked 

reduction, and in every case but the above, the standard borders and 

display titles have been removed in order to have the 

reproductions as large as possible. 



128 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT. 



Certain specified details concerning the actual conduct of this fourth 
year work, as illustrated by the drawings of one of its students may not 
be amiss, and certainly should be of interest to other teachers engaged 
upon the same problem. 

The material selected for students' study consisted of a series of eleva- 
tions of buildings in half-tone or photographic prints properly mounted 
for safe use in the classroom. Wherever possible the different elevations 
were secured, together with such details as would be valuable in working 
out the plans and sections of the building. In addition to this photo- 
graphic assistance, of which each student possessed illustrations of a differ- 
ent building, there was supplied a careful scale drawing of the plan and 
arrangement of the lots, streets, avenues, parks, and open areas of "Subur- 
banhurst." 

As is the practice in many architect's offices the drawings were first 
started in more or less sketch fashion on a T Vinch scale. These gave 
studies which could be easily carried around in pockets, consulted at any 
time and corrections made without difficulty. Naturally this first 
sketch study was early worked into drawings on ^-inch scale, which 
gave opportunities to check, correct and modify any of the details of the 
general scheme. 

After the completion of the 3^-inch scale drawing came the modeling 
of the house in cardboard and composite clay, not so much in the desire 
to turn out a finished model as to study in three dimensions such compli- 
cations as roof intersections, proper balance of masses, and relation of 
details on one elevation to those on the elevation adjoining. It was these 
simple models, somewhat hastily constructed, but of none the less sound 
educational value, which at the end of the year were repaired and tinted 
and took their place in the exhibition of the season's work. 

The drawings which represented the more finished studies were made 
on i4" mcn scale, and offered opportunity for as careful workmanship 
and thoughtful treatment as the class was capable of accomplishing. In 
selecting a series to illustrate these notes no effort was made to work 
over or modify in any way the actual work of the student. The reader 
should bear in mind that the examples presented have been given very 
marked reductions and in order to have the illustrations as large as 
possible the standard borders and the display titles have, in every case but 
one, been removed. The only work of the year which has not been 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



129 



reproduced, are the studies in elementary composition, consisting of the 
application of the orders and architectural elements produced in the 
preceding year. It would, of course, be equally unnecessary in a paper 
of this character to attempt to outline the parallel course of shades, 
shadows, and perspective ; the lantern lectures on the outlines of art 
history; or the application of formulas, the graphical analysis of trusses; 
or the practical talks on heating, lighting, and plumbing. 




THE MODEL OF THE HOUSE IN CARDBOARD AND COMPOSITE CLAY. 

It was not so much the desire to turn out a finished model as to study in three dimensions 

such complications as roof intersections, proper balance of masses, and relation 

of details on one elevation to those on the elevation adjoining. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 

George William Eggers. 
Oscar Lincoln McMurrv. 

III. TYPES OF DESIGN PROBLEMS IN THE 
BOOKBINDING COURSE. 12 

DESIGN must make pupils think. Whether this is true of any 
other subject in the curriculum or not, design must make pupils 
think or it fails completely of its purpose in the school. 
Every other subject has some informational value which is of more 
or less direct use in the life of the individual. Even if he brings the 
minimum of creative power to bear on any other subject, he will take 
away from it some facts which may be of some use to him some time. 
Of information design gives next to nothing that is worth the carrying 
away. Design, in this sense, is indeed not a "subject" at all, but rather 
a habit of mind — a cross-section so to speak — running thru all subjects 
and coming most conveniently to a focus in the Arts. 

The word "design," as we use it, is allied in meaning to the word 
"intention." It means, "an expressed or marked-out intention." The 
study of design implies a cognizance of conditions and a response to them. 

PURPOSE OF DESIGN IN EDUCATION. 

Design must make pupils think, but that is not all. Design must 
so continuously and so consistently make pupils think, that the habit 
and kind of thinking which it sets up will exercise itself spontaneously 
in every act; not only in the making of a footstool, but in the arranging 
of the notes on the pages of a science note-book ; not only in the painting 
of a landscape, but in the planning of an afternoon's entertainment. A 
man who saw the boy Lincoln piling wood, said: "That boy will be 
president yet." Design, an understanding of conditions and a well- 
considered response to them, characterized every step in Lincoln's career. 

So primarily we must think of design, not as a scheme for decorating 
things; not as a science of space division; not as a formula to test 
whether or not a thing is "good art," but as a habit of mind — an em- 
phasis upon that ivhich goes before the actual execution of any piece 
12 Copyright, 1910, George W. Eggers. 

130 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 131 

of work in materials. Regarded as a study of, and a response to, the 
conditions which surround any problem, design implies a habit of sys- 
tematic scrutiny and inference. 

This is the point at which art teachers and teachers of handwork most 
frequently "fall down." Many construction teachers think of art as 
a beautifying process which of course follows the "necessary" part of 
the problem, and many teachers allow them to go on thinking so, being 
no more enlightened themselves. The day has come when the art 
teacher must know something more than mere "space-breaking" and 
"color-harmony" if he is to serve the needs of a great industrial civ- 
ilization. 

Can young children be taught design? As an informational subject, 
No; as a development of esthetic judgment thru space division and the 
making of "plaids," probably not; as a habit of mind, as a habit of sys- 
tematic and careful thinking before execution, — Yes, — and from the be- 
ginning. There is no time at which children are too young to think 
before they act — to look before they leap. Indeed, if this element of 
scrutiny and consideration is omitted from their activities, where is the 
educational import of those activities? 

The conditions of any problem in the arts will classify themselves in 
general under the head of need (with all that goes to qualify that idea) 
and resources (covering materials, time and skill involved). The nature 
of the material which the need calls for forms within itself another circle 
of conditions; and these together with the resources at hand, determine 
the limits of what may be done. This much being fixed, the problem 
for the pupil is to meet the combination of circumstances — and to meet 
it in the finest manner possible. In the factory, as we have seen, the 
element of economy of time, of material and of intelligence involved 
in the execution would constitute other conditions, so that the factory 
problem, being hedged round with limitations, does well when it is car- 
ried out in a way that is even adequate or good enough. But because 
the school aims at the growth of the individual, it dares not ignore those 
most occult demands which we call the love of beauty — the esthetic 
possibilities of the problem. There is a certain ethical aspect of indus- 
trial education as a result of this. The pupil's responsibility is to meet 
the conditions in the finest way he can conceive — and at the same time 
to study for finer and finer ideals in the matter. "Well, / like it," is 
not final. 

And what are the esthetic possibilities of a problem? Mechanically 
stated, they are merely subtler adjustments of proportion, form, and color 



132 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

to satisfy the eye which must see, and the hand which must feel. Educa- 
tionally, their importance lies in their bringing forward for the pupil's 
respect, his own individuality, and in their leading him ever deeper and 
deeper into a study of the circle of conditions which we know as a problem, 
in their leading him to a finer scrutiny of things made as well as things 
to be made. The esthetic possibilities therefore do not lead away from, 
but deeper into, the other conditions of the problem. The highest free- 
dom of the individual lies not in the disregard of law, but in the vol- 
untary and spontaneous regard for ultimate law. Mechanical efficiency 
and esthetic beauty cannot be divorced. The project is well designed 
only when all the conditions are met. 

The pupil who has really had an experience in design feels an im- 
pelling reason for every line, color, proportion, and structural device 
he has chosen to use. The height to which he himself has raised his 
problem in the solution of it, is a measure of his capacity for thinking. 

RELATION OF DECORATION TO THE PROBLEM. 

What is the relation of decoration to the problem? Design does not 
mean decoration. Decoration is embellishment which may be dispensed 
with, leaving the usefulness and character of the object unimpaired. 
The design is the form and character of the object itself. Design — struc- 
tural design — must be a settled thing whether decoration is attempted 
or not. The principles of design — the principles of fitness, congruity 
and significance become the principles of decoration when the latter enters 
the problem. 

Decoration in its length and breadth is a detailed and highly technical 
subject. Its field is too wide to be entered at random. The principles 
of most general significance should be mastered, even if the subject cannot 
be pursued into its ramifications. A feeling for arrangement, for order 
as the ideal in decoration (so that decoration may always be, as much 
as possible, an organic part of the thing decorated) is a far more im- 
portant quality to cultivate in pupils than ingenuity in the devising of 
units. And yet the latter receives twice the attention of the former in 
most design classes. 

The fundamental and inexorable law of decoration is that it must in 
some way strengthen our impression of the object decorated. The deco- 
ration must relate to the object as the leaves to a tree. It must be the 
ultimate expression of the form and character of the object. It must 
give the impression of being inevitable. For this reason decoration must 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 133 

be significant — that is, in every possible way, peculiarly appropriate to 
the object decorated; and for this reason, too, it is better that the 
decoration of any object be such that it escape our notice rather than 
force itself upon us. The part should never be greater than the whole. 

If structural design calls for thinking, decoration calls for thinking 
to an even greater degree, since decoration rapidly multiplies the number 
of elements to be controlled. The process of planning decoration should, 
therefore, be laid out systematically and should develop from the de- 
signing of the object itself as a natural process of growth. 

The steps in the planning of any decoration are, first, deciding on the 
regions and areas to be decorated, opposing these to the areas to be left 
undecorated, studying for the finest possible relation of proportions be- 
tween decorated and undecorated areas (the first step in creation, the 
separating of "light from darkness" — "order out of chaos") ; second, 
breaking up the area to be decorated into its larger elements — groups 
of units or individual units; and, finally, working out the form and 
drawing of the unit to fit the space so evolved. This process admits of 
the exercise of judgment and the play of esthetic feeling at every step of 
the problem. It admits of a testing of the important decisions (the 
large massings which strike the eye first) before the lesser ones which 
depend upon these, come up. It gives the designer the opportunity to 
stop early in the process, leaving his design large and severe, or to refine 
and refine these large shapes to a condition of exquisite detail if his skill 
is adequate. "The true work of art is finished from the time it is com- 
menced." This method of watching the design as it grows under the 
hand, keeping in readiness to halt it, or else to follow where its sug- 
gestion leads — this makes room for those infinitely subtle discriminations 
which are the true spirit of fine art — at the same time it preserves the 
needful organic relation of decoration to object decorated. 

ESTHETIC POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS IN BOOKBINDING. 

The educational value of the subject of design rests, to a great degree, 
upon the fine balance it maintains between "rights and responsibilities;" 
that is, between the spontaneous and disciplinary aspects. Of course, 
problems are conceivable which are too lacking in freedom of choice 
to have any educational value at all — problems in which the nature 
and direction of the pupil's activity is practically settled for him ; on 
the other hand, problems are conceivable in which there is so much 
freedom that the pupil's activity becomes a go-as-you-please race, lacking 



134 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

any direction whatsoever. Really educative experiences are to be found 
in the middle ground between these two types. 

Bookbinding as an art-craft affords an excellent balance between 
possibilities and limitations. The materials of book-binding are for 
the most part limited in form to what may be called two-dimensional ; 
on the other hand, in color and texture they are practically limitless. 
Again, the shape of the book is in general limited to the rectangle, but 
the purpose for which the book is designed may influence the proportions 
of this rectangle to an almost unlimited extent. Again, the elements 
of the book remain always about the same, namely, pages and covers — 
but the range of the contents of the book is limited only by the range 
of human thought itself. To the designer the consequence of all this 
is: there is an infinite range for the imagination, an infinite variety of 
colors, textures, forms and proportions in which the images may be 
expressed, and at the same time there exists all the character and force 
which the specific idea of the particular book imposes, and which the 
flat rectangular surfaces and the ordered pages and the protecting covers 
by their own nature dictate. 

"Of the making of many books there is no end." A series of book- 
making problems designed solely to afford experience in putting materials 
together is, like many current practices of the school, pretty wasteful 
of the time and energy of the pupil. "Books for books' sake," is about 
as futile an idea as "Art for Art's sake." A book without its individual 
purpose, arising from a particular need is, educationally, a book without 
form or character. One of the most important elements in the book- 
binding problem, as in other constructive activities in the school, is the 
adapting of form to particular purpose. 

Specifically, then, when a child sets out to make a "blank book," 
let us say, give him a chance to make some kind of blank book — a blank 
book to satisfy some need which he understands and is able to analyze. 
"It isn't any particular kind of a dog, it's just a dog," is no compliment 
to the animal in question. So with the book. The science note-book, 
the journal of temporary class-jottings, the quotation book — each may 
have its defined character, with this character expressed in every element. 
Every proportion, every bit of material selected for color, for texture 
or for its suggestive quality, every touch of decoration may be significant, 
all but inevitable, or it may be meaningless. Is not here an oppor- 
tunity for the development of fine and subtle thinking — to some extent 
even with the very little people, since the problem is most concrete — 
for close scrutiny of the particular needs of the case? Is not the 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 135 

meeting of need in its subtlety the typical "life-problem" in its most 
ideal form? 

And so in the rebinding of the printed book, will not the character 
of the contents, the literary style itself, the character of the page, the 
connotations of the text, the very condition of the particular copy — all 
conspire to suggest the garb in which they must be clothed? And if, 
in rebinding our text, we recognize these still small voices, will we not 
make our own product the more worthy and ourselves more and more 
sensitive? Cobden-Sanderson, in describing his rebinding of a precious 
old tattered copy of the Poems of Bobby Burns, recalls how he set it 
into a cover of heavy dark material and traced upon that cover a flaming 
design in gold, adapted from some splendid ragged wayside weed — 
and so commemorated upon the cover not only Bobby himself and his 
homely, warm and vigorous song, but at the same time the homely, 
well-worn character of the pages within. 

In the essays upon the design element in bookbinding, we have dwelt 
at some length upon theory, and upon the spirit in which problems should 
be approached. The esthetic is, after all, far more a matter of attitude 
of mind than it is a conformance to any particular canon of beauty. In 
other essays of this series, however, we shall endeavor to illustrate 
specific types of orderly arrangement, and by illustration and text point 
out kinds of work which we hope may help to clear the pathway for 
this emotional esthetic expression and discrimination. 



IV. PROBLEMS FORMING THE FIRST GROUP. 13 

(Continued.) 

A course of study in a given line, while apparently a formal affair, is 
in reality an expression in advance by a teacher of the probable direction 
and range which children's thoughts and constructive efforts will take 
in work in a given subject. 

A teacher having the child's point of view will see to it that the course 
outlined is not only in line with his immediate play and work interests, 
but that the solvable parts of the problems are not gaged too high nor 
too low with reference to his abilities. He will see to it that the child 
has freedom within limits in expression of ideas both in the matter of 
sketching for design and in planning for final execution. 

13 Copyrighted, 1910, Oscar L. McMurry. 



136 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



The series of problems in bookbinding, while arranged in groups 
having certain constructive elements in common, must satisfy the child's 
immediate needs in order to engage his full attention. The greatest 
freedom should prevail in the making of books in the matter of deter- 
mining proportions, selection of materials and treating of decoration. 

Now it goes without say- 
ing that children of the 
lower grades with a very 
limited acquaintance with 
printed matter will have 
ample opportunity to ex- 
ercise great freedom in the 
making of blank books to 
contain their clippings, 
sketches, word lists, com- 
positions, etc. 

Children of the inter- 
mediate grades would nat- 
urally get experience in the 
binding of both blank and 
printed matter, while ad- 
vanced pupils center their 
interests in the binding of 
the printed matter. This 
is the logic of the situation, 
inasmuch as the ideal we 
have set up is to develop 
power on the part of the 
children in the grades to 







^ 1 




u*& 


• 


F 




81BB 




m 

KIM 




n- 








■w** 1 * 




!§L r 


msi 






u 






HBjp* *_ 

j 


1 



ONE-SECTION PAMPHLET MADE INTO A SEVERAL- 
SECTION BOOK. CASE BINDING. 



select, bind and appreciate a library bound book. 

8. Making a one-section pamphlet into a several-section book. 14 

(Grade VI.) Printed matter in the form of one-section pamphlets, 
reading leaflets or selections from magazines may be bound as described 
in Problem 5, p. 22, and as fully illustrated on p. 26. " It may be 
desirable by reason of the many leaves in a section or unusual thickness 

14 Note : This is the eighth problem in the series and the second under 
B. Several Section Books. 

See October, 1910, number. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



137 



Making- of a One. Section Pam- 
phlet into a Several Section Pamphlet. 




Si ng-le Section 
Cut in Two to 
Form Two Sec- 
tions. 



-1 
The Two 
Sections 
with Guard- 
ing Strips. 



The GtUARded Sections 
in Place Betweeln End 

SECTIONS; READY FOR 
SEWINCt. 



guarding 
Raper 



f / Leaf of Sectiom -' /?/ } 



\ 



/ Ends 

' Clipped off 
after Strip 
is Pasted. 



CUTTINCr OF GUARDING STRIPS. 
etc 



V^Guarding- Strip Cur 
Lonqe.r Than Section. 




Method of Sewing Sections. 



138 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



of paper, to bind these one-section pamphlets into thicker books with 
more shapely backs. 

The pamphlets with covers removed, threads cut or staples removed 
mav be subdivided into 2, 3, or 4 sections, as the number of leaves 




POST-CARD BOOK. BOARD COVERS, CLOTH STUBS, LEAVES FOLDED WITH CARDS BETWEEN. 

may warrant. This is done by cutting the leaves thru the fold, forming 
the leaves into the new groups — and guarding the leaves in pairs. New 
folds are thus necessary for every two leaves. Care must be exercised 
in having the leaves properly paired and grouped so that the paging 
will be correct. Light weight bond paper should be cut into strips 
varying in width from one-quarter inch to three-eighths inch (as needs 
may require). The strips should be cut with knife and ruler on board. 
Guarding strips may be cut an inch or so longer than section, so that 
tips may be free from paste in putting in place. The guarded leaves 
may be left in the flat till dry, then folded with care, gathered into 
sections and pressed. 

Paper for end sections should be selected with reference to the paper 
in the books as to weight, tint and texture. It may be desirable to have 
the same number of pages (and necessarily of the same size) in the end 
sections as in the printed sections. These sections may be sewed as 
shown in Problem 7, Address Book, p. 25, or with one needle as indicated 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



139 



Details of Postcard Album. 



Cover Paper 




Laying- out and Fold- 
ing of Stubs. 



Lining 

PAPER 



Linimq Paper 
Board Cover Paper 

Detail showing- Stubs 
and Boards in Place. 



Openings in 
Leaves in Back 
of which Post Cards 
are Pasted. 





Hinq e 



Stubs 



Detail Showing 
Openings in the 



Leaves. <«? 

Strip 




Post 
sKCards 



,Sto& 



y paste 



Several Section Books, One Stapled 
and the Other Sewed. 




140 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

in detail drawing. The book may have case binding as indicated in 
details of address book, p. 24. 

9. Construction of a Post-Card Book to hold a series of cards already 
selected. This problem involves, as a preliminary to the planning of 




CLIPPING CASE. BOARD COVERS, CLOTH STUBS, ENVELOPES. 

the book, the selection of the cards and may mean many excursions and 
criticisms of collections. Experiences valuable to teacher and pupils 
may come as a result of the careful working out of the details of this 
problem. The character and number of cards being determined, sketch- 
ing for placing one or more cards on the page with due regard to margins 
will determine size and proportions of book. 

Selection of materials for cover, leaves and stubs involves a study of 
textures and color in connection with those indicated in the pictures. 

The book as detailed is a several-section stub book made of sheets 
having the fold at the fore edge. The stubs are made from a single 
strip of cloth in reverse folds, as shown in Problem 6, the Sketch or 
Silhouette Book, p. 22. Each page is a mat for the post-card picture. 
The card is inserted and held between the leaves as indicated. The 
holding medium thruout the construction is paste — no thread or cord 
being used. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



141 




SECTIONS OF PRINTED BOOK. BOARD COVERS, SEWED THRU FOLD, HOLLOW BACK. 

b. MAGAZINE, STAPLED THRU SIDE, PAPER COVERS. 
C. SUPPLEMENTARY READING. BOARD COVERS, SECTIONS STAPLED THRU SIDES. 



142 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



10. Clipping Case. The details of the post-card book as to stubs 
and cover are utilized in this construction. The problem involved 
is the construction of an envelope with plaits, tongue, slit, etc. The 
clipping case problem calls for sketching for proportion to meet the 
conditions imposed by the envelope requirements. Then follows selec- 
tion of materials, working out of details of envelope and case. 

SOME CONSTRUCTIVE DETAILS FOUND IN MAGAZINES AND TEXT-BOOKS. 

The binding of several-section books leads us into the field of magazine 
and text-book construction. Paper covers, stapled sections and glue 
give a very unsatisfactory product, not only in the handling, but in the 
preserving. Does the possibility of rebinding justify this method of 
construction? 

Text-books and supplementary reading with board covers sometimes 
have stapled sections and solid backs. Text-books and supplementary 
reading made up of several sections are sometimes sewed thru the fold, 
finished in boards, hollow back, etc. Such books are in strange contrast 
with the stapled and glued constructions just mentioned. 

{To be continued.) 




FROM PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

TECHNICAL HIGH 

SCHOOL. 



VISITING MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 

VII.— PARIS. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

BEFORE going to England I spent a month on the Continent visit- 
ing schools in France and Germany. Our boat reached Antwerp 
on Saturday, the day after Christmas, 1908. I shall not soon for- 
get my first view of the green banks of Holland on that gray morning, nor 
the delights of the voyage of the Scheldt River with its varied craft con- 
stantly in the foreground of a hundred horizontal landscapes, and the 
slowly enlarging view of Antwerp as we approached nearer and nearer 
to the picturesque city of our destination. Neither shall I forget my first 
sensations as I entered the dimly lighted interior of the great cathedral 
which I visited on the first evening as soon as my trunk was safe in the 
room at the Hotel de Grand Labourer. Fortunately the next day was 
one of the great festival Sundays of the year, when all the famous 
pictures in the cathedral were uncovered, and the choir rendered its 
grandest music. I went early and remained thruout the entire morning. 
During the first service I occupied a seat in full view of Rubens' great 
masterpiece, the "Descent from the Cross," and where I could also look 
up into the dome and see the "Assumption" by Schut, a most appropriate 
painting for the place it occupies. During a later service, when the 
well-to-do people of Antwerp nearly filled the great building, I spent 
most of the time in one of the small chapels from which I could get 
the best view of the high altar piece by Rubens, the "Assumption of the 
Virgin." During another service I was in the south aisle, studying 
the "Passion" in fourteen scenes painted in the medieval style by Vinck 
and Hendricks. And so it was thruout the day, and in fact thruout my 
stay in Antwerp, whether at the cathedral of Notre Dame or the Church 
of St. Paul, the Church of St. Jacques, or at the Plantin Museum, or 
the Royal Museum, I was constantly in sight of some masterpiece of art 
and handicraft. If it was not a famous painting by Rubens or one of 
his followers, it was one of the world's masterpieces of wood-carving, 
such as the famous confessional in the Church of St. Paul, or some of 
the beautiful books printed and bound by Christopher Plantin and his 

143 



144 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



son-in-law, Mortens, or such wrought iron work as the canopy by 
Quintin Matsys, which is over the well in front of the cathedral. 

But no schools were in session in Antwerp, so I hurried on to Paris, 
not even stopping in Brussels, where I had hoped to visit several schools. 
I reached Paris in a severe snowstorm when the smooth-shod horses 
were falling down in the streets and the motor vehicles were demon- 
strating their superiority over all the others. In Paris I found American 

friends ready to welcome me, and so 
the remainder of the holiday season 
was spent, as it was begun, in sight- 
seeing and study in the museums. 

The delay in getting my official 
letter of introduction from the office 
of the American Ambassador caused 
me to visit schools in Germany before 
France. However, when the letter 
came, it was .effective in securing from 
the secretary of public instruction the 
desired permit to visit eight schools, 
but without the permission to take 
photographs in these schools, which 
he said was against the rules of the 
office. Finally, after persistent effort 
on the part of my efficient guide, the 
secretary was kind enough to add to 
my permit " et a preude quelques vues 
photo graphiques " and as a result I 
am now able to present to my readers 
the illustrations in this article. 




FIG. 88. SALICIS SCHOOL, PARIS. 



VISIT TO THE SALICIS SCHOOL. 

The first school visited was the historic Ecole Salicis, at 33 Rue 
Tournefort, only a few short blocks from the Pantheon. The appear- 
ance of the exterior, Fig. 88, is not unlike that of many other old 
buildings found in the city of Paris. We passed in at the gateway 
beyond the building and soon found ourselves in an open courtyard, 
whence we were conducted up a winding staircase to the office, where 
we met the principal of the school, A. Baudrier, who received us most 
cordially and personally conducted us thru the several departments of 
the school. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



145 




146 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

The school is a special elementary school for boys. It is chiefly for 
those who wish to become mechanics, and the principal told me that 
most of them do become mechanics. They enter at the age of twelve or 
thirteen and remain three years. The morning hours, from eight to 
eleven-thirty, are given to the ordinary academic subjects of the elementary 
school, and the afternoon hours, from one to five, to shopwork and draw- 
ing. In this connection it may be stated that this division of time does not 
refer to any other elementary school in Paris. In the amount of time 
devoted to handwork and in general organization the Salicis School is 
independent, tho the time given up to the other subjects and the work 
accomplished is the same as that fixed for other elementary schools. 

During the first year all pupils do the same kinds of shopwork; they 
all pursue courses in woodwork, metalwork, and clay modeling. At 
the beginning of the second year most of them have decided which kind 
of work they prefer, or are adapted to, and choose one kind to follow 
thruout the remaining two years. Some, however, wait another year 
before deciding, and so continue the three kinds thruout the second year. 
By the beginning of the third year all have decided. The principal 
placed considerable emphasis on the value of this opportunity for choice. 
He said that under special circumstances a pupil is sometimes allowed 
to make this choice after six months, and to pursue the kind of work 
elected to the exclusion of all others during the remainder of his time 
in the school. This, however, is not encouraged by the principal and 
is done only on request from the parents. 

The principal showed us books of sketches and notes made by pupils. 
These were mechanical sketches with working dimensions and the geo- 
metric problems upon which they were based. The course followed 
was the one in general use in the city of Paris, "Le Travail Manuel a 
I'ecole prima'ire et le Dessin Geometrique" by A. Jully, inspector of 
manual training, and E. Rocheron, assistant inspector. (Published by 
Belin Freres, 1900.) The lines in the notebook sketches were inked 
in with an ordinary writing pen and writing ink. Sheets of drawings 
made from the sketches were shown, which also were inked in with the 
ordinary pen and writing ink. As a rule, this work was well done. The 
pupils had learned to do the work neatly and in accordance with the 
conventions of mechanical drawing. The objects were made in the 
shop after the drawings had been completed. 

In the room next to the office, Fig. 89, we saw pupils at work drawing 
in their note-books from sketches on the blackboard. This seemed to 
be the general method pursued in this department of work. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



147 



FIG. 90. END OF 

MODELING 

TABLE. 



In the next room was the equipment for modeling in clay. This was 
provided ten years ago and was therefore quite modern when compared 
with the equipment in most of the other departments of the school. 
The diagram shown in Fig. 90, made from a hasty 
sketch, suggests the end view of one of the modeling 
stands. These were seven or eight feet long, and 
seemed to provide space for four pupils to work on a 
side. The feature of the design that interested me 
most was the drop-shelf which could be used either as 
easel or table. The height of this shelf was such as to 
be convenient when the pupil stands at his work. 
The model or drawing from which the pupil works 
may be placed on a rack just above the drop-shelf. 
Unfinished w r ork, with damp cloths over it, was kept 
on a shelf beneath the drop-shelf. Finished work 
was kept in a cabinet. There were many plaster casts 
on the walls of the room, but they had not been in use 
very much lately, so we were told, because the teacher 
preferred to give the work from a drawing or black- 
board sketch. I saw such a sketch, showing the front and sectional 
views of a petal for a rosette. From the standpoint of plastic art much 
of the modeling work in the cabinets was quite inferior in character — 
indeed very disappointing, but the explanation was easy to find. Laurel 
sprays, interlacing ornament, and the like were produced by cutting the 
individual forms out of flat sheets of clay, as a cook cuts out pastry, 
and then shaping them and putting them together as the art smith welds 
together petals, leaves and branches to produce a spray of roses. The 
principal's claim for this type of work was that it made the boys think 
more than does modeling direct from the cast. To me it was clay forging 
instead of clay modeling. 

We descended the stairway and crossed the courtyard to the shop 
building, Fig. 91, the first manual training building in France. Here 
on the exterior was a bust and tablet placed there in honor of M. Salicis, 
under whose direction the building was constructed and equipped, and 
whose name the school bears. Work was started in this shop in 1873, 
from which time dates its present equipment. Any manual training 
teacher who knows even a small portion of the history of this building 
and the influence that has gone out from it, can hardly pass its threshold 
without a feeling of reverence. And this is heightened if he recalls 



14S 



MAX UAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



the fact that it antedates the educational sloyd work of Salomon in 
Sweden by one year, sloyd in Norway by six years, the work of Mikkelsen 
in Denmark by ten years, the establishment of the manual training shop 




FIG. 91. SHOP BUILDING OF SALICIS SCHOOL, PARIS. 

by Schenkendorf in Germany by eleven years, Professor Ripper's shop 
for grammar school boys in Sheffield, England, by seven years, and the 
opening of the St. Louis Manual Training School by our own Dr. 
Woodward by seven years. It is truly a historic building and its equip- 
ment has been unmolested except for slight repairs made necessary by 
constant use during these thirty-six years. 



c 

1 


1 

a— r 

N B 








- 



FIG. 92. PLAN OF WORKSHOP, SALICIS SCHOOL, PARIS. 

Fig. 92 roughly suggests the general proportions and the main divi- 
sions of the space. Fig. 93 gives a general view of the workshop taken 
from the point A in the diagram. One recognizes at once the sub- 



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150 



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MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



151 



stantial character of the benches and vises, their arrangement with ref- 
erence to convenience in working, and the large forge with great leather 
bellows at the end of the room. The arrangement, too, of the metal- 
working tools is made clear in this illustration. For each boy there 
were provided six files in assorted shapes and sizes, two hammers, 
one hand vise and dividers. For general use there are taps, dies, die 
wrenches, tongs, and a hand-power drill press. There ma} 7 have been 
other tools, but I was given to understand that there were not. The 
arrangement of the woodworking tools is shown in Fig. 94, which was 
taken from the point B in the diagram, Fig. 92. On the desk near the 
lower left-hand corner of the picture are several finished exercise pieces 
which are fairly typical of the earlier exercises in the course in wood- 
working. 



c a\u\u\ 



FIG. 95. CLAMP. 



I was much interested in two devices in the shop which were used for 
holding work, especially while planing. One was a clamp, of which 
I made a memory sketch, Fig. 95, soon after leaving the school. The 
pieces B and C slide in grooves with the screw pressing against C. A 
piece of work may be held in place in the opening A by driving the block 
B against it by turning the screw forward. This piece may be the end 
of a board projecting but a trifle beyond the face of the clamp. By 
putting the clamp in the vise attached to the bench it is possible to plane 
the end of the board without fear of breaking off its far corner. It 
is evident that the clamp has other uses also. A section thru B and C 
reveals the fact that the two pieces rest against each other at an angle 
of sixty degrees (or it might have been forty-five). By sliding the block 
B to the left end of the space A, it becomes possible to clamp a piece 
between B and C at an angle of sixty degrees with the face of the clamp. 
Another device which was in the nature of a shooting-board with a ver- 
tical piece below to fasten in a vise, was evidently intended to accomplish 
a similar result in certain kinds of work. 

A view of the classroom for drawing taken at the point C, Fig. 92, is 
shown in Fig. 96. This illustration also shows the location of the 



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MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



153 



grindstone and the glue-heater in the shop. The drawing room interested 
me because of the simplicity of the equipment. The students sat on 
iron-legged stools and rested their drawing-boards on a railing made of 
iron pipe, and their feet on another iron railing. Their pencils or 




FIG. 97. MANUAL TRAINING SHOP, PUBLIC SCHOOL, RUE ST. MAUR, PARIS. 

other tools could be kept in the clumsy wooden troughs attached to 
the iron uprights supporting the rail. 

An interesting feature of this historic building was the outside door 
which presented a most formidable appearance, owing to its heavy 
wrought iron lock and very large key. 



TWO TYPICAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

The next morning we went to the public school on Rue Saint Maur, 
where we met the principal, I. Azais, who conducted us thru the entire 
building and gave us an opportunity to see work in such classes as were 
in session. 

At this school the manual training shop was in a corner of the play- 
ground, Fig. 97, behind the main school building. The interior was 
in many respects similar to that at the Salicis School. Fig. 98 shows 
one end of the shop, in the center of which stands the genial principal 



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MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 155 

of the school, who was kind enough to allow us to include him in the 
picture. 

The principal gave us many facts concerning the organization of the 
work in drawing and manual training in the city. The geometric or 
mechanical drawing which is such a fundamental factor in the manual 
training work of the elementary schools of Paris, is taught by the regular 
classroom teacher who must first pass an examination in both drawing 
and manual training. He receives his instruction from the inspectors 
of manual training who meet classes of teachers on Thursdaj'S. Each 
teacher who passes this examination has thirty dollars a year added to his 
salary. These classroom teachers also give the theoretical instruction 
connected with the manual training, but the actual tool handling is 
taught by special artisan assistants who have passed an examination in 
geometry, drawing and handwork, and who go from school to school. 
The assistants who teach the woodworking do not teach the metalwork, 
tho in some of the older schools both kinds of work are done in the same 
shop, but at opposite ends, as seen in Fig. 98. It is therefore apparent 
that in Paris there is a dual system of teachers — classroom teachers to 
give the theory, and artisans to teach the practice, or the actual hand- 
work. The time given to the handwork is two hours a week. The 
drawing and theoretical instruction occupies another hour. All this 
work is obligatory. In 1900 there were one hundred and thirty-three 
woodworking shops and forty-three metalworking shops in the city. 

The freehand drawing of the three upper grades is taught by special 
teachers who come to the school three days during the week. The model- 
ing is also taught by a special teacher who comes once a week for two 
and one-half hours. The modeling equipment at Rue Saint Maur was 
the same as that seen at the Salicis School. The equipment for freehand 
drawing also was similar to that previously seen, but the seats were 
arranged in arcs of circles instead of straight lines. 

On the following day I visited the public school on Rue Baudelaire, 
the most recently constructed school building of any considerable im- 
portance in Paris. It was really three schools in one — a maternelle, a 
girls' school, and a boys' school. In the maternelle was a large rect- 
angular room for receiving the young pupils and giving them their 
breakfast ; children as young as three years of age are admitted to this 
school. At the end of this room nearest the entrance were set wash- 
basins with tile behind and below. Tiny settees were furnished for the 
children to sit upon, and on the walls around the room were excellent 
mural decorations intended to appeal to the children. They represented 



156 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

the air by means of kites, a windmill, and a balloon ; the fire, both cooking 
and destroying property; the water by ships and the sea; etc. — in short, 
the great facts and forces of nature. We visited a classroom in which 
were about fifty of the little children under the charge of a teacher. 
They were seated on the stiff, rigid benches provided in French schools, 
two pupils to a bench, and in front of them were desks, the tops of 
which were laid out in small squares to assist in the work of instruction. 
The perfect quiet and order of this room was a rather unpleasant surprise 
to me. I did not stay long enough to understand the entire system of 
the school, but somehow I would have preferred to see the children 
at work or at play in that beautiful large room where they had been left 
early in the morning by their nurses. I missed the kindergarten circle, 
the tiny chairs and the natural disorder of children so young. 

In the girls' department we saw a cooking room that interested me. 
Its equipment consisted of (a) a large coal range, (b) a small gas stove 
on a tile or metal table, (c) a gas roasting stove in the corner with a hood 
over it, (d) a table about eight feet long in the middle of the room, (e) 
a short heavy table, and (f) a variety of pans, dishes, etc. Ten girls 
worked in the room at one time, but there were no two dishes or pieces 
of equipment alike — no individual outfits. The ten girls are treated 
as a family group, different work being assigned to each. The class was 
taught by a practical cook — not a trained teacher — who made no effort 
to teach the science of the subject. This, however, was taught to some 
extent as a separate subject by the classroom teacher or by the inspector 
of cooking. The head teacher in the girls' department told us that in 
the future they expect to have the cooking teachers themselves know 
and teach some of the science as well as the art of cooking. 

We were conducted thru the boys' department by the principal of 
the school, M. Garrier. This school was so large that four shops were 
provided, two for wood and two for metal. One of each was in the 
low building at the end of the court shown in Fig. 99. The metal- 
working shop in the half-basement room was not well lighted, but the 
woodworking shop was most satisfactory in this respect. A modeling 
room, on the top floor, was well lighted and well equipped. I was 
especially interested in the system of lighting for evening classes. A 
light was provided for each model and another for each piece of clay 
being worked. These lights were incandescent gas lights, with big 
green hoods over them to keep the light within the required space, and 
to throw a strong shadow in the desired direction. The freehand draw- 
ing room, also, was equipped with lights for evening class work. The 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 157 

seats were arranged in two theater-like groups with iron railings for 
board rests in front of the seats. The models were placed at the center of 
opposite ends of the room, so that the two groups of students were back 
to back. The mechanical drawing room would accommodate eighty 




FIG. 99. MANUAL TRAINING SHOP, PUBLIC SCHOOL, RUE BAUDELAIRE, PARIS. 

pupils at long, wide tables, pupils working on both sides. Over the center 
of each table was a row of the large hooded gas burners. This school is 
an important center for evening work, and on this account is better 
equipped for day work than many of the other schools. 

One of the pleasantest mornings I spent in Paris was in company with 
Professor E. J. Lake of the University of Illinois, when we met by 
appointment Louis Guebin, chief inspector of drawing in the public 
schools. His exhibit shown in London the previous summer had just 
returned and he went thru it with us, mount by mount, explaining the 
entire course from the maternelle to the evening continuation school — 
from story illustration to mechanical perspective. I was particularly 
interested in the excellence of the work done by children twelve and 
thirteen years of age — just the place where our American work in 
drawing is often the weakest. One of the reasons for this strength in 



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MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 159 

the Paris work at this point is that pupils of eleven or twelve years 
begin to receive instruction under a special teacher. Another reason 
is found in the fact that these teachers insist on careful studies from 
casts and from objects beautiful in form and in color. These studies 
are not black-and-white silhouettes and crude splashes of color, but they 
are serious efforts to represent the natural beauty of the things drawn. 

Thru M. Guebin I gained permission to photograph the large board 
, of manual training work sent by the Paris elementary schools to the 
Franco-British Exposition. The lighting of the room made it impossible 
for me to get a satisfactory picture of the whole board, or even half of it. 
Fig. 100 show r s a small section of it and gives several characteristic 
examples of manual training models in both wood and iron, tho it does 
not show the preliminary exercise pieces which constitute by far the 
largest part of the work in the scheme in use in the Paris schools. 

MUNICIPAL TRADE SCHOOLS. 

The first of the higher schools I visited was Ecole Estienne, the 
municipal school for teaching the arts and industries connected with 
book-making. The course in this school covers four years. Boys may 
enter at thirteen years of age. The school hours are from eight to six 
o'clock. The mornings are devoted to academic subjects which are 
modified somewhat with special reference to the needs of the book-making 
trades. The afternoons are given up entirely to practical work. Each 
pupil selects a department and continues to do his afternoon work in 
that department until he completes the course. He then goes out as a 
full-fledged workman in the trade represented by that department. 
There are two hundred pupils in the school, eighty being taken in each 
year. I saw the students at work in bookbinding, gilding, type-making, 
stereotyping, and electrotyping, composing room, press room, lithography, 
linotype work, wood engraving, zinc etching, copper-plate engraving, 
and printing from etched plates. Much of the work being done showed 
a high degree of practical and artistic skill. 

Another afternoon I spent at the Germain Pilon School of design and 
industrial modeling. Boys enter this school by competitive examination 
at the age of fourteen, or thirteen if they have passed the elementary 
school examinations, and pursue a three-years' course. Only about one- 
sixth of the applicants gain admission. I saw the three classes in the 
school at work. The first-year students were doing work in geometric 
and projection drawing. They were seated in a large theater, and each 



160 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

student was working on a drawing-board, one end of which rested on 
the fence or framework in front of him and the other end on his knees. 
The second-year students were at work at large tables. They were 
working problems in mechanical perspective, with shades and shadows 
washed in with water color. Great freedom was allowed in the coloring, 
but the problem was given in definite form by means of data and a black- 
board drawing made by the teacher. This work was done in excellent 
spirit and with marked skill. It was evident that this school considers 
good mechanical work in orthographic projection, perspective, and the- 
oretical shading and shadows just as essential a part of adequate prep- 
aration for work in design as freehand drawing from the antique and life, 
water color painting, and modeling. The third-year students were, 
for the most part, at work on original designs. 

To the manual training teacher, Ecole Diderot, the municipal school 
for the building and machine trades, is of special interest. This school 
of apprenticeship was founded in 1873. Students are admitted by 
examination ; they must be graduates of the elementary schools, and not 
less than thirteen nor more than seventeen years of age. Tho we 
reached the school late in the afternoon we were shown thru all the shops. 
We saw students at work in (a) carpentry, (b) pattern-making, (c) 
plumbing, (d) blacksmithing, (e) coppersmithing, (f) locksmithing, 
(g) electrical construction, (h) machine construction, and (i) the 
making of instruments of precision. The work being done in all these 
departments seemed to be of high grade, but I was specially interested 
in the artistic character of the beaten lead work in the plumbing de- 
partment, the heavy forging, the beaten work in copper and iron, and 
the construction of instruments of precision. The museum contained 
a great variety of excellent work that had been done by the pupils. 

I went w 7 ith my permit to Ecole Boulle, the municipal school for the 
furniture trades, but was not admitted because visitors were welcomed 
on one day of the week only, and not on the day I presented my cre- 
dentials. 

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

After visiting the three elementary schools and the three trade schools 
above mentioned, I was especially desirous of learning more about the 
training of teachers of manual training. Having read of the normal 
school at St. Cloud, I went there one morning, only to find that my 
credentials would not admit me to the classrooms. However, the prin- 
cipal of the school assured me that St. Cloud was not the school I should 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 161 

visit, for there the manual training instruction occupied only three hours 
a week, while at Chalon-sur-Marne five hours a day was given to 
shopwork. He told me that the St. Cloud school did not train teachers 
of handwork, but merely those who teach the theory of the work while 
giving most of their attention to mathematics or science or some other 
academic subject. So we returned to Paris and secured from the De- 
partment of Commerce and Industry the desired permit. 

The following morning we took the train for Chalon-sur-Marne, 
passing through the famous Champagne district. The journey was a 
very pleasant one, as the cars were comfortable and the sun was shining 
on the fields and the groups of houses along the way. To an American 
it seems strange to find that farmers, instead of living on their farms, 
all live in little villages and go out to cultivate the soil. I realized as 
never before where some of the French artists get the subjects for their 
charming landscapes. Simple pitch-roofed buildings with gray walls 
and mossy red tile roofs were huddled about a larger and higher building 
of the same character used for a church. We passed village after village 
of this same type, and each seemed to possess a peculiar charm of its own. 

On arriving at Chalon we went at once to the Ecole National d 'Arts 
and Metiers. The building is very interesting, with its central pavilion 
back of a spacious court, its gateway, its colonades and gardens. It was 
built in the time of Napoleon I, and was originally a school for training 
young gentlemen. It is over one hundred years old. While the build- 
ing is not wholly suited to present needs, it serves very well for the three 
hundred students who live there. The course covers three years; one 
hundred pupils are selected each year by competitive examination. They 
come from all parts of France and are strong students, due to the fact 
that the school takes only one out of every five or six who enter the com- 
petition. It was evident that the students come to this school to work 
and that they do work while there. The standards are high and the 
amount of work accomplished is large. The daily program of hours 
is as follows: 

% 
Morning study, six to seven-thirty; 

School, eight to nine-thirty; 

Shopwork, nine-thirty to twelve; 

School, one-thirty to three ; 

Shopwork, three to five thirty ; 

Evening study, six to eight. 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



From this it will be seen 
This is continued for three 
as follows : 

First Year, 

Monday Mathematics 

Sketching 
Tuesday Physics 

Drawing 
Wednesday .... Literature 

Drawing 
Thursday Mathematics 

Drawing 
Friday Mathematics 

Drawing 
Saturday Physics 

Technology 



that five hours a day 
years. The school 

Second Year 

Study 

Drawing 

Mathematics 

Drawing 

Mathematics 

Drawing 

Chemistry 

Technology 

Mathematics 

Sketching 

Geography 

Drawing 



are given to shopwork. 
subjects were arranged 

Third Year 

Economic History 

Drawing 

Mechanics 

Sketching 

Electricity 

Metallurgy 

Mechanics 

Drawing 

Electricity 

Drawing 

Mechanics 

Drawing 



The simplicity of this program is apparent. There are two school 
periods of one and one-half hours duration each day, and one of these is 
given to drawing, except for one day a week. The graduates of the 
school enter engineering and mechanical industries — often as foremen 
or draftsmen. Of the eighty graduates in 1908 forty passed an exami- 
nation and were licensed by the state as mechanical engineers. 

As I went from department to department under the guidance of the 
director of the school I found many things to interest me. For instances, 
all the text-books used in the school are prepared by the professors and 
printed on a lithograph press in the building. An expert lithographer 
is employed for this work. The fine illustrations thus placed before 
the students, especially the mechanical drawings, must, I am sure, be a 
factor in holding up a high standard of technique in the drawing work 
in the school. I examined the mechanical drawing work of the first 
and second years, spending some time with the students at work, and I 
am quite sure that in no other school have I ever seen such technical 
excellence combined with such uniformity of product. In lettering, for 
example, the uniformity of result thruout the class was truly remarkable. 

In connection with the workshop is a drafting room where students 
— a few at a time — are detailed from the shops to work out machines 
of their own design — a motor, an engine, a special lathe, etc. To look 
after these students is a foreman draftsman or designer. We were taken 
thru this department and the shops by Professor Alfred Bonis, mechanical 
engineer and superintendent of shopwork. Among other drawings he 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 163 

showed us a set of working drawings of a Reed engine-lathe which they 
had produced. These drawings as well as the others shown, were in many 
respects similar to what we would find in an American factory, but- 
the lines were much finer and more attention was given to the technique 
of drafting. 




FIG. 101. WORKSHOPS, NATIONAL SCHOOL, CHALON-SUR-MARNE. 

Fig. 101 shows the front of the woodworking and machine workshops 
which are in a building constructed with a sawtooth roof, and therefore 
well lighted. Fig. 102 shows the interior of the woodworking shop. 
This is about forty by one hundred and twenty feet in size and is equipped 
for sixty students to work at one time. These are divided into two 
sections, one located at each end of the room, and each section is provided 
with a teacher and an assistant. The machine-shop adjoining is about 
one hundred and eighty by one hundred and twenty feet and is admirably 
equipped not only with small machine tools, but also with very large 
lathes, planers, boring-mills, drill-presses and the like, enabling the shop 
to construct heavy machinery. Indeed most of these machines were 
built in this shop. It was very significant to me that the students were 
building a group of six engine-lathes of more advanced design than could 
be purchased on the market. I was given to understand that this school, 
and possibly other similar ones, is leading the factories of France in the 



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165 



design and construction of machinery. Much of the experimental work 
and testing that is done in America by the machine builders is done in 
France in the national schools. 

This school proved to be very interesting to me, but in one respect I 
was disappointed. I went there to learn about the training of teachers 




FIG. 103. REQUIRED WORK IN WOOD, FIRST YEAR, IN NORMAL 
SCHOOL, AUTEUIL, PARIS. 



of manual training, but found that the director of the school did not 
wish to admit that they trained teachers. He said, however, that there 
were eight students in the school who were preparing to teach shopwork ; 
that the idea of taking them into the school was comparatively new, 
being only seven or eight years old ; and that the work for these students 
had not been organized into a special course. Such students take two 
years of work in the regular classes with the other students, tho they may 
finish in one year if they can pass a satisfactory examination. Finishing 
in one year is possible because the shopwork of the first year consists of 
a preliminary course thru all the shops. In the second year students 
are allowed, but not required, to specialize in one of the shops. In the 
third year all are required to specialize in shopwork. Students entering 
with the expectation of becoming teachers have previously gained experi- 
ence in teaching under the Department of Public Instruction, but on 
leaving most of them receive appointments under the Department of 
Commerce and Industrv. 



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FIG. 104. REQUIRED WORK IN WOOD, SECOND YEAR, NORMAL SCHOOL, AUTEUIL, PARIS. 




FIG. 105. REQUIRED WORK IN WOOD, THIRD YEAR, NORMAL SCHOOL, AUTEUIL, PARIS. 











§3§& 






L_ f i 







Fig. 106. required work in iron, three years, normal school, auteuil, paris. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 167 

I returned to Paris that evening feeling that I had so far failed to dis- 
cover the secret process of training teachers of manual training in France. 
The next day I made a final effort by visiting the normal school at Auteuil. 
Here I was fortunate in being turned over to an English-speaking student 
who explained the work very well. This school prepares teachers for 
service in the elementary schools of Paris. It gives courses in shopwork, 
but does not expect its graduates to teach the shopwork. They will 
teach drawing, will give instruction in science and mathematics, and will 
point out their relation to shopwork problems, but it is presupposed 
that they will always be assisted by an artisan who will teach the actual 
tool handling. The time devoted to shopwork by the students of this 
school is three hours a week for three years. As in the elementary 
schools, this time is divided equally between woodwork and ironwork. 
Fig. 103 shows the required work of the first year, consisting of five 
exercise pieces. Fig. 104 and Fig. 105 show the required work of the 
second and third years respectively — four joints the second year and three 
the third. Wood-turning is allowed as an elective which may be 
substituted for a part of this required work. Fig. 106 shows the required 
pieces of ironwork during the three years. In addition to these required 
exercise pieces in wood and iron, students made supplementary pieces. 
For the most part these are useful models of the same general type as 
those shown in Fig. 100. The equipment of the shop in this school was 
similar to that found in the shops belonging to the elementary schools, 
except that in this one there were foot-power lathes in addition to the 
bench tools for wood and iron. 

Before leaving the school I asked my young guide if he had done work 
in practice teaching. He replied that he had just been doing such work. 
I asked him what he had taught. He replied that he taught arithmetic 
and geography. "Have you taught manual training?" I asked. He 
looked at me in surprise, as if he were not sure that he had caught my 
meaning, and asked: "Do you mean shopwork?" I indicated that 
such was my meaning. He immediately replied, and as if almost 
offended : "No, I'm a teacher." I hope this young man's attitude toward 
the shopwork was not typical, but I fear it was. While I found many 
fine things being done in the elementary schools and the normal school 
visited, I could not help feeling, as I left the city, that in some way 
progress in the development of manual training work in the elementary 
schools of Paris was being held back by not raising the position of the 
instructor in manual training to the level of that of the teacher of other 
subjects. If the shop assistant is merely an artisan he has no place in 



168 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



the elementary school, even tho he might possibly serve some good pur- 
pose in a higher technical or trade school ; if the shop assistant is really 
a teacher as well as an artisan, he should be recognized as such. The 
ideal system will develop educated artisan-teachers — teachers of manual 
training — and then place them on the same level with the teachers of 
science, even as the arts and the sciences go hand in hand in the develop- 
ment of modern civilization. 

(To be continued.) 




PROBLEM IN FORGE-SHOP AND 

WOODWORK, PROVIDENCE, 

RH. I., TECHNICAL 

HIGH SCHOOL. 




NEW TOOLS REQUIRED. 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
THE GRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS, IV. 1 

Arthur F. Payne. 

WE have now reached the end of the first distinct division in the 
series of problems which we have been following. Up to 
this point the problems have been what we might call flat- 
work and straight bending problems; that is, they have been flat pieces 
of metal cut to shape with a design etched or saw-pierced on them, and 
lightly beaten into form on a block of wood with the ball-pein hammer, 
such as the watch-fob, paper-knife, etc. Next came the straight bend- 
ing problems, such as the blotter, book-end, hinge, etc. 

The problems in the division which we are now beginning will teach 
in a simple progressive manner the construction of objects by seaming 
and riveting, and the process of raising a form or shape from flat metal 
by hammering. 

The new tools necessary are illustrated in the photograph and are as 
follows : 

Iron vise, with jaws Zy 2 " wide, cost about $3.80 

No. 7293 neck hammer, cost about 1.25 

Tinsmith's blow-horn stake, weight 14 pounds 3.50 

The match-holder is a problem that involves the processes of bending, 
riveting, and raising. The base is raised or beaten into shape with the 

1 Copyright, 1910, by Arthur F. Payne. 

169 

7 



170 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METAL-BOX HOLDER. 



neck hammer, the holder is bent into form over a wooden block and 
riveted to the base. The detailed method of making the match-holder 
is as follows. Take a small match-box and measure the width, length 
and thickness; the box in the photograph was \Yl" wide, 2*4" long, 
and 24" thick. A piece of copper is now cut out that will cover the 
two sides and one end. For a box of the above dimensions the piece 
of copper would be 5*4" long and V/l" wide. 
If a design is to be etched on the sides it is 
easier to do it at this time while the metal is 
flat. Fasten in the vise a piece of wood that 
is the same thickness as the match-box and 
with the hammer and mallet bend the copper 
over the wood and into shape, so that the box 
fits rather tight. Next cut a strip of copper 
3^4" long and Yl" wide and bend it with the 
pliers into shape as shown in the drawing; 
this is to slip inside of the box cover and raise 
the box so that the matches can be easily re- 
moved. To make the base, cut a rectangular 
piece of copper \Yl" long and 3^" wide, 18 
gage thick ; mark in the middle the size of the 
raised part upon which the box-holder is to be riveted, and hammer it 
into shape with the neck hammer on a block of wood held in the vise. 
Care must be taken to strike the copper just off the edge of the block 
of wood as shown in No. 1 on the drawing, then the metal will give and 
bend as shown in No. 2. After the metal has been hammered and raised 
partly into shape it will get hard and stiff, and it will be necessary to 
"anneal" it. This may be done over the bunsen burner, or over a gas 
range, in a furnace, in fact in any place where there is heat enough to 
get it red hot. After it has been heated to a dull red heat it may be 
plunged into water while hot, or laid aside to cool, and it will be found 
to be soft and pliable again. It makes no difference which method is 
used to cool the metal as it is the heating that makes it soft. We may 
now continue hammering and raising it into shape, the progressive steps 
of the raising being shown as A, B, C. D, in the drawing. To bend 
up the edge, as shown in D, hammer with the flat side of the ball-pein 
hammer over the edge of the block of wood. To finish the base, hammer 
with the neck hammer in regular even strokes on the No. 157 lapping- 
stake illustrated in the June issue. We now have three pieces of copper 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 171 




172 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METALJFORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 



173 




174 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

that are shaped and hammered ready to be riveted together. The rivets 
may be copper tacks cut off to the required length. Drill a hole the 
diameter of the tack in each end of the small piece that slips inside 
the box-cover, and placing that in its proper position inside the piece 
that holds the match-box, mark and drill the holes. Next place the 
box-holder in its proper position on the base, mark and drill the holes 
in the base. We now have in each of the three pieces two holes which 
will all correspond when in position. Care must be taken to have the 
head of the rivet rest on something solid ; in this particular case the head 
of a large nail held in the vise will do. Let the point of the rivet come 
on the under side of the base and be careful to hammer the rivet as 
shown in the drawing. Color and finish in any of the previously de- 
scribed methods. 

Our next problem, the candle-stick, may be constructed in many differ- 
ent ways, as may be seen by the photographs, but all are made up of the 
same number of parts ; e. g., base, pillar, socket, and sometimes a handle. 
Those made with a round base and pillar with a glass ink-well for the 
candle-holder are the easiest to make. The glass ink-well referred to 
is the ordinary desk ink-well in common use in the public schools and 
can be bought for forty cents a dozen. The dimensions of the well 
are given in the drawing. 

To make the round candle-stick, make a paper pattern of the pillar, 
remembering that the top must be large enough to hold the ink-well, 
also to allow enough extra metal at the seam to lap over and rivet. Cut 
it out of the flat copper and with the prick. punch mark the places for 
the rivets along one of the edges ; then bend the copper around the blow 
horn stake, beating it with the mallet until the edges lap over. Drill 
the holes for the rivets, and rivet the end holes first. Always place the 
heads of the rivets inside the pillar, and rivet one at a time on the 
blow horn stake. If any difficulty is found in getting a rivet into its 
hole, place the rivet point upward on a flat file, insert in the tube and 
the rivet will easily pass into the hole. The pillar will now have 
straight sides and look something like E in the drawing. Bend out 
the top and bottom on the blow horn stake with the neck hammer 
until it looks like F in the drawing, being careful not to break 
any of the rivets. If a larger top is desired cut out a piece of 
metal and rivet on top as shown in the photographs. Now ham- 
mer smooth with the flat face of the ball-pein hammer and with 
the neck hammer, and it is ready for riveting to the base. The base 
is made by cutting out a circular piece the size wanted and beating into 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 175 




176 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METALJVORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 177 

shape in a depression in a block of wood, hammering it smooth with 
the ball-pein hammer on the No. 153, H, smoothing-stake illustrated 
in the June issue. Wherever possible, avoid leaving the raw edge 
of the copper as it is likely to scratch and scrape anything it comes in 
contact with. For instance, if we should leave the edge of the base 
as it is now, it would scratch any table or piece of furniture it might 
be placed upon. It would also be liable to get bent out of shape. To 
avoid this we will lap the edge of the base up or down by exactly the 
same process that we did the book-ends. Then rivet the pillar to the base. 
If it is desired to make a better and more finished piece of work, the base 
may be made more solid and substantial by lapping another piece of flat 
copper on to the base instead of merely lapping the edge. This is 
done by cutting out another piece of copper l /\ of an inch larger in 
diameter than the base of the candle-stick, turning the edge of the flat 
piece over at right angles on the lapping-tool, and fitting the base 
into it, as shown at G in the drawing; then with the neck hammer care- 
fully bend the edge over on to the base and hammer down smooth, as 
shown at H in the drawing. Color and finish by any of the previously 
described methods. 

For a square candle-stick the process is similar except that the base 
is raised into shape in the same way as the match-holder base, and the 
pillar is shaped on a square piece of iron or steel. 

Candle-sticks may be made without the use of the glass ink-well, by 
making the top smaller and filling the pillar nearly full of plaster of 
paris mixed with water. The plaster will support the candle and stop 
it from dropping down too far. 

The two table electroliers shown in the photograph are a logical 
development of the candle-stick problem. The construction is substan- 
tially the same, the only difference being that the electroliers are larger, 
and arms are added to support the shade. These arms are made of round 
copper wire flattened at the end and riveted to the pillar. 

In this and the preceding articles copper has been specified for the 
problems to save repetition of words, but brass may be used instead of 
copper in every case. The same instructions apply to both brass and 
copper except in coloring, which difference was explained in the April 
issue. 

{To be continued.) 



EDITORIAL 

THE visit of Dr. Georg Kerschensteiner, Superintendent of Schools, 
Munich, Bavaria, to this country is an event of real importance 
to all those interested in the progress of industrial education in 
the United States. Since the publication in 1890 of Dr. Kerschensteiner's 
essay on the "Civic Education of German Youth," which received the 
prize offered by the Royal Academy of Erfurt, his name has been increas- 
ingly to the front in educational affairs in Germany. The leading idea 
brought forward in the essay is that from social, civic, and ethical points 
of view, vocational training of its growing youth is a provision necessary 
for the efficiency and well-being of the state. 

Dr. Georg Elected Superintendent of Schools of Munich in 1895, 
Kerschen- rj r Kerschensteiner proceeded to put into realization his 
educational views, with the result that attendance upon 
the continuation schools was made compulsory for a period of four years, 
for all boys who do not continue in the regular schools beyond fourteen, 
and for three years for girls. Thru his untiring efforts forty-eight in- 
dustrial continuation schools and twelve continuation schools with shops 
have been established, in which the boys receive eight or ten hours of 
instruction a week and the girls three hours. Instruction is free and is 
given before the hour of 7 p. m. These schools, consequently, represent 
the type that we in this country have begun to call "part-time schools." 
Boys generally give either two half days or one whole day out of the six 
regular working days to the schools. Employers are required by law to 
allow time for attendance upon these schools. In some trades the appren- 
tice suffers no loss of wages, but in many cases no wages are paid for the 
day spent at school. Numerous shops, laboratories, and competent teach- 
ers have been provided by the state for these schools thru Dr. Kerschen- 
steiner's energy. The practical shop or laboratory work forms a central 
feature in most of these schools and is the core about which much of 
the instruction is developed. The schools are governed by a Board of 
Directors composed of nine members. These stand in close relation 
with the employers, who furnish the funds for the materials used, and 
who are consulted regarding the course of instruction, recommending 
technical instructors, supervising the practical instruction, and inter- 
esting themselves generally for the welfare of the school. Every trade 

17S 



EDITORIAL. 179 

school has its own school board, which is composed of the school com- 
mittee, one member of the Board of Aldermen, and three employers 
of the particular trade taught in the school. They are entrusted with 
the administration of the school and more particularly with the over- 
sight of the attendance. About 9,000 boys and 7,500 girls attend these 
compulsory continuation schools, and 3,600 girls attend the non-com- 
pulsory continuation schools. This in a city of 580,000 inhabitants — 
which is about the size of Boston! 

Besides this remarkable development in practical continuation schools, 
which has made them for many years objects of study and interest to 
educators in all parts of the world, Dr. Kerschensteiner has effected 
many other signal developments in the Munich school system. Early 
in his superintendency he prevailed upon the municipality to extend 
compulsory attendance in the regular public school to eight years, 
covering the period from six to fourteen, notwithstanding that measure 
occasioned an increased outlay in school expenses of 250,000 marks. 
Domestic science, school gardens, and practical laboratory instruction 
in chemistry and physics, have been introduced into the schools under 
his direction, and the system of school play-grounds and play-ground 
games greatly extended. 

The keynote of Dr. Kerschensteiner's attitude and efforts in the 
development of industrial education is cooperation between the employer 
and the public school system, or, to put it in another way, coordination 
between the training of the shop or factory on one hand and the school 
on the other. His point of view, which has received such emphatic 
endorsement in his home country, is that the school is an institution 
that can perform the office of instruction better than the shop, and that 
the best possible results in industrial training are possible only when 
these two agencies cooperate. 

It would seem to be a fact that if industrial education is to have 
a broad and sound development in this country, we need above all 
things a general realization of this principle. There has been much 
talk in the past by schoolmen as to the sufficiency and superior advan- 
tages of training to be obtained in industrial schools as compared to 
commercial establishments, and much criticism of schoolmen by em- 
ployers as impracticable and visionary. It is perhaps not too much to 
hope that Dr. Kerschensteiner's presentation of the organization and 
results of the Munich schools, may prove of material assistance in pro- 
ducing a greater unity in our efforts and in our point of view. 



ISO MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

His itinerary includes addresses in Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, 
Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. The National Society for the 
Promotion of Industrial Education invited Dr. Kerschensteiner to visit 
this country, and he spoke at the annual convention of that body in 
Boston November 18th. It is to be hoped that every reader of the 
Manual Training Magazine within reach of the Doctor's stopping 
points will, by the time this editorial appears, have had an opportunity 
to hear him. — c. r. Richards. 

Influence of It is difficult to estimate the influence of external appear- 

the Manual ance s upon the mind of one who is, consciously or un- 

Training ... 

Room consciously, passing judgment upon worth. Of course 

it is not safe to say that outward conditions are necessarily the true 

index of character, and yet it must be admitted that they form a large, 

and usually a just, factor in the estimate of a man's relative value and 

probable degree of success. It is doubtful if the average industrial 

teacher fully appreciates this fact and it is certain that many do not 

at all. 

The appearance of the manual training room is one of the most 

subtle of these influences. Almost invariably the visitor's first estimate 

of a teacher is expressed in terms of what has appealed to the eye in 

the appearance of the room. Disorder, untidiness, lack of system, 

slovenly workmanship on the part of both teacher and pupils invariably 

cause unfavorable comment, while the reverse of these conditions will 

just as certainly color favorably other shortcomings. The care and 

conduct of the manual training room is a problem that the teacher 

cannot afford to ignore. Conditions in the room should create an 

atmosphere that will influence the pupil, not only in immediate results 

in his work, but in relation to his home, in character building and in 

future success. Neatness, system, order, beauty, all are cardinal elements 

in successful manual arts work, and are possible, at least to a degree, 

even under the most adverse condition. 

W. E. ROBERTS. 

The New The State of Pennsylvania, like Illinois, is going thru the 

Code in process of changing its school code. An educational corn- 

Pennsylvania • • 1 1 -1 -11 T^l • 

mission has been appointed to revise the law. 1 his action 
affords an opportunity for giving full consideration to all the live educa- 
tional problems of the day, prominent among which is the place which 
should be given to manual training, and the provision which should be 
made for vocational training. The time has evidently come when Penn- 



EDITORIAL. 181 

sylvania teachers who have a clear vision of the place of these subjects 
in education should let themselves be heard. 

The State Teachers' Association will hold a meeting in Harrisburg 
December 28-30 for the the purpose of bringing the proposed school code 
to the attention of the members of the state legislature. A rousing meet- 
ing is expected. In the meantime some of the leaders in the movement 
for more industrial education have been bringing facts to the attention of 
the public and especially to the attention of the Commission. At a meeting 
of the State Asscociation held in Erie last spring, Lewis W. Cruikshank 
of Philadelphia made a stirring address in which he reviewed the situation 
historically and pointed to present needs. Many other educators thruout 
the state have been heard on this same general subject. Perhaps no one, 
however, has been more persistently and intelligently active in this respect 
than Paul Kreuzpointner of Altoona, the chairman of the industrial 
education committee of the American Foundrymen's Association. By 
means of articles in the public press, conferences with educational com- 
mittees and letters to officials, he has spread abroad facts concerning 
industrial education in Europe and the needs and possibilities of such 
education in America. 

In one respect at least Mr. Kreuzpointner takes a position in advance of 
many of the advocates of vocational training. Instead of taking the 
extreme position of the manufacturer who would have public schools 
train operatives, he emphasizes the importance of fundamental general 
training for every child, and opposes all short cuts in education. He 
would, moreover, insist that the fundamental training be broad enough 
to include the elements of industry. This leads him to emphasize the 
conviction that in manual training is to be found a necessary foundation 
for trade and technical instruction. In a letter addressed to the presi- 
dent of the educational commission, Mr. Kreuzpointner says: 

I notice with regret the absence of recognition of the urgent needs of Penn- 
sylvania's industries in not having manual training added to the course of the 
elementary and high schools. Since manual training has formed part of the 
regular curriculum of many of. our elementary schools for some time, and is 
without doubt destined to do so in an increasing number of schools in the near 
future, this subject seems to have proven not only its adaptability to the courses 
of study pedagogically, but also its desirability of presence in the schoolroom 
from the intellectual and material necessities of the people and our industries. 
The extent of recognition manual training has been accorded by professional 
educators as a valuable addition and counter poise, as it were, to the academic 
studies seems to vouchsafe the feasibilitty of manual training as a prescribed 
subject in the elementary schools of the industrial state of Pennsylvania. 



is: MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Whatsoever may be the organization, the nature and status of the coming 
industrial and trade school in our state and country, now so urgently demanded 
for the sake of being able to retain our industrial standing, this form of 
education will in its results, be superficial and ineffective to the degree as its 
pupils will be deficient in the necessary preparation in the schools below. It is 
a universal complaint now of teachers in shop schools and trade schools that 
valuable time has to be lost in teaching things which ought to have been taught 
below, just as college and normal school professors frequently complain of being 
obliged to do elementary or high school work. Manual training offers such 
preparation to industrial and specific trade education, and I dare say that, from 
my knowledge of the situation, our industries will be handicapped in the future 
if their urgent needs receive no recognition along industrial education lines. . . 

While I agree with others that manual training has been disappointing as a 
help to our industries directly, nevertheless it has proved to have a mission, and 
will have an important mission in the future with the establishment of industrial 
and trade schools. 

Minnesota's Anyone who wishes to know the spirit and progress of 
Progress. industrial education in the Central States should read the 

report of the state inspector of high schools in Minnesota 
for the year ending July 31, 1910. This report reveals a condition that 
is truly remarkable. It shows conclusively that at least one state has a 
thoroly organized and progressive high school system, and that, with 
reasonable state aid, the smaller high schools, even, may offer courses in 
manual training, domestic science and agriculture. The following fig- 
ures, taken from Mr. Aiton's tables, tell their own story of rapid progress : 

1899-0 1904-5 1908-9 1909-10 

Schools giving Manual Training 7 17 84 122 

Students taking Manual Training 745 2,189 4,233 4,770 

The growth in the work in mechanical drawing is not so rapid, but 
it is large — from 15 schools with 864 students to 73 schools with 3,866 
students in the ten years. Cooking and sewing are recorded for the past 
two years only, the total number of students last year being 1 ,267 in 
cooking and 1,616 in sewing. The number taking agriculture last year 
was 1,331. Equally significant is the long column of expenditures. For 
manual training equipment in the 122 schools there was spent last year 
$48,438 out of a total equipment expenditure of $134,746. Moreover, 
last year was not the first year in which a large sum was expended on 
manual training equipment. In 1908-9 the amount was $48,227, and 
in 1906-7 it was $19,351. Hardly less interesting, and possibly more 
so, are the statistics of the ten agricultural high schools of the state, each 
of which employs an instructor in manual training, one in agriculture, 
and one in domestic science. 



EDITORIAL. 183 

Concerning the agricultural schools, Mr. Aiton says: "A common- 
sense combination of academic and industrial work, the latter to include 
domestic science and agriculture, is the type of school that makes a hit 
with the public, and is the kind of school that will do the most good. 
Four hundred schools of this character should be established in this state 
as rapidly as local sentiment, equipment, and the supply of efficient 
instructors permit. Farming communities can be induced to share the 
expense of teaching shopwork, domestic science and agriculture in con- 
nection with other branches. This sort of school work appeals to the 
intelligent farmer." He also speaks of the great need of more trained 
teachers — especially those who can successfully teach such combinations 
of subjects as "science and agriculture, mathematics and manual training, 
history and sewing, Latin and cooking." He says that in the advanced 
graded schools and in small high schools, "the salvation of the standard 
subjects depends on their being taught in combination with utilitarian 
subjects, and this is the way they ought to be taught." Then follows a 
plea for a local source of supply for the needed teachers. The state trains 
physicians, lawyers, pharmacists, engineers, and scientific agriculturists ; 
why not high school teachers? One hundred a year are needed — "young 
men of reading, breadth and culture, and at the same time able to dignify 
the labor of the accountant, of the shop, or the farm — young women con- 
versant with letters, and at the same time inspired to teach our daughters 
that there is no more ladylike occupation than making a home." 



ASSOCIATIONS 

A little study of the Directory of Organizations, beginning on page vii of 
this issue, shows that a number of important educational meetings are on the 
calendar for the months of November and December. These all occur so 
late that it is impracticable to secure reports from them in time for this number, 
tho it is expected that several of the meetings will be reported in the February 
number. 

A number of Associations appear to have discovered that one of the very 
best ways to accomplish things is thru efficient committees. It is instructive 
to note the extent to which associational effort is being directed thru this 
particular form of activity, and to note the results also. In response to the 
invitation in these pages in the October number the Editor has received 
several letters of inquiry and suggestion which point to further possibilities 
of usefulness. The Associations Department freely places its resources and 
facilities at the disposal of officers and committees. 

JUL 

The advance program of the fourth annual convention of the National 
Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education showed in detail the rich 
treat in store for those fortunate enough to be in Boston on November 17-19. 
Two sessions are given up to the problems of industrial education for girls: 
Thursday morning, "Demands and Opportunities for Girls in Trades and 
Stores," Chairman, Dr. David Snedden, Commissioner of Education, Massa- 
chusetts; Thursday afternoon, "Training of Teachers for Girls' Trade Schools," 
Chairman, Pres. Henry Lefavour, Simmons College. The sessions on Friday 
and Saturday dealt with various aspects of apprenticeship, part time, and 
evening schools, and the social meaning of industrial education. The principal 
address of the convention was on "Continuation Schools of Germany," by Dr. 
George Kerchensteiner, Superintendent of Schools, Munich, Bavaria. The 
speakers at the annual banquet were: F. A. Delano, President Wabash Rail- 
road, Chicago; F. P. Fish, Chairman, State Board of Education, Boston; C. H. 
Winslow, American Federation of Labor, Washington, D. C. ; Charles R. 
Richards, President of the National Society. 

JUL 

At the meeting of the Minnesota Educational Association, Saint Paul, 
November 3-5, considerable attention was given to the problems of industrial 
education. At the Manual Arts Section the following topics were discussed: 
"Possibilities of Manual Training in the Rural Schools;" "Practical Value of 
Mechanical Drawing;" and "Trade Education as a Function of the Public 
Schools." At the Domestic Science Round Table the topics were: "Educa- 
tional Ideals in Domestic Art," and "The Art of Table Service." In the 
Industrial Section the general topic was "The Demands of Democracy Upon 
the Public Schools of Today." Two of the papers were: "Utilization of the 

184 



ASSOCIATIONS. 185 

Present Organization and Equipment in Promoting Industrial Training," by 
Supt. A. D. Wilson, Minnesota Farmers' Institute," and "The Meaning of 
Industrial Education," by Pres. F. A. Cotton, State Normal School, LaCrosse. 

JUL 

The Manitoba Manual Training Tteachers' Association reports having 
had several profitable meetings. The following papers have been presented and 
discussed: "Summer Schools as a Means for Recreation," by R. B. Vaughn; 
"The Summer School as an Educational Influence," by S. T. Newton ; "Wood 
Finishing," by H. Halmshaw; "Book Case Ends," by W. W. Pierce; and 
"Chair Construction," by C. L. Fultz. 

JUS. 

The Indianapolis Manual Arts Association has given up its formal organi- 
zation, altho meetings are still held at the call of the Principal of the Manual 
Training High School and the Director of Manual Training in the grade 
schools. Joint conferences are held from time to time to discuss matters of 
interest. 

The Manual Training Section of the Pennsylvania Teachers' Association 
has not been very active in recent years, but efforts are now on foot to revive 
the work. There will be two sessions, instead of the usual one, at the annual 
meeting this year. It is expected that all the State Normal Schools will be 
represented, and that several strong committees will be set to work. 

The Drawing and Manual Training Department of the Maine Teachers' 
Association held a session in connection with the State meeting at Bangor, 
October 27-28. Miss Mabel H. Drake, Westbrook, presented a paper on "Pic- 
ture Study in the Public Schools;" "Drawing for Grade Teachers," with black- 
board illustrations, was discussed by Miss Agnes C. Burr, State Normal School, 
Gorham; and B. T. Newman, Fryeburg Academy spoke on "The Relation of 
Art to Manual Training." 

This Missouri Association of Applied Arts and Sciences has arranged to 
hold an informal meeting at St. Joseph at the time of the State Teachers' 
gathering in December. The plans include a dinner with Professor James 
Monaghan as guest of honor. The Association has a committee at work 
investigating the "Present Status of the Teaching of the Arts in the Schools of 
Missouri." 

The Ohio Art and Manual Training Teachers' Association met at Dayton, 
Friday, November 11th, in connection with the meeting of the Central Ohio 
Teachers' Association. Among the topics discussed were: "Posters as an Edu- 
cational Problem in Art," by W. D. Campbell, Columbus; "Art in the Grades," 
by Susan I. Odlin, Dayton; "Shop Economics," by W. E. Painter, Newark; 
"Constructional Design,'' by T. K. Lewis, Ohio State University ; "Location of 



1S6 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Large Pieces of Equipment in School Kitchens and Material for the Table Tops," 
by Misses Wardell, Columbus, and Uhlrick, Cincinnati; "The Use of Drafting 
in High School Work,'' by Lena Bishop, Cleveland Technical High School. 

JJL 

The members of the Boston Manual Training Club were very pleasantly 
entertained by their friends at Worcester, who acted the part of hosts on 
Saturday, November 5th. Among the good things enjoyed were the oppor- 
tunity to "see steel made by the open hearth process, and machine parts accurately 
finished bv rapid grinding. One of the latest phases of industrial education at 
the Worcester School of Trades, and the Worcester Polytechnic Institute famous 
for its 'actual business' Washburn shops." The trip included a luncheon together 
at noon, and was thoroly enjoyed by all. 

The Oklahoma Manual Training and Drawing Association reports a rapidly 
increasing membership. The officers are working up a directory of manual 
training and drawing teachers in the State. 

JJL 

Teachers of manual training interested in the problems of domestic science 
and domestic art will do well to attend the Saint Louis meeting of the Home 
Economics Association, December 27-30. Full details, with copy of program, 
may be obtained by addressing the secretary — see Directory of Organizations 
on another page. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

George A. Seaton, Editor. 

INDIAN CLUB. 

The Indian club has long been a favorite problem of the wood turner, as is 
evidenced by the designs which are in use at present. In most of our modern 
gymnasiums a slow-swinging club is in use and such is the one shown in the 
drawing. This slowness in swinging is brought about by putting the weight 
as low as possible in the club. In the making of a pair of clubs it is suggested 
that the first one be made as near like the drawing as possible but a trifle large. 
Then by careful trimming here and there it is brought pretty close to a pound 
when tested by weight. Of course, until the club is entirely completed some 
allowance will have to be made for the weight of the waste stock at each end. 
When the first club is finished, it should serve as the model for the second. 



INK-BOTTLE HOLDER. 

This problem is intended for work in pattern-making, tho by using a wood 
of good weight a very serviceable holder may be obtained for the ordinary 
bottle of drawing ink. The bottle is to be put in position from the- under side 
and then held there by the rounded end crossbar which is screwed in place 
underneath the bottle. If the casting is made of brass it can be finished on the 
ordinary wood lathe by use of files and emery cloth. Of course, it will cost 
considerably more in brass than in iron. If the casting is made at the school 
without elaborate equipment some such material as pewter can be used success- 
fully. 

DUTCH CLOCK. 
In the Maine School for the 
Deaf at Portland they are making 
some clock cases which are very 
popular. Herbert L. Johnson has 
supplied the design from which 
the drawings are made. In the 
construction he suggests that the 
front and back should be made 
first, the sides second, and the roof 
and bottom third. The measure- 
ments for the front and back are 
all to be laid off from a vertical 
center line. The placing of the 
shelf as well as the opening allowed in the front will depend upon the clock 
chosen. A door must be provided in the back of the case in order that the clock 
may be accessible. The drawing shows how a border of chip carving may be 
applied, while the space below the clock face affords a place for suitable relief 
carving. 

187 




188 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS. 



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190 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS. 191 



HYGROSCOPE. 



The drawings for the hygroscope are taken from blue prints in use at 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria. Its construction is comparatively simple, 
as it is made up of a base, a back, and a vertical pointer, secured in the base 
and free to move in front of the back. This pointer is made up of two layers 
securely glued together. In the layer at the right the grain of the wood runs 
parallel with the length of the pointer, but in other half of the pointer the 
grain is placed at right angles to the length. As can readily be understood, 
the varying amount of moisture in the air will cause the pointer to curve to 
the right or left in front of the paper scale that may be affixed to the back. 
If a pin be driven in the end of the pointer and its head filed off, it will be 
possible to secure more accurate readings. The instrument is placed beneath 
a bell glass or other tight container with several pieces of wet blotting paper 
near, but not touching the pointer and allowed to remain for six or eight hours. 
When it is taken out, a dot can be made on the paper scale at the end of the 
pointer which will indicate the point of saturation. After drying in the open 
air, the instrument is now replaced under a bell glass with a dish of calcium 
chloride and left for five or six hours. The point now marked by the pin 
will indicate the maximum dryness of the air and can be designated as zero. 
If the point of saturation be called 100, the space between it and the last 
point obtained can be divided into ten equal spaces, each one of which will 
represent ten degrees, which divisions can also be marked if desired. 



The eighth grade classes of East Cleveland have enjoyed making the 
eight-sided tabouret shown in this number. All stock is finished Y\ inch thick 
and the legs and four cross-bars are 2V2 inches wide. The upper cross-bars 
are grooved to a depth of % inch to accommodate the legs which are glued into 
place. The lower cross-bars are to be clamped into position for boring the 
holes for the ik-inch dowel pins which are allowed to project with a rounded 
end. The top is to be held in place by screws thru the cross-bars or thru 
cleats attached to the cross-bars. 

BLACKBOARD DRAWING MACHINE. 

The drawing of this machine is given for the benefit of the teachers rather 
than as a problem for the students. Wherever it is necessary to draw accurate 
sketches upon the blackboard, as in the geometry or drawing class, this machine 
will prove of great assistance. It is made up of a trolley which runs upon 
a light track at the top of the blackboard, a vertical ruler and a horizontal 
ruler. The vertical ruler can be placed for drawing a line at any place upon 
the board by drawing the entire machine along the track. By giving the knob 
a partial turn the horizontal ruler is loosened so that it can be raised or lowered 
as desired. When the position wished is attained, the rule is clamped by 
another slight turn upon the knob in the opposite direction. Vertical and 
horizontal lines can thus be drawn upon the board with great accuracy and 
speed. 



192 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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195 



The dimensions of the machine as shown are those which were worked 
out by C. L. Johnson to suit the blackboards of East Cleveland. Some of them 
will no doubt have to be altered slightly to suit the boards where the machine 
is to be used. The track is made of a light strip of hard wood attached to 
the upper blackboard frame by screws passing thru small circular blocks which 
are just long enough to let the wheels of the trolley clear the frame. The 
wheels are turned from hardwood and should be held away from the trolley 
board by thin washers or by turning a small hub on that side of the wheel. 
In order to keep the vertical rule close to the board it must be offset in 
attaching it to the trolley board, as 
shown in the section thru the trolley. 
The vertical rule is composed of two 
strips beveled at an angle of 45 degrees 
at their central edges to form the ways 
for the support of the horizontal rule. 
A corresponding shaped block travels 
in these ways, and is connected to the 
horizontal rule by means of a stiff plate 
of sheet metal, as shown in the section 
thru the knob. A small pointer upon the 
horizontal scale indicates the amount 
this scale is moved up or down. The 
knob shown is turned from hard wood 
and threaded, but a bolt might be sub- 
stituted for this by using a wing-nut. 

SUPPORT FOR BLUE PRINT FRAME. 

This support, designed by G. G. 
Greene, Lane Technical High School, 
Chicago, is intended to be placed just 
outside a window, so that it can be 
closed if necessary, and fits loosely in 
sockets above and below. It can be 

easily revolved in any direction or removed when the window is being washed. 
The upright piece is made of iron pipe, and the bracket of %"xl' wrought iron, 
fitted with horizontal strips of wood to prevent the frame from slipping while 
it rests at any angle desired. A sliding hook at tthe top helps to hold the frame 
secure. 




CURRENT ITEMS 

THE emphasis being placed upon industrial education in Massachusetts has 
called forth a movement toward "vocational direction." A vocation bureau 
has been established in Boston, the purpose of which is to advise young 
men and students concerning the vocation which they shall select. In speaking of 
this new movement recently Superintendent Brooks of Boston said, "A prerequisite 
of industrial education is the selection of a life work upon entering school instead 
of upon leaving it. Under the new conditions vocational direction will not only 
be concerned with advising a boy to take additional education, but with deciding 
what kind of additional education he should take. It is easy to advise a boy to 
go to college. To advise him to enter a certain trade is harder. An industrial 
education is good for some one thing, but the boy so educated cannot so easily 
succeed in another line if he finds himself in the wrong one. Education has 
been criticised because we educate all our boys to become presidents, and millions 
fail to reach that office. Would it be better to educate all our boys for town 
clerks because more attain that position?'' Superintendent Brooks then advises 
conservative action. He says, "The demand of the new education today should 
be, not for a substitute education, but for a supplementary education. Let us not 
reverse the error of giving all a cultural education, as in the past, by now 
giving all a mechanical education. The introduction of separate schools will 
bring upon the American people a new and serious problem, namely, the 
necessity of an early choice of a vocation. There is a strong belief that no man 
can tell what the permanent interests and abilities of a boy of twelve may be, 
and also a deep-seated fear that the widespread selection of vocations for or 
by children will create more misfits and more serious ones than may properly 
be charged to present conditions. To meet this difficulty in Boston there is a 
vocation bureau, and in the schools are the vocation counsellors. These watch 
the pupils and study their aptitudes and needs, and also study industrial 
conditions. The school helps the pupil to find his particular career." 

NORTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

The evening industrial school work in New England appears to have received 
a great impetus this year. Word comes from Hartford that the evening schools 
under the direction of Solon P. Davis, supervisor of drawing, has been obliged 
to turn away 230 applicants because of lack of accommodations. The city is 
contemplating an addition to the high school building, but until this money is 
appropriated and the new building erected, it will be difficult to meet the demands 
of the evening school. 

In New Bedford the enrollment in the evening classes is very large, there being 
300 men to take places provided for sixty. In the evening school for women 
there is a waiting list of 500, and space for only eighty students. 

The city of Marlboro, Mass., has been notified by the executors of the will of 
the late Hannah E. Bigelow that they propose to pay over to the city of Marlboro 

196 



CURRENT ITEMS. 197 

$5,000 to be expended in giving instruction in manual training in the public 
schools of that city. It is to be expended under the direction of the school 
committee. Instruction shall begin not later than March 1st, 1911, and shall 
continue for a period of not less than five years. The city council has accepted 
the gift and plans are being made for the beginning of the work. 

The success of the Manhattan Trade School in New York City in training 
young girls to occupy good positions in trade, to obtain good salaries, to rise to 
better positions, and to become trustworthy, womanly citizens, has attracted the 
attention of the Board of Education of that city for several years. It is more 
than eight years since the School was organized by private individuals, which 
was four years before the organization of the National Society for Promoting 
Industrial Education. This experiment in trade education was the first of the 
kind for girls, and one of the earliest trade schools attempted for fourteen- 
year-old workers. It has conclusively proved that such education is practical. 

*&£ 

Superintendent Maxwell of the New York public schools has long wanted to 
have such a school in the system of New York City, and has urged the matter 
in many of his reports. It, therefore, seemed well to the New York Board of 
Education to incorporate the Manhattan Trade School into the public system. 
The board of administrators of the Manhattan Trade School had begun this 
school as an experiment to prove that such education was feasible and were 
therefore glad to have the city undertake the work and thus influence a larger 
number of students. On account of the success of the school they felt that they 
would rather wait a year or two before completing the entire arrangement. 
They therefore have entered into an agreement with the public schools that the 
school building and equipment be rented for two years and the school be con- 
ducted by public instruction. If, at the end of that time, it should be found that 
the city can not successfully cope with the problem, or does not wish to do so, 
the work will be taken back again by the Manhattan Trade School Board. On the 
expiration of two years, if the city has made a success of this class of instruction 
and desires to continue it, it will be incorporated into the city school system. 
Many important matters had to be considered and even the city charter had to 
be changed. An order, however, was passed by the Board of Education and 
signed by the Mayor to enable the order work of the school to continue and sales 
be conducted as before. The order work has been an important part of the in- 
struction. The entire policy of the organizer and director of the school has been 
adopted by the public school authorities and all teachers and workers have been 
retained, at present on substitute licenses, but to become regular teachers as soon 
as examination for them can be held. The executive secretary, Miss H. R. 
Hildreth, is at present acting principal. The former director, Prof. Mary 
Schenck Woolman will serve in an advisory capacity until the school is well 
launched, but will not be under the public school system, having returned to her 
work at Teachers College. 



19S MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

The Mechanics Institute at Rochester, New York, has added much to its equip- 
ment this year. A new Fine Arts building is being erected at a cost of $150,000 
and a new heating and power house costing $20,000. These new buildings will 
mean added space for the manual training department. A foundry and new 
forge-shop will be built and the machine-shop will be enlarged. The space for 
woodworking machinery will be increased so that work can be done more nearly 
on a commercial basis. The machine-shop is already doing work for manu- 
facturers in the city and has discarded its old course of "abstract" models. 

Thru F. H. Wing director of manual and industrial training, we learn of the 
progress of the vocational school work in Buffalo, New York. There are now 
four schools, one for cabinet-making, carpentry, electrical construction and print- 
ing; one for joinery, wood-turning, pattern-making, and modeling; one for 
printing and bookbinding; and one for carpentry and sheet metal work. Two 
hundred and sixty boys are now enrolled in the four schools, and these are taught 
by a staff of ten teachers. The first school of this character was opened last year 
with two teachers and fifty pupils. At present the principals of the schools do 
the academic teaching and they will continue to do so until the schools grow large 
enough to warrant other arrangements. The buildings and equipments are 
costing about $30,000. 

Another important action in Buffalo is the placing of the manual training 
work of the first four grades under the direction of the supervisor of art instruc- 
tion, C. Valentine Kirby. This is the result of a suggestion made in the new 
state syllabus, and bids fair to strengthen the work in the lower grades. It is 
to be hoped that other cities will follow this example. 

Auburn, New York, has recently organized a new department of manual 
training for high school students. A former grammar school building has been 
utilized for this purpose. The work in under the direction of Chesley H. Smith. 

A location has been selected for the proposed new building for the Central 
Manual Training School of Philadelphia. It is hoped that a sufficient appro- 
priation will be secured to make this building a fitting abode for the historic 
school which has done such excellent work under the administration of Dr. 
William L. Sayre. Certainly the city of Philadelphia should do nothing less than 
give this school the modern building it needs. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

An encouraging word concerning industrial education in colored schools comes 
from the Negro Conference at Hampton, Virginia. Jackson Davis the newly 
appointed state supervisor of colored schools, who has already been instrumental 
in starting industrial work in several Virginia towns, declares that industrial 
education has already won the interest and respect of the best people, both white 
and colored, and that good results are already beginning to appear in improved 
homes and more efficient children. 



CURRENT ITEMS. 199 

Manual training and domestic science are being introduced into the public 
schools of Wheeling, West Virginia, this year. Work is being given in the seventh 
and eighth grades and the first two years of the high school. W. G. Carpenter 
of Altoona, Pa., is in charge of the work in manual training and Miss Marie 
Kellogg of the University of Chicago is instructor in domestic science. 

The department of manual arts of the State Normal school at Athens, Georgia, 
thru its director Fred J. Orr, is carrying on a most worthy campaign in the 
interests of better school building in the rural districts and towns of the state of 
Georgia. Mr. Orr has offered his services to village and county boards of 
education. On invitation he visits the school site, draws plans for contemplated 
buildings or suggests schemes for beautifying grounds and interiors. All this he 
does without cost to the board, except enough to cover traveling expenses and other 
incidentals. He also gives free of charge a stereopticon lecture on the subject 
of "Home and School Buildings" in which he discusses the difference between 
good and bad design in houses, and economical methods of finishing and 
furnishing interiors. Mr. Orr's practical experience in architectural work enables 
him to render this unusual service. Already his work has reached some twelve or 
fifteen counties in the state. As far as possible he gives the students of his 
department an opportunity to help in this work. 

The industrial school at Tallulah Fall organized by the Georgia Federation 
of Woman's Clubs has recently installed a workshop in which native industries 
will be carried on. 

Putnam county in the same state has organized industrial work in several of 
its high schools. Shopwork will be formulated to meet the needs of the agri- 
cultural community. 

Poplar Springs school in Laurens county has a well equipped woodworking 
shop. This is an ordinary consolidated country school, but it is accomplishing a 
great deal for the surrounding country under the stimulating guidance of Miss 
Emma Perry and her associates, all of whom are graduates of the State Normal 
school at Athens. 

NORTH CENTRAL STATES. 

With the prosperity of the farmers in the Central States and the enrichment 
of the city high schools, there is a noticeable increase in the movement of students 
of high school grade toward the cities or toward the larger high schools offering 
modern courses of study. An interesting example of this is found in Richmond, 
Indiana, where seventy-five pupils residing outside the city of Richmond have 
entered the hgh school this fall. This is an increase of more than twenty-five 
over last year and is attributed directly to new facilities for manual training. 
For each pupil who is transferred from the township to the city high school, 
the township has to pay into the city treasury $4.00 a month, an amount which 
is fixed by law. About $300 per month will be added in this way to the funds 
available for the high school in Richmond. 



200 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Manual training is being extended this year in Toledo, Ohio, under the super- 
vision of Carl T. Cotter. In districts where pupils are likely to leave school 
early, shopwork and cooking are being taught in the sixth and seventh grades. 
To these same pupils machine sewing and mechanical drawing will be given 
in the eighth grade. In districts where there is a large foreign element in the 
population, manual training is given twice a week. This is an interesting dis- 
crimination in favor of the foreigner. We are wondering why he is not given 
manual training four times a week instead of two. Then manual training would 
come to its own and show the desired results. 

The Central High School in Grand Rapids, Michigan, is expected to be ready 
to receive classes at the beginning of the second semester about January 30th. It 
is probable, however, that the manual training work will not be started in the 
new building until the following September, tho the domestic science and art 
clasEes for girls will be organized at once. Another building on the other side of 
the river known as the Union High School is expected to be ready for occupancy 
about the same time. In this building the equipment for cabinet-making and 
wood-turning will be ready at the time of opening, while the rooms for metal- 
working will not be equipped until September. Another feature of the work in 
Grand Rapids this year is the opening of an "Auxiliary School for Exceptional 
Children." This is one of the old grade school buildings. There are four 
rooms in the building and it is planned to use one of them for benchwork, another 
is a combined cooking room, dining room, and laundry, a third is -used for hand- 
work in raffia weaving, clay modeling, and cardboard construction. The re- 
maining room has been fitted with tables to be used for academic subjects. In 
this school are placed pupils who are exceptional in one way or another. 

-it 
The towns of Chaska and Shakopee, Minnesota, which are a few miles apart, 
are planning to employ a manual training teacher who will divide his time 
between the two towns, supervising the work on alternate days in each place. 
This experiment suggests many possibilities for tnc extension of manual training 
in small towns and even in rural communities. Four suburbs of Cincinnati have 
combined in a similar way to get instruction in manual training and there is every 
reason to believe that the country schools following the plan suggested by Clinton 
S. Van Duesen could profitably unite in securing competent instruction in the 
manual arts. The folly of attempting to secure the desired results from the 
average country school teacher, who has received no special training in the 
manual art, has already been demonstrated in several instances. The results of 
such experiments as this one in Minnesota will be watched with interest. 

Compulsory education in trade or continuation schools for children who have 
passed the age of compulsory education in the common schools and who are not 
voluntarily attending such continuation schools or any other schools, is a propo- 
sition now under consideration in the state of Wisconsin. A special committee 
has been appointed to draft a bill for presentation to the legislature. 



CURRENT ITEMS. 201 

Manual training is progressing in South Dakota. Departments have already 
been started in Sioux Falls, Mitchell, Deadwood, Pierre, and Lead, also in the 
normal schools in the state. Lead is reported to be the only city having a 
department of domestic science. The manual training work in Lead now occu- 
pies the time of two teachers on full time and two on part time. The equipment 
for the manual training has cost about $3,000, and that for the domestic science 
about $2,000, — four rooms for the former and three for the latter. Manual 
training is taught in all the grades from the first to the eleventh, and domestic 
science in grades from the fifth to the tenth. The work is required of all pupils 
up to the eighth grade after which it is elective. 

JJL 

The manual training work is beginning to get a good start in Montana. 
The work in Helena under John W. Curtis is progressing as rapidly as con- 
ditions will allow. Miss Ida M. Eells from Teachers College is now in imme- 
diate charge of the manual training for the lower grades. About the middle 
of last year woodworking was introduced for boys in the grade schools at Great 
Falls. The work continues this year at Missoula where they are giving bench- 
work to the boys of the lower grades only. Bozeman also started manual 
training last year. At Butte Mr. MacTarnaghan resigned at the end of last 
year and his place as supervisor has been taken by Carl Warner. Blacksmithing 
has just been added to the manual training subjects offered in Butte. 

JUL 

Friends of William Hawley Smith will be interested to learn that he has 
accepted a position on the editorial staff of School and Home Education, pub- 
lished at Bloomington, Illinois. In the September number Mr. Smith gives a 
few striking paragraphs on the subject of "racing," in which he speaks of visiting 
an old friend in a repair shop and watching him do a piece of work with "almost 
incredible skill." In the course of the conversation Mr. Smith said: "Is there 
any need of doing a job like that better than you are now doing this one?" The 
friend replied: Every job, no matter what, should be done just as well as the 
materials and conditions will permit." He then went on talking, and here are 
some of the things he said: "In all my work as a mechanic, I have always tried 
to do one thing, and that was, to constantly outstrip myself. If, in doing that, I 
surpass what someone else has done, all right; but that is only an incident. 
Merely beating somebody else's record cuts no ice for me. I might do all that 
and still not be so very much of a mechanic in my own estimation or anybody 
else's. But every time I do better than I myself have ever done before, I do 
something that counts, and that stays with me for good." 

JJL 

The city of Des Moines, Iowa, is considering the advisability of applying 
the commission form of government to its public schools. A committee has 
approved a plan which involves the selection of a commission of five experts 
upon whom the burden of the school administration will fall. These experts 
will be as follows: 



202 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

A commissioner of scholastic and moral instruction to be designated as 
superintendent. 

A commissioner of hygiene and physical culture who shall be a physician. 

A commissioner of manual training and domestic economy. 

A commissioner of buildings and play grounds, and social centers, who shall 
be an architect. 

A commissioner of business management. , 

It is interesting to notice the assignment of duties outlined by the proposed 
plan. The commissioner of manual training would have "supervision of all 
work and instruction in manual and industrial training, including penmanship, 
drawing, music, modeling, wood-carving, domestic economy and the allied arts 
and crafts; the appointment and certification of all supervisors, special and 
regular teachers and assistants in his department; and the power of supervision 
and removal for cause stated in writing to the board." It will be interesting 
to see what becomes of this report. 

SOUTH CENTRAL STATES. 

Very little actual installation of work in the manual arts has been accom- 
plished in the state of Kentucky during the past year owing to the fact that the 
people have been too busy passing new school laws. This fundamental reform 
having been accomplished, a wave of feeling is pushing forward improvement 
in the schools themselves, and the people hope to add manual training and home 
economics in many schools during the present year. At the annual meeting 
of the Federation of Woman's Clubs in Frankfort in May, a resolution was passed 
urging the installation of courses in home economics in all the schools in the 
state, and a committee was appointed to work up interest during the year. 

Of the actual work accomplished during the past year the Eastern State 
Normal school at Richmond has added agriculture to the course of study. Berea 
College has crowded all its industrial departments into one school called "The 
Vocational School," and has bought property near Simpsonville to build its 
colored idustrial branch to be called "Lincoln Institute." The state has raised 
$50,000 to meet the offer of $350,000, and of this $50,000, the colored people 
themselves raised $20,000, which sum is a most helpful sign of their progress. 

John Little, in his industrial school for colored people in Louisville, has added 
house cleaning to his working department, expecting to send out girls prepared 
for household service. 

During the past year the industrial work in Louisville has been given a new 
impetus by the appointment of a special supervisor, Miss Sarah Logan Rogers, 
who has extended the work thru the fifth and sixth grades. The industrial work 
has been in the primary grades for four years, and manual training has been 
a feature of the high school in Louisville for a much longer time. 

JUL 

The manual training department of the El Paso, Texas, public schools opened 
its third year of work with twelve instructors in addition to the supervisor, 
Edwin A. Ross. The new teachers this year are D. W. Nicolen from Bradley 



CURRENT ITEMS. 203 

Polytechnic Institute, R. H. Woods from Stout Institute, Miss Helen Newell 
from the Texas College of Industrial Arts for Girls, Mrs. Margaret Murphy 
from the University of New York, and Miss Marcia Potter from Stout Institute. 
D. C, Cole has been placed in charge of all the woodworking and Miss Eliza- 
beth Koger has been made supervisor of domestic economy. 

The equipment now consists of eight woodworking shops with modern benches 
and tools, one mechanical drawing equipment for high school work, one applied 
design equipment for textiles and work in clay, metal and leather, and 
equipments for primary manual training work in clay, paper, etc., four labora- 
tories for teaching domestic science, and twelve for teaching domestic art. In 
the Mexican schools all girls who are large enough receive instruction in sewing, 
cooking and laundry work, and all the boys instruction in woodworking. 

WESTERN STATES. 

The phenomenal results attained thru irrigation in Southern Idaho are given 
as the cause of a new movement toward the teaching of agriculture in the 
schools. A department of agriculture, also a department of domestic science, 
have been established this year in the Albion State Normal School. Last year a 
department of mechanic arts was opened. Each of these departments is ex- 
pected to find expression in the work of a model farm. This will mean the 
building of a house and barn, fences, agricultural implements and tools, the 
decoration and furnishing of the house, planning equipments for barns, sheds, 
silos, etc. Thus will be provided good problems for the department of mechanic 
arts, and to some extent for the department of domestic science. J. L. Stenquist, 
who is in charge of the department of mechanic arts is expecting to do most 
of this work with classes below high school grade. 

Remarkable progress is being made in the development of manual training 
high schools in southern California. The new $80,000 addition to the Los Angeles 
Polytechnic school is being occupied for the first time this fall. This school 
was the outgrowth of the commercial department of the Los Angeles High School, 
and until this year has been under the direction of J. H. Francis, now super- 
intendent of schools in Los Angeles. The Hollywood High School, now a part 
of the Los Angeles school system has asked for a $25,000 addition for shops 
and their equipment. The new manual arts high school of Los Angeles opened 
its doors for the first time on September 12th. The enrollment is over 800. 
Preliminary steps have been taken for the erection of a new $250,000 polytechnic 
high school at Santa Monica. A course in agriculture will be a feature of this 
new school. The city of Long Beach has voted $250,000 for a new polytechnic 
high school. Specifications have been accepted and the school board is adver- 
tising for bids on construction work. The polytechnic department of the Pomona 
High School is comfortably located in a new building adjacent to the old school 
building. They have installed a foundry in addition to benchwork in wood. 
Riverside has voted $240,000 for a boys' polytechnic high school to be opened 
at the beginning of the next school year. The old high school is to be used 
for girls only. Few cities of the size of Riverside are able to maintain two 
distinct high schools. 



204 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

In 1909 the University of California added to its list of subjects for entrance 
credit the following courses: Industrial arts, mechanical arts, applied arts, 
sewing, and domestic science. This action on the part of the University has 
had a stimulating effect, the high school people being more than anxious to 
meet the wishes of their constituents in the matter of introducing industrial sub- 
jects. The greatest difficulty in meeting the present situation is the inadequate 
supply of teachers in mechanical and domestic arts. The state legislature at its 
last session established a normal school of manual arts and home economics at 
Santa Barbara, but there is room for further provision for the training of 
teachers to meet the present demand. 

The Miranda Lux Bequest amounting to nearly half a million dollars is now 
available. The trustees of that fund have arranged to cooperate with the 
California School of Mechanical Arts, and will soon begin by offering instruction 
in sewing, cooking and textiles for prospective teachers. Full-fledged normal 
courses in domestic science will not be organized, but the school will cooperate 
with the University of California which has just organized a series of courses 
in domestic economy, and also with the San Francisco State Normal school. 
These new courses at the California School of Mechanical Arts will be put into 
operation in January, 1911. 

At the same time this school will begin evening instruction for apprentices and 
young journeymen who are engaged at their several trades in the day time. 
These evening classes will be mostly shopwork, the idea being to endeavor to 
solve the problem of overcoming the defects of the American apprenticeship 
system or rather the decadence of that system. 

This work also will be carried on under the Miranda Lux Bequest. This 
bequest was made in 1894, but the funds have not become available until now, 
the property having been tied up in the form of extensive land holdings which 
could not be readily turned into income-producing securities. In its terms the 
bequest is unusually liberal, stating its purpose to be "the promotion of schools 
for manual training, industrial training, and for teaching trades to young people 
of both sexes in the state of California and particularly in the city and county of 
San Francisco." 

At the last meeting of the California State Teachers Association a commission 
was appointed to investigate the needs of industrial education in the state and 
to report at the next meeting of the association in December, 1910. The chair- 
man of the commission, Harris Weinstock, a retired merchant, is one of 
the most prominent men in California, devoting most of his time to civic and 
philanthropic work. This commission has prepared a bill for presentation at 
the next session of the state legislature, subsidizing the teaching of the industrial 
and agricultural arts in the various communities thruout the state. This bill is 
somewhat similar to the Massachusetts law except that it does not provide for 
separate industrial schools, leaving much to the discretion of the local author- 
ities. 



REVIEWS 

Our esteemed fellow craftsman in England, H. Williams Smith, editor of 
Manual Training, has written such an appreciative and spicy review of the 1910 
report of the Western Drawing and Manual Training Association that we wish 
it were possible to reprint it here in full. It begins thus: 

"My house has a flight of steps to it, as befits the dignity of an editorial 
residence. The money I earn writing reviews just about covers the cost of 
whitening the steps. I do not think the postman likes my steps as much as I do. 
One evening he stamped up them as if he was trying to break them down. I 
wondered at his display of temper, until he handed in a package which fully 
accounted for his actions. That package contained a report weighing something 
less than a stone, and that report contains matter which to read takes something 
less than a month — but not much less in either case. I've handled all the report, 
and read all the matter, so you can place faith in my statements so far. Now 
if you'll just fill your pipe and sit down in that easy chair, I'll tell you something 
about what our confreres in the Western States are saying and doing. Please 
don't look so bored over it; it's all very interesting, and I'll be merciful in the 
length of my comments." 

But he isn't. He goes on and on like a newspaper reporter, tho he is not writing 
merely to fill space. His praise is encouraging, his criticisms frank. After com- 
menting on the address of Henry Turner Bailey and demonstrating that he has 
caught the personality as well as the thought of Miss Gearhart, thru her report, 
he proceeds as follows: 

"Prof. W. Sargent emphasizes one bye-issue of manual training thus: — 
'Thru constructive work a child not only gains useful knowledge of such con- 
structive processes as every householder should know, but is brought to understand 
and interpret things in terms of the human skill and effort required to produce 
them, rather than in the terms of prices at which they can be bought in the stores.' 
The foregoing is an excellent example of how a clear thinker dignifies his subject. 
I wish manual training were more often referred to than it is, in terms of 
sociology rather than technology. Prof. Sargent also questions whether repeated 
processes are non-educational, and says: 'There is need for more investigation 
on this point. . . . Doing certain things till the process becomes automatic some- 
times leads one to take the first step toward a higher freedom.' The greatest 
value of design as a factor in the art education of our common schools is put by 
Prof. Sargent axiomatically: 'For one who will produce a design a thousand 
must know how to select it.' As our Dr. Hayward contends, so much is made 
of expression in our schools that impression is undervalued." 

Mr. Smith agrees with Professor Selvidge, and with Mr. Upton's statements 
of the results of teaching drawing in the workshop. He gives emphasis to Mr. 
Upton's views by adding: 

"It is an educational crime to have scholars preparing drawings on the work- 
benches; for thereby they are misusing their time, and often also keeping other 

205 



206 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

eligible boys away from the benches altogether. Drawing should be done as 
nearlv adjacent to the handwork room as possible, but never in it." 

Mr. Smith pays a compliment to the women, claiming that the discussion on 
household arts is the best in the report. He even says that women "can talk, 
not only more, but more to the purpose than most of the men," and in these 
days an Englishman surely ought to know. He gives the "honours" to Miss Snow 
and then makes a thrust at our reformed spelling which he calls "deformed." 
But he graciously adds: 

"These little grumbles apart, the report is simply magnificent, and reflects the 
highest credit on the Editorial Board and its helpers. I have dealt with it at 
great length, for I believe that our readers, who are scattered in all parts of 
the globe, should have a faint idea of the splendid work that is being done in the 
Western States. 

"My last word is, 'Get the report for yourself.' It sells at fifty cents (mar- 
vellous value) on the other side, and an enquiry to Ira S. Griffith, Super- 
visor of manual training, Oak Park, 111., will, I am sure, meet with a courteous 
response." 

A Practical Course in Mechanical Drawing. By William F. Willard. Popular 
Mechanics Company, Chicago, 1910; pp. 134; price, 50 cents. 

In the introduction the author states the purpose and use of mechanical 
drawing, and then explains briefly the difference between perspective drawings, 
sketches and working drawings. The description of an equipment for mechan- 
ical drawing given in the second chapter shows the author to be an experienced 
draftsman, and the instructions for the use of material, tho brief, are valuable 
to any student. 

Chapter III contains a large number of geometrical problems which are very 
good in general, but largely abstract, and not nearly as interesting to a high 
school boy as concrete problems where the geometrical principles introduced 
are incidental. The statement of the method of drawing a line thru a given 
pcint parallel to a given line is certainly very faulty, as is also the key for 
finding the number of degrees in an angle of any polygon. In other cases the 
lettering on the drawing does not correspond to the directions for working. 
Other errors, possibly typographical, lead to confusion. The author's direction 
to construct involute teeth by laying off the involute from tangents to the pitch 
line, instead of the base line, does not correspond to his drawing and is wrong 
and misleading. The chapter on conventions used in drafting contains many 
good suggestions stated clearly and briefly. This is a chapter that can be read 
repeatedly with profit, as attention is called to essentials which should be 
learned as early as possible. 

A brief chapter on working drawings contains a number of drawings in 
isometric projection from which pupils can make detail drawings of important 
engine parts without having castings as models. 

The chapter on pattern work, shop drawings, and penetration contain standard 
problems in developments quite similar to those found in other texts. 

The book contains a large number of neat drawings carefully lettered. The 
considerable number of errors which are found in the book will greatly lessen 



REVIEWS. 207 

its usefulness as a text. Most teachers of mechanical drawing do not care 
to spend a great deal of time on geometrical problems which will usually be 
forgotten unless introduced as parts of the construction of some working draw- 
ing. A large number of geometrical problems required at the beginning of a 
course in mechanical drawing will interest the average boy about as much as a 
course in Russian joinery does in the shop. Most schools have dropped the old 
Russian system and now have complete useful articled, teaching the same prin- 
ciples taught by the joinery method. For the same reason courses in mechanical 
drawing in the near future will include fewer geometrical problems, and more 
practical working drawings containing the principles of geometry that are useful 
to a draftsman. The author may have had this in mind in naming the book, 
but partially forgot it in introducing so many geometrical problems before 
taking up any working drawings. A. C. Newell, 

Director Manual Training, Illinois State Normal University, 

Normal, 111. 

Modern Lettering, Artistic and Practical. By William Heyny. Published by 
William T. Comstock, New York, 1909; 7^x10 inches; 136 pages; 35 full-page 
plates; price, $2.00. 

The book outlines a course of study in lettering for artists, architects, sign 
writers and decorators. It treats of the construction of pen-and-ink designs for 
commercial uses, advertisements, letter-heads, business cards, memorials, reso- 
lutions, etc. It is divided into four parts as follows: (1) the drawing materials, 
(2) practice work, (3) the alphabets, practical and artistic — their history, 
description and proper use, and (4) the proper and artistic employment of 
lettering. 

The book is practical. Unlike many books on the subject, it is free from 
eccentric and over-decorated alphabets. The aim of the author is to give the 
proportions and construction of the best and fundamental types of letters. The 
plates are well executed and show the work of one thoroly experienced 
in the art of lettering. — L. L. simpson. 

Simple Jewelry. By R. L. B. Rathbone. D. Van Nostrand Company, New 
York, 1910; SJ^xS 1 /- in.; 280 pages; price, $2.00. 

This is a practical handbook dealing with methods of design and construction. 
It is quite elementary, yet it deals with some of the complex as well as the simple 
processes. However, it places emphasis on the simpler technical processes, and 
in doing so proceeds on the principle that "design and workmanship must act 
and react on each other." For the practical working out of this principle as 
well as for technical descriptions and the many illustrations, the author is to be 
commended. The book is written for the use of craftsmen, designers, students 
and teachers, and seems to meet a real need. 

RESERVED FOR LATER NOTICE. 

Making of a Trade School. By Mary Schenck Woolman, professor of domestic 
art, Teachers College, Columbia University, published by Whitcomb & Bar- 
rows, Boston, Mass. 

Principles of Educational Woodwork. By C. L. Binns and Rufus E. Marsden, 
published by E. P. Dutton & Company, New York. 



208 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Handwork as an Educational Medium. By P. B. Ballard, published by Swan, 
Sonnenshein & Company, London. 

Technicher Unterricht. By Ed. Grimm, teacher in manual training school 
at Bremen, published by Frankenstein & Wagner, Leipzig. 

Lehrgang fur de Hobelbankarbeit. Issued by the German society for the 
promotion of boys' handwork, with seventeen plates and fifty-eight illustrations, 
published by Frankenstein & Wagner, Leipzig. 

The Worker and the State. By Arthur D. Dean, chief of division of trade 
schools, New York State Education Department, with introduction by State 
Commissioner, Andrew J. Draper. Published by the Century Company, New 
York. 



Syllabus for Secondary Schools, iqio. Education Department Bulletin, Albany, 
New York. The last twelve pages of this book of 481 pages are devoted to 
manual training. It outlines a first-year high school course in joinery, giving 
exercises, models, and a list of equipment, with cost of tools ; also a second-year 
high school course in wood-turning, pattern-making, modeling, and casting, 
treating these subjects in a similar way. The syllabus also outlines four courses 
in mechanical drawing and one in architectural drawing. Under "conventions 
and rules of practice" are some details valuable to every teacher of drawing 
and calculated to set a higher standard for drawing in New York State. The 
volume also contains outlines for freehand drawing, home economics and 
domestic art. 

North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Proceedings 
of meeting held in Chicago in March, 1910. Contains president's address on 
"The Logic and Method of Industrial Education," by Dr. C. M. Woodward 
of St. Louis, Missouri ; also a paper on the "Cleveland Technical High School" 
by James F. Barker; one on the "Fitchburg Plan of Industrial Education" by 
W. B. Hunter; and discussions by several others interested in industrial educa- 
tion. 

Cleveland Public Schools. Annual report of the superintendent, W. H. Elson. 
As usual, Superintendent Elson's report discusses modern problems, and is 
attractively illustrated. Chapter four, on increasing opportunities for technical 
training will be especially interesting to our readers, tho the chapter on simpli- 
fying the elementary course of study and the one on measuring efficiency and 
progress may be just as helpful, even to the teacher of manual training. 

Manual Arts Number of the Oshkosh State Normal School Bulletin. Fifty- 
eight pages of text and three charts showing course of study; price, 20 cents. 
The feature of this bulletin that will attract special attention is the woodwork 
for the primary grades, most of which is construction work with lath and nails. 
The variety of problems worked out in this material, and the discussion of aims 
and methods are especially interesting to the supervisor of manual arts in 
primary grades. 




DR. JAMES PARTON HANEY 



VOLUME XII NUMBER 3 



Manual training Magazine 



FEBRUARY, 1911 



THE RELATION BETWEEN AND THE CONTENT IN 

MANUAL TRAINING AND ENGINEERING 

SHOP COURSES. 

Fred Duane Crawshaw. 

WITH the introduction of the engineering college came the 
question of the relation between the work to be done in the 
shops and the work to be done in the laboratories, drafting 
rooms, and recitation rooms for each of the courses of study. The 
question has been answered in very different ways in individual colleges, 
depending upon the particular thing for which the college has stood. In 
general the colleges of engineering of today in the United States may be 
divided into three classes, depending upon the character of their shop- 
work, viz. : 

a. Those in which the shopwork has a distinct trade quality because 
the shop courses are designed primarily to make good mechanics. 

b. Those in which the shopwork is incidental to lecture and quiz 
work designed to acquaint the individual student with manufacturing 
methods in shop management, economy, and production. 

c. Those in which the shopwork goes hand in hand with engineering 
laboratory work to keep constantly before the student the value of 
shopwork as a help in forming an engineering judgment and solving 
engineering problems. 

It is probably true that no engineering college can actually be put 
into any one of these three classes. The fact that some of the shop- 
work done in it would also be included in the shop course of the colleges 
of one of the other classes, makes a definite classification impossible. 
However, a careful study of our American engineering colleges will 
convince one that the particular tendency of the shop course is in one 

209 



210 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

of the three directions indicated. Now the significance of the char- 
acter of the shopwork lies in the fact that colleges in each of these 
three classes claim to be engineering colleges. It is fair, therefore, 
to ask the question, whether or not the shopwork done in each class 
is strictly speaking a legitimate part of an engineering education. This 
question leads one to ask another: What is engineering? or, What 
constitutes engineering education ? 

THREE KINDS OF ENGINEERING COLLEGE. 

In answer to the first question, it is my purpose to analyze briefly 
the work done in colleges of each of the three classes. 

A college in class a, if well equipped, will have a variety of machines 
limited only by the financial means and the floor space at the disposal 
of the college ; also by the number of trades for which the college 
finds it convenient and profitable to prepare students. It will be 
noticed, too, upon investigation, that where there are a number of 
machines of one kind there will be installed only one or two of any 
one manufacturer. In studying the course of study in our class a 
college, we will invariably find that it is designed to emphasize the 
range of possibility in the use of machines. Very little time will be 
devoted to lectures or demonstrations except those which have to do 
with machine processes. For a considerable period of time in the course 
the work done in each shop will be exercise work, or the making of 
pieces, which holds the students' attention upon the method of pro- 
ducing certain results with a particular machine. 

Doubtless such a course in a shop equipped as described is valuable 
for any one who is to work as a mechanic ; but it is a question whether 
it will be of the greatest possible service to the man who is to do 
engineering work. The engineer needs to know which machines, de- 
signed to do a particular kind of work, will produce results of a certain 
grade in the shortest time and with the least expense for operation and 
maintenance. He needs to know how to get results rather than to be 
able to get the results with his own hands. He must know the relation 
one machine has to another in certain factory processes and why each 
machine is made to do certain things, rather than to know how to do 
them in great detail himself. He must study the mechanical prin- 
ciples involved in the operation of a machine he uses in order that he 
may be inspired to improve this machine, rather than to learn how 
to manipulate a machine to produce a given result. This manipulation 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SHOP COURSES. 211 

any good shop mechanic may master. As an engineer he will not be called 
upon to run a machine. Hence such a course as the college in class a 
gives tends toward the education of mechanics and tradesmen rather 
than engineers, and should be given in the industrial or trade school, 
not in the enginering college. 

The college in class b will equip its shops with quite as large a 
variety of machines as the one in class a. It may even instal a larger 
variety to illustrate special processes in manufacture. It probably will 
not have many machines of one class, and these probably will not come 
from many different manufactories. The course of study will not call 
for a large amount of exercise work, but will emphasize exercises in 
the making of machine parts which will be used in the assembling of 
the parts of a finished machine. An inspection of the course of study 
will reveal an emphasis laid on manufacturing because considerable time 
will be allowed for lectures, demonstrations, and quizzes. It will be 
found, too, that these do not bear particularly upon the running of 
machines, but rather upon their use in manufacturing processes. They 
will include the management of shops, the economics of production, the 
relation of the shop to the drafting room and sales department, and 
the careful consideration of stock — the raw material as related to the 
finished product. 

The course will provide for a sufficient amount of bench and machine 
operation to train the student to do many fundamental things well ; 
but thruout the course it will be noticed that the purpose of all the 
shopwork is to make producers or makers of machines rather than users 
of machines. In other words, to make manufacturers or superintendents 
and foremen rather than mechanics and tradesmen. 

Now the manufacturer is one type of engineer. In fact the manu- 
facturer may be an engineer in the truest sense, for he may be conducting 
a manufacturing establishment in connection with his work as an engi- 
neer to produce material for engineering projects. However, the 
course of study for the college in class b does not emphasize engineering 
as such. The machines are used entirely as producers of some salable 
product rather than efficiency instruments in production. The student 
is urged to consider the money value of machine production rather than 
the value machine production will have in his work as an engineer to 
aid humanity. He learns to value his service in its relation to a cor- 
poration or company rather than to the community at large. In the 
shop course for colleges in class b the student is led toward engineering, 
if at all, because he sees the possibility of his becoming a producer of 



212 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

engineering materials. He is not led necessarily toward engineering 
because his shopwork prepares him to use engineering materials in 
harnessing nature's forces or overcoming nature's insufficient means of 
gratifying man's wants. 

The shops, then, in the engineering college should not only teach a 
man how to make things by operating machines and how to use men and 
machines in the production of new machines, but they should inspire men 
to overcome natural obstacles to human progress by using the knowl- 
edge obtained in the shop. By this means the shops in an engineering 
college are made a means to an engineering end ; they help to make 
engineers, not mechanics, because they are laboratories in the scientific 
sense as well as the mechanical sense. Such shops will be found in the 
colleges in class c. 

In this third class of shops will be found the same machines as in 
the shops in class a and class b, but there will be also many devices which 
are ordinarily seen in testing laboratories. There will be such pieces 
of testing apparatus as the following: Prony brakes, speed and pres- 
sure indicators, volt and ammeters, steam engine indicators, torsion and 
bending testing devices, etc. It will be discovered that the things which 
are being made are in many cases made as the result of some experimental 
calculations in the classroom or laboratories. Students will make ma- 
chine parts similar to those made in colleges in class b, but they are made 
to definite sizes and to fit certain conditions because the student has 
previously determined by calculation and experiment what these sizes 
and conditions should be. Then, too, machines will be run under dif- 
ferent conditions of power and load, and in different combinations, 
not to determine alone the economy of production of the thing being 
made, but to determine also the engineering principles involved and 
to develop in the student the power to judge results in a way that the 
engineer is called upon to judge results. 

Again, the shop lecture and quiz will have a different character at 
times from those in courses under class b. They will not consider alone 
ways and means of machine manipulation and machine production, but 
they will deal with the "if", the "why", and the "when" of different 
problems. These terms will be used in connection with results or 
ends sought rather than with means. They will be negative rather 
than positive in character. The student will be given questions to 
solve, together with instructions to do. Knowing certain facts and 
wanting certain results, he will make simple investigations and perform 
certain experiments before he carries out his directions checked by the 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SHOP COURSES. 213 

instructor rather than given him by the instructor. In a word, he will 
learn to get results by using the methods of the investigator and the 
engineer. 

The result to the individual student of shop courses in colleges in 
class c will be one of two things, viz. — to eliminate from the engineering 
colleges those students who will never make engineers because of their 
lack of natural fitness and ability, and who might better occupy their 
time in other preparation ; or, to train those students, who are endowed 
with, or can acquire, an engineering sense and judgment, to be engineers 
in college as well as out of college. The shop courses in colleges in class 
a and class b are based upon an antiquated and almost obsolete principle 
in education (so far as the engineering student is concerned), viz., the 
school prepares for life. The principle in education today which has 
superseded the one just mentioned is, the school is life. The shop course 
in an engineering college should be engineering life to the one who takes 
it. The engineering student should be doing engineering work as well 
as shopwork in the college shop. The course in class c is designed for 
this purpose and it may and should do for a student much, if not all, 
that courses in classes a and h will do. 

MANUAL TRAINING SHOP COURSES. 

We have thus far treated in a general way the elements of charac- 
teristic engineering shop courses, and drawn certain conclusions with 
reference to each. Inasmuch as this thesis deals with the relation between 
manual training and engineering shop courses, certain facts concerning 
manual training shop courses must be given attention and some con- 
clusions drawn with reference to these facts. 

Manual training is a term applied to handwork taught in schools 
which is designed to give instruction to students in the underlying 
principles of industrial and shop processes. It is considered a subject 
of cultural as well as of technical value because it is supposed to deal 
with the fundamentals of education while it is training him in certain 
technical processes and giving him a certain skill in the handling of tools. 

The mere fact that manual training is generally conceded to have 
a two-fold object, viz. : educational in the broad sense of this term, and 
instructional in the technical sense — has led to a great diversity of 
opinion concerning the nature of manual training courses. Some edu- 
cators contend that all manual training from the kindergarten thru 
the high school must be based upon psychological and pedagogical prin- 



214 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

ciples. This has been the means of forming different schools or classes 
of manual training teachers, such as the social-industrial school, the 
ethical-culture school and others ; each having certain laws which have been 
established by the psychologists and students of education. Another 
class of manual training teachers, generally those whose early training 
was in the enginering schools or in the industries, holds that manual 
training, especially in the high school, must be preparatory to engineering 
and industrial activities. Consequently, it must deal jointly with tech- 
nical and industrial processes and therefore develop skill. 

While it is true that manual training first got its basic principles 
from such great educators as Frobel and Pestalozzi, who studied the 
education of very young children, it is also true that in this country 
manual training was developed by men who were primarily interested 
in manufacture and the education of mechanical specialists. In conse- 
quence of this last fact, in the United States it was started in the upper 
high school grades with boys and girls just entering into manhood and 
womanhood. From this point it worked down thru the grades to the 
kindergarten. 

It is true that in late years considerable attention has been given to 
manual training in the lower grades by American teachers, but for the 
purpose of this thesis upper grade or high school manual training only 
need be considered. 

Manual training started in the United States in such educational 
centers as the old Mechanic Arts High School in St. Louis, the Manual 
Training High School in Chicago, and the Mechanical Department of 
Purdue University. It was given a great impetus in these centers because 
it was advocated that boys and girls — and in the early years boys were 
considered principally — should be taught to use their hands so that 
when they left the high school, they would be prepared for a life of 
industrial activity as mechanics and as foremen and superintendents in 
manufacturing plants. A definite bread and butter value, therefore, was 
given to the work of these schools, with the result that elaborate equip- 
ments were installed for training in several branches of mechanical work. 
The wood-shop, forge-shop, foundry and machine-shop very early became 
the places for manual training courses. 

Now this shop organization in the manual training school soon became 
the beginning of one of two things : first, a training — more or less 
inadequate, to be sure — for the trades; or, second, a training in the 
direction of engineering education. This latter development came when, 
as students pursued their work in the manual training shops and as 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SHOP COURSES. 215 

engineering work in this country assumed the dignity of a profession, 
there dawned upon the school authorities the possibility of manual 
training as a preliminary step toward engineering. 

MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS OF THREE TYPES. 

Today, then, we have three distinct types of manual training schools 
in America : 

a. The manual training school which bases its course upon educa- 
tional theory as developed in schools of education in such departments 
as those of psychology and child study. These schools produce teachers 
and philosophers rather than mechanics and engineers. 

b. The manual training school which is located in a commercial 
or industrial center and is governed by a body made up largely of men 
from the industrial world. Schools of this type have for many years 
turned out men, a large percentage of whom have gone into manufac- 
turing establishments, but who have been found rather poorly prepared 
either as mechanics or men who become efficient foremen and superin- 
tendents. 

c. The manual training school which has the same relation to the 
engineering college as the academy has to the college of liberal arts. 
These schools have given to their graduates a desire to do, some day, a high 
grade of investigational or experimental work in applied science, and so 
they have found a place in colleges of science and colleges of engineering. 

In order that the relation between these schools and the three types 
of engineering schools considered in the first part of this thesis may be 
shown, the following brief outline of manual training shop courses is 
given : — 

In manual training shop courses in schools under heading a, one finds 
work being done which has a distinct theoretical basis. The course of 
study is based upon an outline which in many cases has been furnished 
by the school's department of education. Particular attention, therefore, 
is paid to the working out of educational theory in the development of 
motor activities. The subject of interest is often given first consideration, 
and in not a few cases a misconception of this much abused word is the 
result. Pupils are allowed to start large projects without much, if any, 
preparation in tool manipulation. Furthermore, the object of this 
kind of work is neither technical skill nor the completion of objects 
which have a distinct utilitarian, industrial, or shop value. Rather, 
the object seems to be the gratification of childish whims. In such courses 



216 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

students are liable to rind that they have overestimated their ability. 
Before their undertaking has assumed any definite proportions they 
are discouraged and the project is abandoned. The value of constancy 
of purpose, which always results in the building of character when a 
problem is continued to its completion, is lost, as is also the prime motive 
of such a course, viz. : the working out of the child's own ideas. In fact 
nothing seems to have been gained in such a process. It is a question 
if the student has not actually lost, because his lack of success has developed 
in him just the reverse of those sterling qualities which count for success 
in men's achievements. 

The shops in such schools are not pervaded with the spirit of investi- 
gation, neither are they commercial in the sense that the spirit of industri- 
alism pervades them. They are neither laboratories nor shops in the 
best sense. It is possible that the training received in them leads toward 
pedagogical research, but it certainly does not lead toward commercial 
or engineering activities. 

Shop courses in manual training schools of type b are the ones having 
most prominence at the present day, principally because they are the 
oldest. They started as a result of a feeling on the part of some educators 
and many businesss men that the ordinary high school course does not 
give a boy a training which will enable him to make a living. Courses 
in these schools are not designed nor are they constructed to teach trades ; 
they are planned to teach the fundamentals of trades and to develop 
more of the human faculties than the course in the ordinary literary 
or classical high school develop. As a rule they have accomplished their 
purpose. They do not, however, unless the school has truly become a 
trade school, make bread winners. The result of this deficiency has 
led to the present wave of industrialism in education, which is forming 
public opinion in favor of the trade and industrial school. 

Shop courses in these schools are based upon established educational 
theory and upon fundamental trade principles. They have won, there- 
fore, the commendation of educators and manufacturers. The me- 
chanical processes that are taught generally develop in the student clear 
thinking and a fair degree of technical skill. They usually open the eyes 
of the student to this extent : he is able on the completion of his high 
school course to determine whether or not he is adapted for mechanical 
pursuits. As a result of this decision, the graduates from these courses 
make few serious mistakes in choosing their careers. They at least serve 
as a coarse screen to separate boys of mechanical bent from all others. As 
a ride, these boys, who find themselves in the preparatory class for engi- 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SHOP COURSES. 



217 



neering, either pursue their studies in an engineering college or at once 
enter upon some mechanical or industrial pursuit. 

While it is true that some of the students from type b schools enter 
engineering colleges, it is quite as true that they do so in spite of these 
schools rather than because they got preparation for the engineering 
colleges in these schools. Since the engineering college has come into 
prominence, the manual training schools have naturally considered them- 
selves feeders for the enginering college. As a result, some of the manual 
training school shop courses, as well as other courses in these schools, 
have been changed to prepare boys definitely for engineering work. It 
is not uncommon for a boy to say on entering a manual training high 

school, "I wish to prepare for " (giving the name of an engineering 

college). If the school has met the demand of such students, it has 
modified its shop courses, so that for this particular class of students 
an engineering tone is given to their shopwork. Some schools have even 
gone so far as to separate into different shop classes those who propose 
entering engineering colleges and those who intend to leave school with 
the completion of their high school work. 

{To be concluded.) 




MADE BY STUDENTS IN THROOP ACADAMY, PASADENA, CALIFORNIA. 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF xMANUAL TRAINING. 

I. 

James Parton Haney. 

THERE lies before me a dusty and dog-eared Manual of Shop 
Work with a date of the middle nineties. Alongside of it is a 
photograph taken a few months since. The manual shows a num- 
ber of rigid models of the "exercise" type, the photograph is a room fitted 
as a library and furnished forth with easy chairs, desks, tables, and many 
books and pictures. There would seem to be very little connection 
between the "practice exercises" and the room; and, indeed, the relation- 
ship is, in genealogical phrase, a bit removed. Nevertheless it exists, and 
the big chairs are the lineal descendants of their stiff progenitors. 

To me book and picture tell a story, pithy as the tale of the para- 
grapher of the daily press. The Manual represents my first attempt at 
a work-plan as a supervisor of shops, the photograph an exhibition held 
some thirteen years later, just before those same shops — increased mean- 
while many fold — were turned over to my successor in the elementary 
schools. Book and picture represent only two brief pages in the lengthy 
chapter which might be written on the growth of our American practice 
in the Arts. They fall neither at the beginning nor at the end of the 
tale, but are what microscopists call cross-sections — bits taken out of 
the account — serving only to show where the manual subjects stood at 
two separate moments of the educational history of a city among the 
first to include the arts in its curriculum. Of all that makes the shadowy 
rilling of the story, the witnesses are mute save to the writer. To him, 
tho, they speak plainly, and as he studies them, their story lengthens out 
into one that holds something of the history of the rise of workshops 
and drawing rooms, more of their development in a great system of 
schools, but most of the growth of that which came in time to represent 
a working philosophy. 



218 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 



219 




220 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

A working philosophy is, for the schoolman, as essential as a working 
library. But it is not so easy to procure. The books may be bought 
ready made, but the creed of the worker must be a matter partly of 
growth, of experiment, of study and effort to make at least some elements 
of an education ideal take shape as classroom realities. To explain 
this philosopy and something of the things which shaped it is the pur- 
pose of this review. One way to do so would be to describe just what 
the furnished room of the shop exhibition meant in all its relations and 
its implications. But while the room does in a way epitomize the ideas 
which brought it into being, like most epitomies, it demands so much 
in the way of involved explanation, that it will be better to approach 
the subject directly and lead up to the photograph, instead of working 
backward from it along a road marked by the hopes, the fears, the little 
triumphs and the instructive failures of the past twenty-one years. 

Manual training is a term I first remember to have heard when as a . 
lad from the grammar school I became a member of the preparatory class 
of the College of the City of New York. Alfred Compton, beloved of a 
thousand graduates, was then Professor of Applied Mathematics and 
the active agent in causing the College to add wood and metalworking 
shops to its equipment. It was, by the way, this same little professor, 
the "competent Compton" of his admiring boys, whom I later heard 
answer an aspiring collegian, who wanted a rule to insure successful post- 
graduate existence. The reply he received was terse — "Do a thousand 
dollars' worth of work for five hundred dollars." I've since seen this 
work well in more cases than one. 

By manual training I came to understand that Professor Compton 
meant work in the newly built shops. Entrance was denied our prepar- 
atory class, but with my mates I was permitted to flatten my nose against 
the windows of the forbidden building, and listen with eager ears to the 
squeal of the lathes and to my first industrial anthem — the Anvil Chorus. 
Even had I been older I might, without reproach, have been ignorant of 
the meaning of "Manual Training." Thus early in the eighties the prop- 
aganda of the arts had yet to spread, and one might still count the public 
manual schools of the country upon the fingers of one hand. Not a decade 
had elapsed since the Centennial Exhibition. The Washington University 
of St. Louis, under the stimulus of Professor C. M. Woodward, had but 
recently established its School of Manual Training, and the Commercial 
Club of Chicago was still debating the founding of the institution later 
to be known as the Chicago Manual Training School. 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 221 

DEMAND FOR THE PRACTICAL IN EDUCATION. 

The educational work of the country was at this time experiencing 
a strong forward movement marked by an insistent demand for more 
practical forms of schooling. The lessons of the Centennial had fallen 
on fertile ground and Dr. Runkle of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology had not only adopted for his own institution the suggestion 
of the Imperial Technical School of Moscow, but was appealing vigor- 
ously, in addresses and reports, to the people of Massachusetts on the 
advantages of the systems of technical training which had been devel- 
oped in Russian and other foreign schools. But the ultimate cause 
of interest in the arts lay much deeper than the great fair at Philadel- 
phia. It was rooted in the economic change thru which the country 
itself was passing. The schools had not as yet outgrown the traditions 
and the commercial standards erected by a previous generation, but 
the country, now well over the horrors of the Civil War, was experi- 
encing a huge industrial development. Naturally it made plain its 
need of skilled workmen by pleading for more practical school training. 
There were, of course, many schoolmen to resist this "basely utilitarian" 
trend of education, but a constantly growing element was abroad seek- 
ing for forms of motor work which it was hoped would help boys and 
girls — most of whom would later have to earn a living with their hands 
— toward, instead of away from, an industrial life. 

Not unnaturally the movement gathered force fastest in the larger 
industrial centers. It was in these that that economic pressure made 
itself most distinctly felt. The eastern manufacturing cities were first 
to respond, and in 1886 Boston introduced shopwork into her schools, 
at the very time that a committee of New York City Board of Education 
was debating the same question. This committee was for extensive 
reform. It collected data, published a lengthy report and contemplated 
revolutionary changes which would have put shops and kitchens in all 
the schools of the city. Its recommendations, however, were later 
trimmed to meet the active opposition of many school people who had 
a lurking suspicion that there was soon to be no more reading, writing, 
and arithmetic, but instead an orgy of industrialism with the translation 
of the school system into a training ground for cooks, carpenters, and 
seamstresses. 

It was decided, therefore, to introduce the new studies into half a 
dozen schools for boys, and the same number for girls, and as success 
won advocates to let the work grow in response to the demands of 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

those who wished to be included among the favored ones enjoying the 
blessings of this new remedy for scholastic and industrial ills, — this 
very promising pedagogical panacea. My class-mates and myself, hav- 
ing in the meantime served our apprenticeship in the college shops, 
emerged at this psychological moment prepared to grasp Opportunity 




FIG. 2. RECENT SHOP PROJECTS. 

by mane and fore-lock, to mount and lead the way to that Promised 
Land seen — tho somewhat hazily — by every advocate of the training of 
that which alliteration's artful aid had entitled "Head, Heart and Hand." 

CHARACTER OF THE EARLY WORK. 

It must be confessed, however, that our ideas of the road to this 
educational Elysium, were conditioned rather strictly by the course 
we had ourselves pursued. This had followed in a general way the 
so-called Russian system, to which Dr. Runkle had called attention at 
the Centennial, and which had been adopted by the mechanical schools 
developed by his propaganda. This system was one which laid its chief 
emphasis on the practice exercise. The joint was its symbol. It was 
designed for the training of the young engineer, and looked to see the 
latter made quickly familiar with a variety of processes. Initiative and 
invention played of course no part in its development. It was planned 
for a certain end, but this was not the interesting and training of school 
boys of from ten to fourteen years of age. The schooling of these formed 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 223 

a very different problem, as we came in time to see. But the merits of 
"the exercise" were pretty deeply impressed into our mental make-up 
and in the classroom I found myself destined to go a long way before 
I saw my own small pupils in the light of teachers, and went to school 
with them anew to learn how the arts should be taught if they are 
to capture the interest of the child and lead him to discover something 
of himself and his capacity to invent and create things. 

The manual training course of study introduced in New York in 1888 
placed chief emphasis upon the handwork of the upper grades. Cooking 
was offered to girls and shopwork to boys, while geometrical problems and 
clay-modeling appeared in the schedule for the intermediate years. Sew- 
ing and a little cardboard construction completed the outline. The 
cooking has since blossomed into Domestic Science, and the sewing into 
Domestic Art (or it is the other way round), but the shops have re- 
mained — at least to their youthful attendants — carpenter shops ; and 
doubtless the present shopman is followed down the street, as I remember 
myself to have been, by the whisper "there he goes — the carpenter 
teacher." 

Drawing was also a part of the manual course of study, but this was 
by no means new. The Centennial had served to give a strong impetus 
to the shop movement, and with its exhibition of the work of the 
recently created Normal Art School of Massachusetts, had helped in 
fostering the growth of industrial art. But even before the Exposition 
buildings rose in Fairmount Park, New York City had introduced draw- 
ing into its school curriculum. This was in response to a state law 
which reflected the interest which five years before had caused Massa- 
chusetts to make the subject obligatory thruout her schools. 

The drawing required was called "industrial," but gained little from 
the name. It was largely from books, and little, very little, from 
models. A few special teachers taught the highest classes in certain 
favored schools, but in most classrooms the subject fared as best it might, 
accepted by the majority as an unavoidable evil and developed in me- 
chanical fashion with endless dots and guide lines. Thus there were 
made a good many copies of "historic" — my associates used to call them 
"hysteric" — ornaments, and not a few designs of stiff leaves growing 
from what appeared to be a convoluted bit of gaspipe. Of course none 
of the latter were actually applied, tho all were given what may be 
termed courtesy titles: "for wall paper," or "for carpet or oilcloth." 
By any name they would have been as tame and uninspiring to those 
that made them. 



224 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



From 1888 to 1896 the manual training work extended slowly. There 
was not, it must be confessed, any very avid desire on the part of the 
school people to share in the blessings of the chosen few, but now and 
then a new building was equipped with shops and kitchens, or some 
principal was converted and led to make over some of his classrooms 




FIG. 3. RECENT PROBLEMS IN APPLIED DESIGN — PILLOWS AND 
LAUNDRY BAGS. 



into workrooms filled with benches or with ranges and stone-topped 
tables. These additions increased the original twelve schools until by 
1896 some thirty were following the manual training course of study — 
ten of these having workshops. Not a very vigorous growth for eight 
years, but it must be remembered that there was little supervision and 
fostering of the special work save of rather a formal kind by officers 
not prepared to direct its technical phases. At the same time the course 
of study, with some rather manifest shortcomings remained unchanged. 
Propagandists there were, of course, but they found their missionary 
work slow from the very weight of numbers in the grades. No teacher 
with a class of fifty pupils longs for exercises with many tools and much 
manipulation of material. 



TH r ENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 



225 



Meanwhile the development of the arts in other school systems had 
been marked. In 1890 thirty-seven cities reported some form of manual 
training included in their curricula, while four years later this had 
increased to ninety-five. Another six years was to see this number almost 
doubled. Many of these systems had found the practical models offered 








SCRAP book 




FIG. 4. PORTFOLIOS FROM SEVENTH-YEAR PUPILS. 



by the Swedish sloyd more appealing than the joints and tool drills 
of the Russian system, so that Naas and its famous teacher had many 
disciples to urge the sloyder's practice as especially suitable for the 
grammar schools. The leaven of the arts was working and the manual 
work as a whole making its way downward as a conviction of the value 
of motor training spread thruout educational circles. Teachers were 
coming to see that it was not the shopwork as such that made the hand- 
work valuable, but the opportunity for the child to busy himself con- 
structively as an agent in his own education. Some time was to elapse, 
however, before the train was to be completed from the high school, 
and the work of the primary classes made to join neatly with that of the 
kindergarten. 



226 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



In 1896 the authorities in New York decided to appoint directors for 
all of the special subjects — and to me was offered the position of super- 
visor of manual training. The field to which I was assigned included 
at first only the thirty schools to which reference has been made, but 
a School Board enthusiastic on the subject of the arts soon came in, 



*HBgg8S&SS 1 













MM 

mm 
Mm 




BOOKBINDING AND CASE MAKING AND APPLIED DESIGN BY 
GRAMMAR SCHOOL GIRLS. 



and widened this field extensively. I had already made a plea that 
drawing and design be included in the manual branches. To this the 
Commissioners agreed, but went further, deciding to revise the curriculum 
and to do away with the distinction between manual and non-manual 
schools by requiring some form of handwork thruout all classes and the 
introduction of shopwork and cooking in the higher grades of every 
school. 

The knowledge of how much latent antagonism this would immedi- 
ately stir into active opposition, gave me pause in the contemplation of 
so extensive a program. Not a few scores or even a few hundreds were 
to be affected by this change, but over 5,000 classrooms were to see 
familiar forms of work done away with, and new and dreaded subjects 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 227 

that required time and skill to learn, injected in their place. Small 
wonder that the daily press soon bristled with letters from "Vox Populi," 
"Tax Payer," and "Anxious Parent." Especially did we hear from that 
faithful correspondent and evidently much-tried "Teacher" regarding 
this new vagary of a senseless School Board. But the senseless ones paid 



FIG. 6. DESIGNS FROM HIGHER GRAMMAR GRADES. 

small heed. So sharp became the opposition that even I became con- 
cerned for the future of my Infant Industry, — and made bold to mention 
the difficulties of this wholesale change. My only answer was a dry com- 
mentary that it certainly would be difficult for a man who couldn't com- 
pass it. I therefore said no more but determined to go ahead as long 
as my official head — which felt perilously loose at times — stayed on. 



228 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Twenty assistants were soon appointed to serve as special teachers 
in the different school districts and as these took their title from my own, 
they all became special teachers of manual training — a fact most con- 
fusing to visitors who associated all things manual with a workshop, 
and who insisted therefore that these young women must be shop teachers 
vn disguise. 

EVIDENT NEED OF GOOD FOUNDATION. 

It was, however, apparent to the director after a survey of his expanded 
field, that what he needed more than deputies was that good working 
philosophy already adverted to, — a practical creed that would put him 
in a way to attack the problem of making a course of study which should 
square with sound educational doctrine. This done, he could with a 
clear conscience set about converting to this course, the many teachers 
indifferent or hostile to so unlooked-for an extension of the fads and 
frills. "Below commerce," says Dr. Mabie, "below wealth and industry, 
there are a few formative ideas which determine in what spirit the world 
shall work and for what ends. In this vast activity there are two deter- 
minining factors — there are ideals and there is executive power." This 
indeed was the problem : to make plain the ideals of the arts in the 
elementary schools, and to settle upon some adequate scheme for their 
development and supervision. 

A good working library might have served as a foundation, but un- 
fortunately there was not very much in the way of literature to aid. 
Courses of study were to be had from half a hundred cities, but these 
were of minor service. G. Stanley Hall, Baldwin, Dewey, and Dopp, 
had yet to publish their clarifying suggestions on the function of the arts 
in elementary education, while the reviews at hand, Woodward, Runkle, 
Ham, Seidle, and a dozen more, all dealt with the question from the 
standpoint of the high school workshop rather than that of the boy who 
was to be trained from the kindergarten up. Two writers, tho, Gotze 
and Hughes, had seen the matter from other angles — the one from the 
schoolroom point of view, the other from that of the child. From the 
"Manual Training Made Serviceable in the School," of the first, and 
'"Frobel's Educational Laws" of the second, helpful hints were gained 
as to the manner of attacking the question. But one thing above all 
plainly appeared, and that was the necessity of making the analysis per- 
sonally and at first hand. This it was seen could only come thru constant 
teaching and ceaseless questioning of class instructors and their pupils. 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 



229 



The one feature which was distinctly novel in the situation was the 
union of the drawing with the manual or constructive work. To me this 
seemed the most natural of associations, but teachers of art and shopwork 
looked askance it. My plea was for a union under a new name. 
Manual training was misleading, for it apparently excluded drawing 




FIG. 7. FURNITURE PROBLEMS IN EIGHTH YEAR. 



— the first of all agents in the education of the hand. "Manual Arts" 
appeared as a more comprehensive term and one that permitted the 
including of all desirable subjects that psychologists dub "motor." For 
the "Manual Arts," therefore, I took my stand — one I may say paren- 
thetically, which later developments apparently justified. Both the 
term and the idea it embodies have since found wide acceptance. This 
idea, indeed, I made the first tenet in the creed-to-be. It conceived 
the different topics: drawing, both freehand and mechanical, construction 
of all kinds, color and design, not as separate subjects, each to be carried 
on apart from one another, but as "the Arts" — one subject — and as 
such to be developed. What was wanting in the work of the past was 
a unity of aim — a practical coordination. This was not to be effected 
by printed directions in a manual, telling teachers "to correlate." The 



230 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



direction is easy to give, the thing itself — actual cooperation of the 
different subjects, difficult, nay impossible, of development, unless the 
course conceives its different elements as means working to one common 
end. To secure practical coordination — an actual dovetailing of each 
topic with the others was then made a basic canon of the creed. 




FIG. 8. PART OF MANUAL ARTS EXHIBITION, 1909. 



WORK MUST BE BASED OX STUDY OF CHILD. 

A study of the kiln-dried exercises in the drawing rooms and shops 
made plain what should be another Article of Faith. These drawings 
and models were all the legitimate offspring of "technical-drill" and 
"disciplinary-value." They consistently enough offered practice for 
practice's sake. But so far as the product was concerned they were good 
for nothing from the child's point of view. One really couldn't use the 
designs for oil-cloths, or the many curious joints ; nor could one play 
with them with any satisfaction. They weren't even good for fun. 

In public statements all loyal manual-trainers and faithful devotees 
of drawing averred that their children loved to make things and to draw, 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 231 

but in private they confessed that they often had a deal of difficulty in 
holding their charges to their tasks. Nor was this to be wondered at. 
In the early kindergarten years — the symbolic stage — you may call a 
spade almost anything you will — a banner, a target, or a hobby-horse, 
so please you. But this period is a brief one — and even while they are 
in it the little folk like to have their imaginary possessions — horses, dolls, 
and trains of cars, hint at the real thing. Once out they demand much 
more reality. The wagon they make need not be life-size, but it must 
be a real wagon, one that will hold things. Use quickly becomes the 
key to interest. To make things in response to some need the child can 
understand, is to translate them from the realm of the useless. Real 
reasons then impel him to aid. A second principle appeared then as 
imperative — that the arts were to be related to other subjects of the 
curriculum, were to be made of service and concern themselves with the 
making of real things, needed things — useful in the school or home. 

Further consideration showed that Sully, Lukens, Barnes, Passy, Ricci, 
and a number of the physiological-psychologists had implications of 
much moment in their studies of children. Nowhere did the formal 
courses of the shop and drawing rooms appear less to advantage than 
when tried by those principles of modern education that deal with the 
developmental side of child nature. This is the field of all who treat 
psychology from its genetic side, of all who have come to see that the 
child in his actions and re-actions, his instincts and his interests, is a 
constantly changing being, and that in his changes he passes thru several 
very definite stages of development. The idea that education must be 
an organic process, dealing with a live and ever altering mind and body, 
related with peculiar significance to the arts. Here were subjects which 
used rightly could actually help the child to grow on both mental and 
motor sides. The older courses had looked to the work; the newer might 
better look to the worker. The one had been concerned in the making 
of models, the other might find it wiser to think of the making of boys. 
Plainly enough the new creed must preach the arts as developmental 
agents and take care that their practitioners understood both the stages 
of growth and the means whereby the different subjects could be fitly 
used to help the pupil thru each stage to the one next higher. 

Still another article was drawn from the suggestions of the practical 
psychologists. These pointed out in rather heavy phrase that "the mind 
of the individual does not function apart, but in relation to other minds." 
This is only another way of saying that a good many of our opinions are 
second-hand, coming from our gregarious habit of flocking together, 



232 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 233 

swapping experience and then thinking we've thought what we have 
really only borrowed. This social nature of man is one of much concern 
to modern pedagogy. We hear a deal of "the group," of "social action," 
and of the necessity resting upon each subject of the curriculum to show 
itself as one of "social content." Each must, in other words, make the 
pupil realize something of the place he holds in the world and of the 




FIG. 10. FURNITURE DESIGNED AND MADE FOR A PRINCIPAL'S OFFICE. 



part he must play with his fellows in helping to "remold it nearer to 
the heart's desire." The arts, to square with this injunction, must be 
made "socializing" as well as developmental ; that is, they must con- 
tinually deal with the life and with the typical processes about the child 
and must also show how joint action — community effort — helps to get 
the world's work more effectively done. 

Lastly — for only the more important principles may be touched — came 
the question of material. This was plainly net one to be settled by an 
obiter dictum. As the aim had already appeared, not in the technique 



234 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

to be learned, but in the changes to be wrought in the youthful technician, 
the means to this end might indeed be various. The "media" in other 
words were to be the result of experiment. Clay was to be used if satis- 
factory from a practical standpoint, wood, yarn, cardboard, iron-tape, 
also if they served some good and useful purpose. But each must be made 
to prove its own value and adaptability. The child was not to be made 
to square with the material, but the material with the child and with 
the ideas which were to shape his training. 

SUMMARY OF THE MANUAL ARTS CREED. 

Here then were certain quite fundamental notions as a basis for a work- 
ing philosophy. It is of course understood that they did not all appear 
at once complete and sharply defined. But very early in what was to be 
a campaign of education they shaped themselves with definiteness into a 
belief which put in a paragraph would practically have stated this: that 
the arts were to be considered as one subject, to be taught as means not as 
ends and primarily for their developmental and socializing power ; that 
they should deal directly with use and beauty, and be made by correlation 
with each other and with other subjects, an intimate part of the curri- 
culum ; that they should constantly seek original expression and aim to 
develop technical skill only in response to a realized need ; and that sev- 
erally and jointly they should aim to sink their identities as "specialties" 
and reappear as "essentials" so helpful thru their inherent interest and 
their illustrative power that they would be welcomed by every teacher 
who came to know their power. 

This summary considers the teaching, not the teacher. But as has 
been noted, ideals need organization and management to make possible 
even their partial realization. Some further consideration then was 
necessary to determine those other principles which govern the supervi- 
sory side of the work. Here again a few lines must suffice to set forth the 
result of considerable searching of the Spirit, combined with not a little 
practical experimentation in plans of organization. 

First of all it was plain that the necessary as well as the proper way 
of developing art was thru the class-teachers and not thru specialists. 
This meant that with the exception of the constructive work in wood — 
the shopwork — all other forms of training should be given by the grade 
instructors and not by teachers coming in once or twice a week. This 
implied that these class- teachers must themselves be trained in the tech- 
niques of the several branches. Cooperative corps work by the assistants 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 



235 



of the supervisor also meant systematic training of the latter in the prac- 
tice of supervision, while the determination to keep the course of study 
elastic looked to the devising of some plan for the continued revision and 
illustration of whatever grade outlines were issued. 

Dr. Ross, speaking from experience, says that every art teacher must 
be a showman. This is truly an axiom of supervision. To the out- 




FIG. 11. INDIVIDUAL SOLUTION'S OF A CLASS PROBLEM. 



sider the school exhibition may be thought to have the flavor of a luxury 
— a bit of personal exploitation, giving a chance to supervisor and super- 
vised to bask in the smiles of enraptured parents who "don't see how 
you do it." The practically minded supervisor, on the contrary, knows 
the exhibition as a necessity and one of the most potent of factors in 
raising standards of all kinds. For this reason it was determined to 
make the school exhibition an immediate means of placing before teach- 
ers the best work done by the best workers, and to use it as a force in 
educating pupils and parents to the value of the arts. Publicity, we 
are assured, is an essential in the world of business. The development 
contemplated had in it certain very business-like aspects, and it was 
determined that the arts should not fail thru lack of careful and con- 
tinuous presentation to their ultimate judge — the public at large. 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



So in brief stood the completed plan. But it is one thing to make 
such a scheme and quite another to use it. This many a supervisor has 
come — at times ruefully — to realize. It will be later the purpose to 
explain something of the practical working out of these ideals with 
reference to each of the arts. A line may be added also, as to how the 
teachers themselves fared in the process. 

(To be continued.) 




FIG. 12. A PIANO-COVER MADE AS A 
COMMUNAL PROJECT BY EIGHTH- 
YEAR ' GIRLS, NEW YORK CITY. 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
THE GRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS, V. 1 

Arthur F . Payne. 

WE PRESENT as the next problem of this series the electric 
lantern, the construction of which involves straight bending, 
riveting, and raising, the same as the candle-sticks shown in 
the last issue. 

The photographs show four distinct styles of supports and fastenings 
for the lantern ; some are made to hang from the ceiling, others from 
the side wall, one is a desk or piano light, another a table light. The 
construction of the lantern itself is the same in all cases, varying only 
in the size and design, and the material may be either copper or brass. 
The parts of the lantern are the handle, top, four corners, four top 
cross-pieces, four bottom cross-pieces and eight small pieces to hold the 
glass. The various parts are held together wholly by rivets, a method 
of construction which makes a strong, durable piece of work and adds 
greatly to the decorative effect. Soft solder should never be used on 
work of this kind as it will soon break away, making the work a constant 
source of annoyance instead of an object of utility and beauty. 

It is best to make the top of the lantern first; this is usually from five 
to seven inches square. Always cut the metal for the top Y?" larger than 
you wish the finished top to be. This extra J/2" is to allow for squaring 
and lapping the edge. When the metal is cut to the required size, draw 
a pencil-line parallel with the edges, where the top will start to be 
beaten or "raised" upward. The location of this pencil line is indicated 
by the arrows on the drawing No. 1. 

With the neck hammer beat down the metal over the edge of a block 
of wood held in the vise in exactly the same method as shown for the 
match-holder base in the drawing on page 171 in the December issue. 
The progressive steps for the "raising" of the lantern-top are shown 
in the drawing accompanying this article. No. 1 is the flat piece of 
metal cut J^" larger than the finished top. No. 2 is the way it should 
look after beating it over the edge of the block with the neck hammer. 

'Copyright, 1911, Arthur F. Payne. 

237 



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METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 



239 



It is probable that the edge will at this time bend slightly out of shape; 
if it does, place the top on a flat piece of wood and flatten the edge with 
the wooden mallet. To proceed to No. 3, draw pencil-lines from 
corner to corner on the inside of the bottom of No. 2, intersecting at the 
center. Procure a block of hard wood (maple is best, but oak will do) 
3" square and 7" long, and with a gouge cut a depression in one end 




about Yi" deep. Fasten the block in the vise, hold the lantern-top over 
the depression, and with the neck hammer beat the metal along the 
pencil-lines, hammering a little harder in the center where the lines 
intersect, being careful to hammer only on the pencil-lines. This will 
make the top look like No. 3. Care must be taken during this process 
to keep the lines square and straight. If it is desired to raise the lantern- 
top to a high sharp peak it will be necessary to raise it part way and 
then "anneal" it, by the process which was fully described on page 170 
in the December issue. 

After the top has been made like No. 3 it will be found that the sides 
have been drawn in by the hammering, as shown in the sketch marked 
A. It will, of course, be necessary to straighten the sides by cutting 
with the shears, and then we may proceed to lap the edges as shown 
in Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7, altho it is not always necessary to carry this process 
thru Nos. 5, 6, and 7. If we turn the edges down as in No. 4 it will 
be satisfactory in most cases. Some of the lanterns shown in the photo- 
graphs were finished like No. 4, but if it is desired to carry the lapping 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



process thru to No. 7, the process is exactly like that described for the 
book-ends in a previous article. 

After the top is raised to the desired height and the edge finished it 
will be necessary to hammer it all over with one of the hammers on either 








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LANTERNS. 



the 157 lapping-stake or the 155 smoothing-stake illustrated in the June, 
1910, issue. This final hammering, besides offering an opportunity to 
square and true the work, stiffens and hardens the metal, and covers the 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 241 

surface with hammer marks which add greatly to the charm of the 
finished piece of work if it is carefully done. This process is known 
among professional metal workers as "planishing," and the process of 
beating and hammering the flat metal into shape is known as "raising." 





LANTERNS WITH GLASS REMOVED. 

These terms will be used hereafter in this series to distinguish one process 
from another. The term planishing meant to the metal workers of 
years ago the process of smoothing and stiffening the metal by hammering 
it carefully with the smooth flat face of a planishing hammer. In our 
case it would be with the flat face of the ball pein hammer. Within 
the last few years the custom of hammering the metal with the ball 
end of the hammer and with the neck hammer has also been called 
planishing. All these methods were used on the lanterns shown in the 
photographs and may readily be distinguished by the long narrow marks 
of the neck hammer, the small distinct round marks of the ball end of 
the hammer, and the smooth, almost invisible, marks of the real planish- 
ing with the flat end of the hammer. To a beginner the easiest would 
be to planish with the neck hammer or the ball end of the ball pein 
hammer. 

Now the lantern-top is ready for the hole thru which the electric 
wires pass. This hole should be y%" in diameter and may be bored 
thru with a drill or may be sawn out with the saw-frame used on the 
drawer-pulls and hinges and illustrated on page 52 of the October, 
1910, issue. 

The hole is made Y%" in diameter because that is the size of the 
small brass nipple that we shall use to hold the electric socket in the 
lantern. These nipples cost five cents each and may be obtained from 
any dealer in electric supplies. There is a thread on both ends, but 
as only one is necessary the other may be sawn and filed off as indicated 
in the drawing. 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 



2V: 



It is now necessary to make the handle and rivet it on the lantern-top. 
This handle may be made of round wire flattened at both ends to allow 
of riveting, or it may be made of a strip of flat metal cut out and bent 
to shape. When riveting the handle to the lantern-top have the head 
of the rivet on the outside. These rivets 
are known as oval head rivets, — the term 
oval applying to the cross-section view 
of the head which is half oval. The 
heads of the rivets used on the lanterns 
in the photographs were T V and V_\" in 
diameter. They are known as No. 12 
trunk rivets, and may be obtained at 
almost any hardware store. 

After the handle is fastened to the top, 
cut a paper pattern for the corner pieces. 
If the lantern is to be the same size at 
the bottom as it is at the top the pattern 
will look like B in the drawing, but 
if it is to be wider at the bottom than at 
the top the pattern will look like C in 
the drawing. Cut out the corners from 
the flat metal and planish them with the 
same hammer that you planished the top. 
If they get very hard from the planishing, 
soften them by "annealing." Then draw 
a pencil-line down the center where they 
are to be bent at right angles. To bend 
the corners, get two pieces of hard wood 
about 10" long xl" thick x 2" wide and 
place the copper between the pieces of 
wood so that the center-line comes exactly 
to the edge of the wood as illustrated in 
the sketch. Fasten in the vise, and with 
the mallet carefully and smoothly ham- 
mer over at right angles the part that projects above the wcod. 

In making the paper pattern of the top cross-piece allow T 4" extra 
metal along the edge that goes next to the top for the purpose of riveting 
the body of the lantern to the lantern-top. Planish the cross-pieces to 
match the top and corners, and bend the extra *4" over a t right angles 
between the two pieces of wood as before. Cut out and planish the 
bottom pieces. 




LANTERN'. 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METAUl'ORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 



245 



The photographs show a rivet in the center of each bottom and top 
cross-piece. The purpose of this rivet is to hold a small piece of sheet 
copper the shape and size of D in the drawing. These pieces may be 
seen in the photographs at the bottom of the lanterns that have no glass 
in them. 




desk: or piano lantern. 

After the lantern is colored and finished this small piece of copper 
is bent over onto the glass holding the glass in place. It is better to 
cut out and rivet these pieces on the cross-pieces before the cross-pieces 
are riveted to the corner pieces. Next locate and drill the holes in all 
the pieces excepting the top and rivet the lantern together. Then place 
the top in position, mark and drill the holes, and rivet the top on to the 
lantern and it is ready for coloring and finishing. 

For finishing the lantern I shall describe a new process, that of waxing. 
This finish is much better for the larger pieces than banana oil. The 
wax finish is prepared and used in the following manner: In a tin cup 
melt some beeswax ; when it is liquid move away from the fire and pour 
in an equal amount of turpentine, stir together and set aside to cool. 
Color the lantern by any of the previously described methods of coloring, 
or polish as bright as possible with the steel wool or emery cloth and leave 



246 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



bright. After the desired color is secured, warm the lantern over the 
bunsen burner, or any other flame that will not smoke, and with a small 
piece of cloth rub on the lantern a small amount of the wax. The lantern 
must be warm enough to melt the turpentine and beeswax as it is applied, 
but not hot enough to cause the wax to smoke. After the wax has been 
rubbed lightly and rapidly over the lantern allow it to get perfectly 
cold, then polish briskly but lightly with a soft, clean cloth. The finish 
gives a soft sheen to the metal that preserves the color indefinitely and 
adds materially to the beauty of the finished article. It remains only to 
put in the glass and bend over the glass holders and the lantern is finished. 

( To be continued.) 





FIG. 107. WORKSHOP, STRASBURG TECHNICAL SCHOOL. 

VISITING MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

VIII.— STRASBURG. 

AFTER a day's journey by fast train from Paris, I reached 
Strasburg early in the evening. One cannot be in this capital city 
of Alsace-Lorraine very long without realizing that it is a strong 
military post. Every fifth man you meet is a soldier, and in some parts 
of the city there are times, especially in the evening, when every second 
man wears the garb of the German arm) - . Fifteen thousand troops are 
quartered in Strasburg, and they seem alert enough to make good the 
claim that if war were to be declared with France in the evening, ten 
thousand of them would be on French soil by morning. 

But interesting as were the soldiers, the narrow streets and the quaint 
timber-roof houses in the older part of the city were far more so. As I 
walked along some of these streets on that first, crisp, January evening, 
meeting the happy people as they hurried along, catching snatches of 
German songs here and there, and glimpses of picturesque corners, door- 
ways, windows, and overhanging roofs, the poetry and charm of it all 
delighted me. I gave myself up to the enjoyment of it so fully that my 
sense of direction forsook me, and after I had wandered for an hour or 
more under its spell, I found that I was entirely lost. From the cathedral 

247 



24S MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

I had gone in the wrong direction. It took miles of walking to get back 
to my hotel, but I expressed no regret. I should like to be lost again in 
this same old city on just such a fine winter evening. 

Early on the following morning, accompanied by a guide, I started 
out with a letter of introduction which had been secured for me by the 
United States Ambassador at Berlin. From the highest state official 
we were sent to the highest city official, Dr. Albrecht, who, in turn, 
gave us a letter of introduction to Inspector Motz, the director of the 
work in manual training. 

THE TECHNICAL SCHOOL. 

While waiting for Dr. Albrecht, we were advised to call on Dr. 
Hermann Fecht, ministerial director of technical schools, who gave us 
a cordial welcome and a card of introduction to the principal of the 
Strasburg technical school. Soon after reaching the school we met 
Professor Hey, head of the department of mechanical engineering and 
director of the shopwork, who conducted us thru the school. The shop- 
work of the school is done by the boys of the two-year preparatory course. 
In this course they spend all their time in the shops except one day a 
week, when they receive four hours of instruction in drawing, two in 
mathematics and two in language and other branches more or less closely 
connected with the shopwork. There were thirty boys in this preparatory 
class. 

From the allotment of time it was evident that this preparatory class 
was in reality an apprenticeship school, the boys doing their shopwork 
here instead of in commercial shops. Further investigation revealed the 
fact that the time allotment was identical with that of the continuation 
schools of Strasburg, and that the subjects of study w T ere the same as in 
the machinists' course in the continuation schools. Thus the preparatory 
course in the technical school was based on the continuation school, the 
difference being in the fact that the boys in the preparatory course cover 
in two years the entire ground of the three years of apprenticeship. 
Professor Hey emphasized the advantage of the preparatory course over 
the usual apprenticeship, and pointed out that one great gain was in the 
more systematic and thoro instruction in the shopwork. 

The shop building, Fig. 107, is of saw-tooth construction. It consists 
of one large room and a small office near the door. 

The blue-prints used in the school workshop were from drawings 
made by students in the technical school — not by the preparatory pupils 
who were doing the shopwork. Each shopwork pupil, however, kept 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



249 



a work-book in which were notes and sketches and the time spent on each 
class or piece of work. The shopwork course begins with chipping 
and filing wrought iron. The five exercise pieces, shown in Fig. 108, 
are required of each pupil, and in the order given. When a boy finishes 



I 



FIG. 1( 



CHIPPING AND FILING COURSE, STRASBURG TECHNICAL SCHOOL. 



these, he is assigned to the forge, which, with two anvils, is in the far 
corner of the room, or to one of the pattern-making benches which occupy 
another corner of the same room. All boys must eventually take both 
of these kinds of work. In each they stay eight or ten weeks, and then 
spend the remainder of the two years in machine-shop work. 

The forging course was substantially as follows : ( 1 ) Drawing out 
a piece of iron to a point, (2) bending a square corner, (3) a split weld, 
using round iron about one inch in diameter, (4) machine-bolt. (5) lap 
weld, (6) lathe-tool, (7) blacksmith's chisel, (8) hammer, (9) tongs, 
(10) chain. In the pattern shop only a few exercises in woodworking 
are given before patterns are made, and the patterns made are those 
needed in the building of machines in the shop. No course of formal 
exercises is given in the machine-shop work, but the foreman makes 
sure that each boy has experience in all the fundamental operations. For 
example, if fifty special screws are needed, instead of having one boy 
make them, or having them made on a screw machine, each boy makes a 
few on the lathe. On the other hand, the general aim is to give the work 
in as practical form as possible, and under conditions and in the order that 
approximate the commercial shop. Among the machines constructed I 
saw a boring-mill, lathes, crank-shaper, drill-press, and many models to 
illustrate mechanical motions and mechanism. Emphasis was placed on 
the fact that each boy must make his own tools and keep them in repair. 

Not only the work, but the methods also approximate, or imitate, the 
commercial shop. All of the instruction is individual. The method is 



250 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



just as near as possible to that of apprenticeship, which is considered the 
ideal. Not even demonstrations to groups of three or four students are 
given. All instruction is given by the foreman of the shop who uses as 




FIG. 109. BUILDING TO ILLUSTRATE BRICK AND 
STONE MASONRY. 



assistants the boys who are most advanced in their work. I saw a boy 
who had been working on the large eighteen-inch lathe for three months 
helping another boy who had been there only eight days ; he was showing 
him how to cut a screw thread. Similarly in the forge corner of the room, 
I saw one boy showing another boy how to make a lap weld. Professor 
Hey considers this system very satisfactory. 

The foreman was not a technical school graduate, but a selected 
journeyman who had served his apprenticeship and later passed thru 
an extended and varied experience. It was evident, too, from the work 
done and from the emphasis given to the different parts, that he was a 
machinist. The machine work was much better done than the pattern 
work. There was no foundry work. Professor Hey did not want a 
foundry because he thought it would be impossible for the boys to make 
good castings in iron ; he preferred to send his patterns to a commercial 
foundry. 

As we returned to the main building, I took a snap-shot of a small 
structure in the rear, Fig. 109. This building was made to illustrate 
the different forms of brick and stone construction — especially in windows 
anil door openings, there being no two alike in the structure. It is used 
by classes studying architecture. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 251 

MANUAL TRAINING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

Late in the afternoon we called at the office of Inspector Motz, and 
were almost immediately taken by him to a manual training center only 
a short distance away, where pupils were at work. All manual training 
work in the elementary schools of Strasburg -was done outside of the 
regular school hours ; and a most interesting thing about this fact was 
that the inspector seemed quite content to have it so. He said there was 
not time enough for it in the regular school hours, and that his recent 
visits to two other cities in Germany, where it had been tried in the regular 
hours, had convinced him that it was not practical to put it in the regular 
school time. 

Boys in Strasburg are given three hours of manual training a week — 
an hour and a half, from 5 :00 to 6 :30 on two days. Some of them, 
however, take it on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons when there are 
no regular sessions of the schools. With this time schedule it is possible 
for the instruction to be given by the teachers of the other school subjects, 
but in order to be appointed for such work, teachers are obliged to qualify 
in manual training, by taking a holiday course at Leipsic or otherwise, 
and for this extra service they are paid at the rate of sixty-two and one-half 
cents an hour. Instruction is free to elementary school pupils, but 
students from higher schools pay a nominal tuition fee. 

At the center visited we saw a class in benchwork in wood and a class 
in wood-turning. There were two workshops and two teachers. That 
particular evening there were perhaps eight boys in benchwork and five 
or six in turning. The benches were old and badly worn. The lathes 
were run by foot power and showed marks of long use. The teacher 
of the benchwork was a grammar grade teacher who had studied at 
Leipsic ; the wood-turning teacher was an expert craftsman who came 
to the school to teach his specialty. 

In a room adjoining the shops was a collection of completed models 
from the several manual training workshops of the city. Here I saw 
the models representing the course of instruction. Figs. 110 and 111, 
reproduced from Vorlagen fur den Handfertigkeits-Unterricht, pub- 
lished by Ludoiph Beust, Strasburg, show the first half of the models 
of the course in benchwork. The later ones are joints, some of which 
are immediately followed by applications in useful models. Figs. 112 and 
113 show the first forty models of the quite remarkable course in wood- 
turning. 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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FIG. 110. FIRST EXERCISES IN WOODWORKING COURSE, STRASBURG. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



253 




FIG. 111. EXERCISES IN WOODWORKING, STRASBURG. 



254 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




FIG. 112. EXERCISES IN* WOOD-TURNING, STRASBURG. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 255 









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FIG. 113. EXERCISES IN WOOD-TURNING, STRASBURG. 



256 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



TYPICAL SCHOOLS. 

The next morning we went to the Thomas school, where we received 
a hearty welcome, Fig. 114. Before we reached the inside of the building 
we found Inspector Motz there ready to receive us. This is one of the 
finest school buildings in the city and is used for a teachers' training 
school and a model school. We were first ushered into a large corner 

room with rows of seats on the two 
adjacent sides next to the windows, 
the remainder of the space being 
left free from furniture. In this 
room we found the kindergarten. 
On one side were seated a group 
of eight children knitting. Near 
the corner of the room was another 
group of eight four-year-olds. On 
the desks in front of them were 
building blocks in boxes. The 
children were asked what they re- 
ceived for Christmas, and were re- 
quired to answer, one at a time, 
enunciating with apparent effort. 
After a few minutes of this lan- 
guage work the attention of the 
pupils was turned to the building 
blocks and the teacher asked, "Who 
made the building blocks?" The 
reply came, "The carpenter made 
the building blocks." Then the 
teacher asked, "What are you go- 
ing to build?" To this the pupils answered, "I am going to build a 
sledge." "I am going to build a standing clock," etc., according to the 
individual child's intent. Then the building began. 

Just back of these children was a group of three-year-olds, who 
began to sing a song and make gestures representing a railway train ; 
and this is what they sang: "I am going to America to visit a rich 
uncle and aunt." It was, indeed, a nice compliment to the American 
visitor and was thoroly enjoyed by all. 

On some of the desks in the room was an exhibit, neatly arranged, 
showing the paper folding work done by the children. On a portable 
blackboard was a drawing of a Christmas tree in colored crayons. In 




FIG. 114. GOOD MORNING. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



257 



an alcove at the corner of the room was a group of four or five little 
beds for children who may not be well or may be in need of rest during 
the long school day. 

In the adjoining room were pupils of the next higher grade. When 
we entered they were singing and acting the story of a fox that was 
being shot by a man with a gun. On the desks an exhibit of handwork 




FIG. US. COOKING ROOM, STRASBURG. 



was spread out for my inspection — work with lentils, sticks, paper, 
and several other materials. In both of these rooms there was ample 
floor space, pleasing wall decorations, good pictures and numerous evi- 
dences of high educational ideals and thoro work, but the handwork 
seemed very formal. 

From the Thomas school, accompanied by Inspector Alotz, we went 
to visit a school in Konigshofen, just outside the fortifications of the 
city. This was a new building, architecturally interesting and repre- 
senting the most modern thought in elementary school work in Strasburg. 
Here we met Principal Weyhaupt, who conducted us thru the building 
and did everything possible to make our visit profitable. The first room 
entered was an ample gymnasium, built as a wing of the main building 



258 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



and receiving light from two opposite sides. With low platform and 
desk at one end, it suggested a chapel, and we learned that on special 
occasions it is used as an assembly room for the pupils. An excellent 
bath room was provided. This was essentially one shower bath large 
enough for a class of perhaps thirty, arranged in four or five rows. 




FIG. 116. TABLE AND STOOLS FOR SIX PUPILS, COOKING ROOM, STRASBURG. 



Near the door were valves controlling the flow of water and an hour 
glass, so arranged as to indicate the length of time the hot water should 
be turned on, when cold should take its place, and the time allowed 
for dressing. The entire bath of a class, regulated by this glass, takes 
no more than twelve or fifteen minutes. Each pupil is required to take 
such a bath once in two weeks. The city pays for towels, soap, etc. 

From the gymnasium we went to the cooking room which seemed 
to be admirably equipped. Fig. 115 shows the tile floor and the arrange- 
ment of stoves and tables. Fig. 116 shows one of the tables with the six 
accompanying stools, also the teacher's desk and a part of the portable 
blackboard. The twenty-four students of a class are divided into four 
groups of six, and each group occupies a table and a stove ; they cooperate 
as a family in working out a given problem. I was told that there were 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



259 




260 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



no individual problems given. Of course I was much interested in the 
design of the tables and the fine workmanship they displayed. At the 
side of the room in front of large windows were two sinks with long 
draining boards at each end and closets underneath. 

The shops in this school were equally interesting in their equipment, 
representing as they did the latest ideas in the mind of the inspector. 




FIG. 118. TOOL CLOSET, WOODWORKING SHOP, STRASBURG. 



There were three shops, one for metal, which was not yet equipped, 
one for benchwork in wood, and one for wood-carving. The wood- 
working shop is represented in Fig. 117. The illustration clearly shows 
the benches to be of the cabinet-maker type, very strong and considerably 
larger than most of the benches used in grammar grades, or even high 
schools in America. At the far end of the room, in front of the pier, 
is a flat grindstone such as I found in general use in Strasburg. The 
saws used are those hung on the walls of the room. The Germans seem 
not to know the convenience of our American handsaws. At the opposite 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



261 



end of the room, but not shown in the illustration, was an electric glue 
heater — the first I had ever seen in a manual training shop. Fig. 118 
shows how the finer tools were arranged in a case on one side of the 
room. Among these tools I noticed several that were new to me. One 
was a heavy knife, Fig. 119, with a handle about fifteen inches long, 
so that the end of it could rest on one's shoulder when in use. It 



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FIG. 119. SPECIAL TOOLS, STRASBURG. 

was used for cutting the sides of dovetailed grooves across the grain, 
as, for instance, in a bracket shelf when the top of the bracket is set 
into a dovetailed groove in the underside of the shelf. After this cutting 
on the sides has been done with this knife, the surplus stock is taken out 
with a chisel and router. 

The most remarkable tool in the case was a saw-blade that would 
cut a square corner without turning. This is shown in Fig. 119. It is 
bent at right angles in such a way that with one end of the blade you 
can saw vertically downward, and with the other end horizontally 
across without changing the angle of your saw frame. To illustrate, 
suppose we wish to cut a rectangular piece a b d c. Fig. 119, out of 
the end of the board. First saw down b d with the far end of your 
saw blade; then saw down a c with the same end. When the point a 
is reached, push the saw forward past the middle and it will begin to 
cut horizontally. Continue sawing, using the near end of the blade only 
and the point d will soon be reached. The application and convenience 
of such a saw is obvious. I understood that this saw had been invented 
by the teacher of manual training in this school. 

Several other tools were different in proportion or construction or 
design from those in use in America. There were no adjustable planes, 
but there was a large variety of shapes and sizes of the non-adjustable 
kind. The chisels were heavier than ours. The sliding bevel had no 
set-screw or device of any kind for fastening the blade in position, it 
being held sufficiently by friction of the parts. The gages were double 



262 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

and very heavy. Wooden U-shaped clamps, similar in form to some 
of our small iron clamps, took the place of handscrews, the corners of 
the U-shaped frame being made with lock joints. 

In the wood-carving room, Fig. .120, there were two large heavy 
tables adjustable for height, and about twenty three-legged stools. Work 




FIG. 120. CORNER OF WOOD-CARVING ROOM, STRASBURG. 

was held in place on the top of the bench by small iron clamps let down 
thru holes in the top and catching on the under side of the bench top. 

At five o'clock we were at the St. Joseph School, where we were met 
by Principal Heidmann, who took us to see classes in locksmith work, 
ornamental iron work and wood-carving. The locksmith shop was a 
small building, perhaps sixteen by twenty-two feet, in the school yard. 
On each of three sides was a long bench against the wall, and to these 
were attached heavy post vises about three and one-half feet apart. I 
believe I counted sixteen vises in the room, and there were about a 
dozen boys at work. At one end was a small stove, and nearby a forge, 
which the principal said they did not use. The boys were filing blocks 
of wrought iron with large files that were none too sharp. The first 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 263 

thirty-seven of the fifty exercises in the course of instruction are shown 
in Figs. 121 and 122. The remaining exercises are for the most part 
ornamental escutcheons. The final piece of the course was an iron chest 
representing a large amount of good work; the decorative clasps and 
hinges and the lock were all made by the boys. 

But in all this there seemed to be no effort to teach design. In 
America we would have expected each pupil to design his box, thus 
giving individuality to his work and affording him an opportunity to 
connect design with handwork, but this seemed to be no part of the plan 
in Strasburg. There such a plan would, perhaps, be looked upon as 
impossible because the work is done by such young boys, and because 
the teacher is a master locksmith, not a school teacher, nor a teacher of 
design. He works at his trade each day up to the hour of his class. 

From the locksmith shop we went to the shop where ornamental 
iron work is taught. This was a small room with a long bench on one 
side and another long bench thru the middle. Iron about a millimeter 
thick was being formed into rosettes of numerous patterns and even into 
naturalistic sprays of roses. Figs. 123 and 124 show a part of the course 
of instruction. The raising of the first of these forms was done by ham- 
mering a disc of metal placed over the end of a pipe coupling which was 
screwed to a short piece of pipe and held vertically in an iron vise. The 
hammering was done with a ball-faced hammer. The size of the coupling 
was suited to the size of the piece being worked. Stakes were also used, 
for the hammering was done on both sides of the metal. A flat pattern 
for each piece in each model of the course had been perfectly cut out of 
metal by the instructor. When a boy was ready to make any particular 
rosette he went to the instructor, who gave him the patterns for this 
rosette. Placing them in turn upon a sheet of the metal he would mark 
around them with a scriber. Then he would cut and file out these forms, 
and later raise them like the model. The patterns belonging to a given 
rosette were strung on a string or wire and hung up high in the room. 
Pressed oak leaves, in one case, were being used as patterns, but the rose 
seemed the favorite natural form for the most advanced work. In this 
connection it should be remembered that such ornamental iron work is 
very common in southern Germany, being used extensively on doors, 
gates, stairways and elsewhere. For that reason it has a significance 
there which it would not have if done in America. 

The instruction in this, as in all the metalwork I saw in Strasburg, 
was entirely individual, and the classes were small. The teacher was an 
expert craftsman. 



264 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




FIG. 121. FIRST EXERCISES IN COURSE IN LOCKSMITH WORK, STRASBURG. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



265 




FIG. 122. EXERCISES IN LOCKSMITH WORK, STRASBURG. 



266 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




™|r 






•is? 











mfe^Jk 



,1 










FIG. 123. BEGINNING OF COURSE IN ORNAMENTAL IRON WORK, STRASBURG. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 267 




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FIG. 124. ORNAMENTAL IRON WORK, STRASBURG. 



268 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 












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FIG. 125. BEGINNING OF COURSE IN WOOD-CARVING, STRASBURG. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



269 




FIG. 126. PART OF THE COURSE IN T MODELING, STRASBURG. 



270 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

The last room visited in this school was a regular school classroom 
used for wood-carving. In this room were heavy double wooden desks. 
Near the front edge of the top of each desk was clamped a strip of wood, 
on the top of which were fastened two cylinders of wood about two and 
three-fourths inches in diameter and three inches high. Upon one of 
these a pupil would hold his block of wood while carving it. Nearly all 
of the eighty-five exercise pieces in the course were quite small, square 
blocks — perhaps three inches on a side, Fig. 125 — and the carving tools 
with which the work was done were fitted into engraver's tool handles. 
In cutting, the thumbs of the two hands were held against each other, 
end to end, to prevent the tool from slipping and cutting the left hand, 
which must hold the block while carving. This work, therefore, which 
originated in Strasburg, and was not seen elsewhere, is as much wood 
engraving as it is wood-carving. The designs are made by the instructor 
and drawn on the blocks freehand by the pupils. 

The work in carving in this school is taught by one of the schoolmasters 
who has been especially trained in this work. He said that no more than 
fifteen pupils could be taught at once by one teacher and a smaller 
number was better. 

Unfortunately I did not see a class at work in modeling. Fig. 126 
indicates the character of the course. It begins with flat forms of leaves, 
then the building of a background with a leaf upon it, and so continuing 
until quite difficult panels of conventional and naturalistic flowers and 
fruits have been modeled. I asked the principal of the school which of 
the types of work taught there were looked upon as having the greatest 
educational value. He seemed to favor the carving, but considered the 
benchwork in wood and the locksmith work of greater practical value. 
About four hundred boys in Strasburg take shopwork. This is only 
about twelve per cent, of the boys who are eligible, tho the instruction 
is free. 

(To be continued.) 



EDITORIAL 

IT is doubtful if any annual educational meeting, unless it be that of 
the Superintendence Department of the National Education Asso- 
ciation, can be classed as of equal importance to the meeting of the 
National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. The fourth 
annual meeting of this organization, held in Boston, November 17-19, 
1910, was characterized by several important features which mark 
advance in the cause of education. 

An First and foremost, there was manifest a fuller recogni- 

Important t j on f conditions and qualities essential to the best inter- 
ests of all classes of society rather than of certain classes. 
The representatives of different interests, educators, employers, employes, 
citizens, met on the common ground of the best interests of the child 
or youth, and there was manifest much less than usual the spirit of 
condemnation and criticism of opposing factors in the problem of educa- 
tion. The fact of the recognition of the present and future success 
and happiness of the child as the important element in the problem 
is of the greatest significance. 

Thruout the sessions there was a general agreement that the tra- 
ditional public school courses are inadequate — not that there should 
be less done for those who have the possibilities of a life devoted to 
literary work, but that there must be very much more for the great mass 
of children who will necessarily devote their life to occupational work. 

Great emphasis was given to the assertion that handwork — trade work 
and industrial work — combined with academic work is cultural ; that in 
our free country such work does not close to the pupil the door of oppor- 
tunity to the so-called higher education, but that on the other hand it 
may in some instances give the incentive and cause the awakening that 
will lead to higher attainment. 

Everywhere prevailed the thought of happiness in preparing for life 
work and happiness in the life of the worker. Dr. Kerschensteiner's 
great address teemed with the thought of the joy of the worker in his 
work, and of the opportunity thru industrial education for joy of 
expression for the many as well as for the few. 

The agreement was practically universal that industrial education is a 
function of public education, that this is the safe-guard of youth against 

271 



272 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

exploitation, and the assurance of training that will lead to efficiency, 
manhood, good citizenship and happiness, and that all interests will be 
thus best served. 

In dealing with the questions, whether practical, moral or social, the 
speakers presented concrete problems and their effort at solution, so 
that the constructive value of the meeting goes beyond that of previous 
gatherings. The speakers were notable and the papers and addresses 
of exceptional excellence, and when published will merit the careful 
study of all who are interested in education. W. E. Roberts. 

Dr. Kerschen- It seems safe to say that no educator coming from Con- 
steiner's 



tinental Europe in recent years has said so many wise 
Address 



things that needed to be said in the United States as 



has Dr. Georg Kerschensteiner in his recent tour thru 
this country under the auspices of the National Society for the Promotion 
of Industrial Education. His insight into our institutions was quite 
remarkable, but his elucidation of certain types of German schools in 
clear and well-spoken English was even more so. 

He was much depressed by the excessive division of labor in some of 
our industries. The pained expression on his face as he recalled what 
he saw in a shoe factory brought to mind the expression of Ruskin in 
his chapter on the "Nature of the Gothic," in which he says, "It is not 
the labor that is divided but the man — divided into mere segments and 
crumbs of life." Dr. Kerschensteiner said that Germany has nothing 
like our excessive subdivision of labor. 

His criticism of the manual training he saw in certain schools was 
equally strong. He could not see why children are encouraged to make 
big pieces of furniture before they can square up a piece of wood properly 
or make a single joint of the type that must be multiplied many times 
in the piece of furniture, if it is properly constructed. From this state- 
ment it must not be concluded that his pedagogy is of the dried-out kind. 
On the contrary, he stated with marked emphasis that the first requisite 
in training in skill is "to cultivate joy in work." "It is in that way 
that we appeal to the heart," and it is only when the feelings are brought 
into action that we can most truly educate. 

The Aim Probably no part of Dr. Kerschensteiner's address in Chi- 

Continuation ca S° was as valuable as that in which he made clear the 
School. purposes of the continuation school. The continuation 

school is not fundamentally an industrial, a technical, or a trade school. 



EDITORIAL 273 

It is a school of general culture for such boys and girls as are apprentices 
to trades. It is to supply, in a measure, what such children are obliged 
to lose by leaving the day schools early to learn trades. In order to 
make school studies most easily intelligible to the apprentices, these 
studies should be approached from the trade standpoint. This method 
is pursued not so much for the sake of the trade as for the sake of the 
culture. From the German viewpoint, then, some of us American 
enthusiasts on German industrial education have been looking at the 
culture side of it thru the big end of the spy glass. 

Dr. Kerchensteiner made it clear that the advance step which has 
placed the continuation schools of Munich almost in a class by them- 
selves, even in Germany, was the introduction of the technical work 
for each of the trades. Shops were equipped with the very best of 
appliances and placed in the care of the highest type of men in the 
several trades. To these the apprentices came for two or three hours 
a week to learn the higher or more difficult processes of the trade and to 
study materials. Dr. Kerschensteiner gave two reasons for establishing 
these shops: First, to elevate the trade, and, second, to enable the boy 
who might happen to be working under an inferior or less skilful 
master to have an opportunity to acquire skill and knowledge above 
and beyond what he would get from the master to whom he is bound. 

But from the beginning to the end of Dr. Kerschensteiner's address 
it was clear that his fundamental aim in continuation school work is 
the kind of culture that makes for the best citizenship, and because such 
citizenship involves an occupation that contributes to the social good, 
industrial processes are taught. Fundamentally, then, the continuation 
school is still not an industrial school but a school for the general educa- 
tion of a selected group of people. The trade is made the basis for 
educational work, but the degree of culture is not determined by the 
trade selected, but by the time that can be given to the work of the 
school. Dr. Kerschensteiner believes that a state of culture can be 
approached as readily thru the trade as in any other way. In fact, he 
more than implied that as a method in education the approach to culture 
thru a trade or specialty is more effective than thru the broad general 
course in which there is no specialty about which to group the other 
branches of knowledge. American teachers certainly should be grateful 
to Dr. Kerschensteiner for his many valuable suggestions and criticisms. 

— c. A. B. 



274 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Death The death of Senator J. H. Stout of Menomonie, Wis- 

°* consin, on the eighth of December was felt with the force 

Senator te 

Stout. of a personal loss by hundreds of teachers who prized his 

acquaintance as they met him at educational meetings and enjoyed his 
gracious personality, and by hundreds more who have received the 
benefits of the remarkable schools that have grown up under his guid- 
ance and support. Few men outside the profession have been in such 
close touch with so many teachers, and fewer still have ever devoted 
themselves so continuously to the study of educational problems. Many 
men in America have given their fortunes to education, but Senator 
Stout gave both his fortune and himself. It seems to have been the 
great passion of his later years to study first-hand the needs of the 
common people with reference to education and to provide the ways 
and means of meeting these needs. 

At another time we hope to speak more in detail of the work of Mr. 
Stout. At this time we merely record the fact of his death and express 
a warm personal feeling for him, and sorrow that he is to be with us 
no more. His fine spirit and devotion, however, will still remain in 
Stout Institute. 

To spend the Christmas holidays in California has long been 
c .., . the Editor's dream. This winter the dream came true. 

Out of the freezing temperature of Illinois to the land of 
perpetual roses and orange trees he went by limited express. The warm 
sunshine gave joy, but he had not been there long, however, before he dis- 
covered that California is not all climate. There are about two hundred 
and fifty manual training teachers in the southern counties of the state, 
and some of the most interesting high schools to be found on the con- 
tinent. Moreover, if one may judge from so short a visit, there is a 
spirit of progress and educational liberty which is quite alluring to 
the progressive teacher. For example, an up-to-date high school site 
is not a few corner lots or even a whole square, but from ten to twenty 
acres. The classrooms, shops and laboratories are not in one four 
to six story building, but in several smaller one or two story buildings 
which are grouped with reference to convenience and lighting, and 
sometimes connected with arcades. School boards are gladly aban- 
doning the grammar school type of building for high school purposes 
and taking suggestions from the colleges. And why not? Is not the 
high school to become the "people's college" in America? At Hollywood, 
for example, where we find the first of this new type of high school, 



EDITORIAL 27 '5 

there is a corner building for study halls, classrooms and offices. Behind 
this is a building for the sciences and agriculture, which is remarkable 
for its completeness and arrangement. Behind this is a greenhouse, 
and beyond that is a large plot of ground for planting. On the front 
of the lot, and balancing the main building in the group, is the audi- 
torium with smaller rooms for music, elocution and social events. 
Behind this will soon be constructed a manual arts building to cost 
$25,000, and back of the site of the manual arts building is an ample 
athletic field. Between the auditorium and the main building is a home 
building for household science and household arts. 

Since this group of buildings was projected the architect has been 
called upon to plan five similar ones, and other architects have been at 
work on the same idea. It seems certain to become the typical high 
school building scheme for Southern California. Even the large city 
of Los Angeles has adopted it for its latest building, the manual arts 
high school. 

But the liberal character of the schools is shown not merely in the 
number and size of the buildings. The curriculum is equally significant. 
In the Hollywood high school eleven courses are outlined, in the Los 
Angeles Manual Arts high school, six, and in the Los Angeles Poly- 
technic high school, eighteen. To be sure, the differences between 
courses are sometimes very slight, but the spirit of the leaders in high 
school work seems to be to encourage the development of the high school 
to meet new needs — industrial and commercial, scientific and artistic 
- — without fear of losing its recognized place as a college preparatory 
school. We were told that there are many more high school students 
in Los Angeles than in any other city of similar size in the United States. 
When the million or more dollars now appropriated for high schools 
of the new type in Southern California has been expended, the rest of 
the country will begin to take notice. 

This development of the high schools is bringing with it a correspond 
ing development of the manual arts. Indeed, the demand for more 
industrial training and the success of the Los Angeles polytechnic high 
school, with its two thousand students, and the new manual arts high 
school, which already numbers over eight hundred students, are primal 
factors in the evolution of the high school. Moreover, the high school 
development in the manual arts is having its effect upon the schools below, 
so that the great problem in the near future will be where to get trained 
teachers for all this rapidly incoming work in the manual arts. But to 
this growing need the state has not been blind, and has established a 



276 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

state normal school for teachers of the manual arts at Santa Barbara. 
This new school, under the presidency of Miss Ednah A. Rich, is making 
its start in the Anna Blake Memorial Building and in the manual training 
building recently constructed by the city of Santa Barbara. However, 
this is but a beginning. A superb site of several acres has already been 
selected on the heights above the city and just above the old Mission 
buildings. Here with the mountains immediately behind, the quiet city 
spread out in front and the great ocean in the distance, is an ideal spot 
for the center of influence in art and handicraft for the great golden 
state. With a broad policy and an equipment to facilitate the preparation 
of teachers for high school as well as elementary school work, this training 
school for teachers will do a great work in the future. It will not do 
away with the need of such other courses as are now being given at the 
Los Angeles State Normal School, where hundreds of grade teachers 
go out every year into the elementary schools and where, because of the 
great need, special teachers for these schools have been trained. Every 
normal school in the state will continue to need its courses in the manual 
arts, and more of them than ever before. The special training school at 
Santa Barbara will take graduates of the normal schools and other quali- 
fied students and fit them for the higher special positions that are rapidly 
being created. In the establishment of this school California has taken 
a great step in advance. — c. A. B. 

As a frontispiece in this issue we are pleased to present the portrait of 
Dr. James Parton Haney of New York. Its publication seems especially 
appropriate at this time as we begin his series of articles based on 
observations and experience in the development of manual training 
in New York City. No supervisor in America has done more than 
Dr. Haney to stimulate a strong professional spirit among teachers 
and supervisors of the manual arts, and no one has been more interested 
in the development of a high type of professional literature. His writ- 
ings in the yearbook of the Council of Supervisors and his work on the 
volume entitled "Art Education in the Public Schools of the United 
States," published by the International Art Congress, give proof of this 
fact. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

FIRST NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE. 

This conference was called under the auspices of the Boston Vocation Bereau 
and Boston Chamber of Commerce, November 15-16, 1910. It immediately pre- 
ceded the meetings of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Edu- 
cation, and owing to the close relations naturally existing between vocational 
guidance and vocational training, its meetings seemed to form a part of one 
general conference. Five sessions were held, and many distinguished speakers 
addressed the Conference on various phases of the question. Charles W. Eliot, 
President-Emeritus of Harvard University, Professor Charles Zeublin of Boston, 
President Richard C. Maclaurin of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and 
Dr. Felix Adler of New York spoke in a general way of the social and economic 
conditions making vocational guidance and training necessary to an increasigly 
large proportion of our youth, whether trained for the lower or higher grades of 
occupations, or for industrial, commercial or professional careers. They referred 
to the value of the vocational idea as a motive for continued and progressive ac- 
quisition of knowledge and insisted on the peculiar efficacy of such a motive when 
acquired early in life. 

President Eliot said that the success of the new movement depended on a 
recognition of the real state of society. He insisted on the surpassing value, to 
the majority of pupils, of constructive work, interpreted in a broad sense, and 
advocated eye, hand, and sense training, from the kindergarten thru college. 
Dr. Adler said that vocational advice might prevent some of the worst things 
"that ought not to be." As regarded vocational training, he indicated that even 
the elementary school might do much and that the secondary schools ought to be 
reorganized on a basis of centralized motives. He advocated teaching about 
vocations in college, largely by means of biography. Professor Zeublin said that 
this is a movement which conserves human resources; that the majority are unable 
to cope with the existing economic powers, and that the less able and least able 
should be our especial concern. 

Professor Paul H. Hanus of Harvard University, Chairman of the Vocation 
Bureau Executive Board, made an address setting forth the purpose of that 
Bureau, its accomplishments and aspirations. He said that the Bureau represented 
organized common sense. He showed the need and possibilities of cooperation 
with public school systems, and described the common responsibility of parent, 
teacher and employer. He spoke of the work which had been done in collecting 
information about industrial opportunities, and in organizing that information 
in such a way as to make it available in the advising, placing and guiding of 
young workers. Especial emphasis was laid on the necessity of preserving or 
promoting the bodily health of the child, and of securing better initial training 
thru a revision or a revivifying of traditional schools, and the establishment of 
public vocational schools. 

277 



278 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Meyer Bloomfield, Director of the Vocation Bureau of Boston, told why children 
entered unprogressive employments, and discussed the mistakes arising from mis- 
guided ambition promoted by "quack" schools. He said the vocational guide 
should stand between the teacher and the employer, urging the first to fit the boy 
for his work, and the second to fit his work to the boy. Supt. Stratton D. Brooks 
of Boston said that we should permeate public opinion with the idea that the 
public schools must give both training and guidance. He cautioned against the 
earlier mistake of a one-sided education; whereas formerly the training was all 
intellectual, we should avoid making it now all mechanical or vocational. He 
spoke of the progress which had been made in the Boston public schools, where 
at least one teacher in each elementary and high school has been assigned to the 
position of vocational counselor. A special vocational assistant has been appointed 
in the girls' trade school. A distinction is made between placement and guidance, 
the latter including the following of the progress of the girl subsequent to her 
placement. This practice leads to considerable intimate knowledge not only re- 
garding the girls but the employers and the vocational possibilities as well. Aside 
from placement and guidance, he believed that the teacher would be the best 
adviser. 

Robert A. Woods, of the South End House, urged that in attempting to further 
this most excellent movement, we avoid taking too much the adult point of view. 
He spoke of the necessity for developing the idea of organization and leadership, 
the idea which permeates the business and industrial world and insisted that 
the spirit of play might be more fully utilized in giving industrial education. 

There was suggested the possibility of forming a national society to promote 
the establishment of vocation bureaus. Opinion was generally favorable to such 
a project, and it was confidently predicted that this function would ultimately 
be taken over by the public schools. The Conference adjourned without action 
on the suggestion, but information regarding the matter can undoubtedly be had 
by applying to Mr. Bloomfield, Director of the Boston Vocation Bureau, 101 
Tremont Street, Boston. — Frank M. Leavitt, 

University of Chicago. 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF INDUSTRIAL 
EDUCATION. 

The fourth annual meeting of the society was held in Boston, November 17-19, 
1910. The first session was devoted to the consideration of the "Demands and 
Opportunities for Girls in Trades and Stores." As the topic would indicate, the 
discussion related particularly to the lower grades of commercial and industrial 
work, tho the possibility of climbing, by means of this work, to higher positions 
was given due attention. The possibilities of the needle trades and of the de- 
partment stores were explained and some interesting experiments in classes in 
salesmanship for clerks in department stores were described. The attempt had 
been made to give the girls some appreciation of the value to their employers 
of their knowledge of the goods displayed, of the principles of good salesmanship, 
that is, the psychology of salesmanship, and of their ability and desire to serve 



ASSOCIATIONS. 279 

the customer acceptably. Representatives of employing merchants commended 
the work of these classes. The absolute demand which the needle trades make 
upon the girls for accuracy and speed and for quick understanding of the fore- 
woman's directions was urged in defence of short term trade courses for girls in 
these trades. While the benefit of longer courses and broader training was ad- 
mitted, the social value of such enterprises as the Manhattan and Boston Trade 
Schools for Girls was conclusively shown. Emphasis was laid on the value of 
training in drawing and color for both store and trade workers. 

At the second session, "The Training of Teachers for Girls' Trade Schools' - 
was discussed. Mrs. Mary S. Woolman, Director of Domestic Arts Department, 
Teachers College, New York City, traced the progress of the Manhattan Trade 
School for Girls during its eight years which seemed to indicate that the re- 
quirements of industrial schools demanded, on the part of their teachers, accurate 
knowledge of trade conditions and actual trade experience. She said that the 
promoters of the school had discovered that the practical trade work possessed 
a cultural value entirely unsuspected and unsought for at the outset. She showed 
that such schools should closely conform to the requirements of local conditions, 
and that especial care should be taken not to "overstock" the labor market in any 
given industry or locality. She expresses the opinion that the elementary schools 
should do more to prepare for trade schools. She emphasized the importance of 
conserving the physical health of the girls, of acquiring the sensitiveness to trade 
influences, and of turning out a salable product, while upholding trade standards 
and trade prices. 

Miss Florence M. Marshall, Director of Girls' Trade Education League and 
Industrial Training Department, Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 
Boston, insisted on the two-fold preparation essential to the teacher in an industrial 
school, a point indeed which was emphasized thruout the Conference. She said 
that in the earlier stage of the work the professional teacher was most needed 
while later the trade worker was most effective. All workers would be most 
successful, however, if trained in both directions. To supply the immediate de- 
mands, she suggested that normal school graduates be required to gain some 
practical experience in store or shop and that trade workers be given special 
pedagogical courses. She spoke of the benefit to be derived from conferences, and 
of the possibilities of evening classes for industrial instructors. 

Miss Sarah Louise Arnold said that time and experience were absolutely neces- 
sary for the solution of the problem. She spoke of the pioneer work of philan- 
thropic societies in other spheres of education and said that hope lay in generous 
experimentation and devoted service. 

, Charles A. Prosser, Deputy Commissioner of Education, for Massachusetts, 
discussed the foregoing papers. While in no wise under-rating the importance 
of training teachers, he said that the director of the industrial school determined 
very largely the policy and efficiency of the institution. He insisted that the 
director should have a three-fold point of view, — industrial, pedagogical, and 
social. He reminded the Conference that business is not a benevolent institution, 
and that the pedagog is not always perfectly clear with regard to disciplinary 
and cultural values. He said the industrial school should combine in varying 
proportions "practice and thinking about practice." 



280 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

At the banquet, the third session, the addresses were inspirational rather than 
instructive. Professor Charles R. Richards, President of the Society, made some 
comparisons between industrial education in the United States and in European 
countries. He said that the lack of unity is our greatest drawback, the lack of 
cooperation between the employer and the schools, and stated that the school men 
alone could not solve the problem. Charles H. Winslow, Representative of the 
American Federation of Labor, made a careful and authoritative statement of 
the position of organized labor. It was essentially the platform adopted by the 
Toronto Convention, but contained one additional plank. It admitted the necessity 
of turning out a finished product in some instances at least, for it demanded the 
"minimum of production and the maximum of instruction." The statements re- 
garding the needs and rights of the employer were temperate and thoroly 
appreciative. 

The fourth session was devoted to "Apprenticeship and Corporation Schools," 
and the fifth to "Part Time and Evening Schools." Taken together these two 
sessions showed the great prominence given to the consideration of the training of 
machinists, or iron and steel workers generally, in discussions relating to industrial 
schools. The impression left by the addresses was that the apprenticeship system 
is not dead, as we have so often heard, but transformed and adapted to present 
industrial conditions. It was also apparent that the new form of apprenticeship 
is profitable only for the large corporations or for combinations of manufacturers, 
that it was lack of training for leadership which impelled this modern effort, 
and that therefore, whether they acted independently or in cooperation with the 
public schools, the benefit would be derived primarily by the ablest boys. It was 
demonstrated that for the less fit, for those who would occupy the intermediate 
or lower grade positions, the more general training of public school industrial 
classes was absolutely essential. 

Prof. Paul H. Hanus of Harvard emphasized the fact that all nations are 
realizing the importance of supervising the education of children for a longer 
period, and that this is not peculiar to industrial education. The American 
method of procedure, he said, is first to provide for the awakening of public 
opinion, second for experimentation, third for organization. 

The Fitchburg and the Beverly part time cooperative plans were fully described. 
The latter is a distinct advance on the earlier experiment, at least from the 
standpoint of labor, since the public school has full control of the membership of 
the classes. It differs also in admitting boys of fourteen years or over without 
graduation from the elementary school as a requirement. The purpose of the 
school is clearly stated to be training for the ranks. 

A notable address was given by Frank B. Dyer, Superintendent of Schools, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. He described the continuation schools recently organized under 
the new Ohio law, the first of its kind enacted in this country, which, requires 
the continued training of certain groups of children who leave school early and 
enter gainful occupations. This training must be given between the hours of eight 
A. m. and five p. m. during the school term. Mr. Dyer maintains that "The 
apprentice is a day school proposition." 

At the sixth session Dr. Georg Kerschensteiner, Superintendent of Schools, 
Munich, Bavaria, gave an illustrated address on the excellent and complete 



ASSOCIATIONS. 281 

system of the industrial continuation schools of Munich. Great stress was laid by 
Dr. Kerschensteiner on the value of "joy in work" and these schools are intended 
to promote this joy by so informing and training boys, who had already entered 
their life work, that they might excel in it. The system, while not adapted to 
American conditions, commended itself to all as a worthy example of civic in- 
terest in the welfare of industry and of the industrial worker as well. 

The last session, exclusive of the business meeting, at which James P. Munroe, 
Treasurer of the Munroe Felt and Paper Company, of Boston, was elected to the 
office of president for the ensuing year, was devoted to the consideration of "The 
Social Meaning of Industrial Education." Mr. Munroe said that we should con- 
sider not only the immediate effect of industrial training but the ultimate effect, 
not only the effect on the individual but on society. He expects that the United 
States will advance rapidly in the matter of vocational training in the next forty 
years, yet believes that the industrial results will be small as compared to the 
social results. He said that both capital and labor are at present ignorant of the 
real social conditions and must be educated. The whole session emphatically 
demonstrated the need of appropriate training for the mass of workers who would 
be unaffected by the industrial and trade schools which had been the subjects of 
most of the discussions of the week. 

Miss Elizabeth B. Butler, of the Bureau of Social Research, New York City, 
spoke of the effect of the speeding-up process, and the system of inspection em- 
ployed in factories, and said that they were the causes of much of the instability 
of the lower grades of labor. She said that social disintegration was the penalty 
we must pay for failure to educate adequately the operatives in such industrial 
establishments. She also affirmed that the responsibility went back of the giving 
of wages, and that the employee should be so trained as to be worth more to the 
employer. 

The most notable address of the session, and perhaps of the Conference, was 
that of Howell Cheney, of Cheney Brothers, South Manchester, Conn. This ad- 
dress should be read by every manual training teacher in the country who desires 
to vitalize the constructive work of the elementary school. He discussed the cause 
of the lack of progress in children when first entering industrial life, which he 
thinks is due largely to the unrelated nature of the school work which has gone 
before. He asked whether low grade industrial work might not be made ed- 
ucational, and thought that, tho difficult, itwas possible. He pointed out that every 
machine process is the development of a hand process, and said that if children 
had some knowledge of these processes and some appreciation of the possibilities 
of high grade machine operating, even factory work might be made relatively 
desirable. By this means also it might be made possible for the operative to see 
the way out of what appears to him to be unprogressive and monotonous work. 
This release would be effected by going thru the difficulty rather than by attempt- 
ing to escape it. Comparing the relative value to the young child of life at school 
and life in the factory, Mr. Cheney said that he considered it was fair to apply 
to the school the same test as to the factory and ask how much opportunity either 
offers for progress. 

The dominant note thruout the Conference was distinctly social. Again and 



282 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

again it was stated that any agency working alone was totally inadequate to 
meet the existing needs. "Together" was the great word and the spirit of the 
meeting was such as to give confidence that unity was immeasurably nearer than 
it was two or three years ago. It was equally pronounced that all, — merchants, 
manufacturers, philanthropists, social workers, and educators — alike are looking 
expectantly and hopefully forward to a sort of glorified public school system as 
the only possible and desirable solution of the problems which are fundamental 
to the very existence of our democratic institutions. 

Frank M. Leavitt, 
University of Chicago. 

NORTHERN ILLINOIS STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting of the Eastern Section was held at Mandel Hall, University 
of Chicago, November 4th and 5th. The attendance was the largest in the history 
of the Association. 

The program was of especial interest to manual arts workers, each paper 
dealing with some phase of "The Concrete in Education" which was the general 
topic for the meeting. The afternoon of Friday was devoted to excursions to the 
Art Institute, the Field Museum, and to the Pullman Car shops. These excursions 
were all under expert guidance and proved of great value to the teachers as well 
as furnishing a valuable example of how such excursions should be conducted. 

At the first session, Professor C. A. Bennett, of Bradley Polytechnic Institute 
gave a very clear presentation of the present status of the manual arts in relation 
to education. The manual arts he defined as such part of the fine and industrial 
arts as have to do with the hands. The manual arts have a very definite place 
in respect to the aim of education. Ideals change. Today the aim of education 
is a preparation for life under existing conditions, or in other words — social 
efficiency. Quoting Dr. Bagley, "we should train the individual for productivity, 
not merely directly, but indirectly." The great mass are producers thru the use 
of the hands. Productivity means thoro work and more time. The problem is 
how to get more time. We can expect no great results on the vocational side 
with no outside preparation and only one hour in school. But it is not merely 
the hand worker who needs this training. We need ideals in choosing hats, 
dresses, etc. Simple knowledge of tools and mechanics leads to ability to make 
minor repairs about the house. It enables us to go to a furniture shop with ideals. 
If we have no ideals the salesman sells us what he wants to sell. Acquaintance 
with the manual arts enables us to get the best out of life. The manual arts 
transmit some of the choicest thoughts of the world. 

The manual arts are both subject matter and method. The emphasis has varied 
in different periods of its history. Heusinger and Froebel made handwork the 
center. Pestalozzi made it a means of teaching the other subjects. Salomon, 
Goetze and others had the Froebelian view. Col. Parker had the Herbartian 
view — a method in education. Dewey in "School and Society" deals with the 
change in point of view. In industrial education, the content of manual training 
or the subject matter side is emphasized. Let us hope that the other side is not 
forgotten, and keep the values it has as an educational process. 



ASSOCIATIONS. 283 

Mr. Bennett criticized some of the primary handwork in that it did not deal 
with a sufficient variety of material. We should not aim to develop rivals of the 
aborigines in basket-making. Manual training in these grades should be a 
method. Expression of ideas thru the hands rather than technical accuracy 
should be the ideal, gradually satisfying more discriminating ideals. 

In the grammar grades we should emphasize technique as much as we avoid 
it in the primary grades. Pupils are in a place where they can and should do 
things well. In the upper grammar grades the work might even be vocational. 
In the high school the manual arts should be treated distinctly as a special 
subject and should be up to a high standard as far as we go. 

Supt. Mott, of Richmond, Indiana, dealt with the field trip, or excursion. 
While especially valuable as an aid to geography and nature study the field trip 
is valuable also in connection with a study of industries. It is difficult to carry 
the spirit of study along on these trips away from the influence of the schoolroom 
walls amid distracting influences, and it requires preparation beforehand on the 
part of both teachers and pupils. 

Chas. A. McMurry, of Dekalb Normal School, stated that concrete material is 
very abundant and that we have almost "gone to seed" on this line. In spite of 
this, much of our instruction is dry. There is a divorce between illustrative 
teaching and thought material. The excessive use of concrete material may be a 
dissipation like moving picture shows. As an example, illustrative pictures in 
text-books are often not made use of in clarifying thought. 

The outcome of excursions is often a jumble in the mind. It should clarify 
itself by the underlying thought. Like wealth, we must learn how to use this 
concrete material. Manual training should be a reaction against this verbalism. 
The manual training teacher should get into the shop and use tools. There is 
also a danger that manual training and other subjects may degenerate into 
mechanical routine. The teacher alone can save us. A thinking child and a 
good teacher can show the way. 

Dr. Chas. H. Judd of the University of Chicago, gave a summary of the 
meeting. He stated that we have reached the stage where we must decide what 
we are going to do with this concrete material and reconcile it with the abstract. 
We have a great mass of concrete material which is not digested. It is wrong 
to assume that the pupil starts out with neither concrete or abstract. The child 
lives in an abstract world at many times, sometimes we get into this world. We 
present one world and he has another of his own, — the difficulty is to join these 
two. We systematize the external world and miss the organizing of the in- 
terior world so as to bring it together with the external. 

The concrete world must be built up with the same symmetry as the imaginary 
world. Children have plenty of imagery. It needs refining. It is the business 
of manual training and such subjects to give productive images. The old school 
gave plenty of images but they were not always systematized and organized. 
We can give pasteboard, wood, etc., and get plenty of imagery. The child 
starts out with an imaginary world. Imagery of later life is more restricted on 
account of knowledge. Adult imagery is "settled down". 

— Leonard W. Wahlstrom. 
Francis Parker School, Chicago. 



284 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

OHIO ART AND MANUAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 

The regular annual meeting was held at Steele High School, Dayton, on Friday, 
November 11th, 1910. There was a good and representative attendance of Ohio 
teachers of manual training, art, and domestic science. The Association was 
called to order by the president, George A. Seaton, Shaw High School, Cleveland, 
for the business session. After the election of officers and the transaction of some 
minor matters of business the further work of the Asociation was carried on in 
sections. 

MANUAL TRAINING SECTION. 

The chairman of this section was J. I. Lambert, supervisor of manual training, 
Dayton, and the first speaker was W. E. Painter, supervisor of manual training, 
Newark, who read a paper on "Shop Economics." Mr. Painter said in part: 

"The arrangement of the benches and the placing of the tools has much to do 
with the economy of shop practice. We wish, however, to call attention to the 
educative value of the best posible arrangement rather than to say what that 
arrangement should be. If the boys are comfortably and conveniently seated 
away from the regular benches, the class demonstrations can be given with the 
best possible results. If the tools are arranged in a convenient and orderly 
manner, it not only saves time but cultivates habits of neatness and order. The 
better and more convenient the arrangement, the easier it is to keep things in their 
places. Of course it is necessary to insist that things be put where they belong. 
Boys are not perfect. . . . 

"It is not enough to tell the boys to be careful of tools and material. Some 
concrete illustration, something that will stimulate them to create rather than 
destroy values must be planned and presented in an impressive manner. With 
beginners in the elementary school the value of a piece of wood may be impressed 
upon the minds of the boys by weaving the facts of the growth of the tree, the 
felling and converting into lumber, the transportation, drying, resawing, planing, 
etc., into a story. Show that everything that has been done to the wood has added 
to its value, and that his work upon it is the most important of all. Will he be 
able to make it into something useful and worth while?, or will he destroy all 
that has been done for its improvement? .... 

"A systematic approach to the solution of all shop problems should be insisted 
on from the first. The beginner should not be left to his own meager resources, 
blundering along as best he can and becoming discouraged with the results of 
his efforts. He is given the tools of modern civilization, let him have the en- 
gineer's method of using them. Most of the difficulty of the what and the how of 
any problem in construction, from the simplest to the most complex, may be 
cleared away by sketches and working drawings. Errors are easily corrected 
on paper and many of them, if not all, may thus be eliminated before the tool 
work is begun." 

The second paper was presented by Thomas K. Lewis, Department of Manual 
Training, Ohio State University, Columbus, on "Constructive Design." Professor 
Lewis recommended that a course in design be made a part of the teaching of 
each craft, many more problems being worked out in the design than can be made 



ASSOCIATIONS. 



285 



m the shops. Many of the problems need not be worked over for dimensions, but 
all those that are to be carried thru to completion by the pupil should be finished 
even to the preparation of lists of materials required, etc. 

In the high school three lines of work should be presented: (1) mechanical 
drawing, which is fundamental to all courses; (2) shopwork; (3) constructive 
design adapted to the particular shopwork taken by the pupil. 





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In illustrating a method of presenting the subject, it was suggested that pro- 
portion is an important element in design. "How do we know the difference 
between good and bad proportion ? We can often select the best proportion if 
we are at the same time glancing over those which are not good. It is a simple 
problem to select the best if all are arranged like a scale in the order of their 
differences. Of course, we may make the best one first ; but we do not feel sure 
it is the best until we have made the others. The comparison helps us to see 
it. . . . 

In the end for magazine and newspaper rack shown, No. 1 is very monotonous 
because of the repetition of spaces and wooden strips, and uniform outline at the 
top resembling a gate ; No. 2 tends to obviate both, while No. 3 is better, but 
No. 4 shows the extreme arrangement, in which the large spaces are too large 
for the decoration strips. Going back again, the large space in No. 3 is ques- 
tioned; even No. 2 receives some consideration; and finally the most delicate 
balance of spaces and strips is found to be a design between Nos. 2 and 3. 

"A practical knowledge of the material to be used is necessary. It is certainly 
true that clay in a tile would require a design different from that to be used in 
28-gauge sheet silver, or 4-ounce silk as compared with burlap." 

A plan for use in the presentation of the study of design was suggested, as 
follows: (1) General idea, which decides material only, as wood, metal, clay, etc.; 
(2) Article to be made, decided upon from the use to which it is to be put; 
applied design has reference to planning or arranging of article to be designed ; 



286 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




ASSOCIATIONS. 287 

(3) Personal use or intention of article to be designed; (4) Limitations of 
material; (5) The two considerations of use and esthetics; (6) Drawing of some 
form which will to a certain extent embody the foregoing ideas; (7) Problem of 
finding an esthetic source for the design and the satisfaction of personal re- 
quirements; (8) Sources of ideas for design may be classified as follows: a. 
Geometric, as squares, rectangles, circles, etc.; b. Plants, as flowers, leaves, etc.; 
c. Animal forms, as bird, cat, etc. ; d. Objects used in the industries, as ship, 
vehicle, building, etc.; e. Imaginary forms, as cupid, angel, centaur, mermaid, 
dolphin, devil, etc. . . . 

"Of what use is all this study of proportion, relation of lines, and grouping 
of lines? Is it for the technical results? No, there is a stronger element in design 
than that; and that is the designer's conception, thought, or feeling. From an 
inspection of a designer's work we should carry away the impression of his idea, 
imagination, or creation; we should feel the power of his individuality. The 
study of design should develop individuality — even more so than the execution of 
the design does." 

ART SECTION. 

The chairman of the Art Section was J. J. Rogers, Cleveland, and the first 
speaker was Supervisor W. D. Campbell, Columbus, on "Posters as an Educational 
Problem in Art." He said in part: "Educational work deals with the masses, 
therefore problems should be given which are closely related to the interests of the 
masses — problems dealing with ideas that are current in every-day life. . . . The 
foundation material for all work is to be found in nature (including plants and 
animals), in pose, in the industrial world, and in arts and crafts problems. 

"The suggested order of procedure is as follows: (1) Drawing from observation, 
in outline, using lead pencil; (2) Composition, the filling of a space pleasingly; 
(3) Use of color; tinted paper with color schemes suggested by magazine covers, 
Japanese prints, etc.; flat tones may be applied to furniture, walls, dress, posters, 
etc.; (4) Outline. 

"White paper should not be used. In teaching the handling of the brush, 
attention is given first to the color, then to its application to the paper, and finally 
to the best methods of handling the brush to obtain the results desired." The 
address was fully illustrated by posters made by pupils in the Columbus schools. 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE SECTION. 

The chairman of the section was Miss Rachel Colwell, president of the Ohio 
Chapter of the American Home Economics Association. President W. O. Thomp- 
son, Ohio State University, gave a short address dealing with the problems con- 
fronting domestic science teachers and presenting forcefully the necessity for 
teaching the subject as an applied science with a new and larger meaning. The 
remainder of the morning session was given over to business matters. 

After luncheon, Miss Bishop, Cleveland Technical High School, opened the 
discussion of the topic "The Use of Drafting in the High School." Several 
speakers emphasized Miss Bishop's opinion that the teaching of drafting develops 
skill in handling patterns and confidence in working out original ideas together 
with ability to meet unexpected situations in the home. It seemed to be accepted 
by the majority present that drafting according to some very simple plan could 



288 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

begin in the sixth and seventh grades, thus establishing a strong working basis 
for development in the high school later. 

The topics "Material for Table Tops" and "Location of Large Pieces of Equip- 
ment in School Kitchens" could not be discussed at length because of the limited 
time. It was voted that the ideal kitchen accomodates twelve workers, and that 
since so many considerations arise in determining what should be in any school 
kitchen, it is best to discuss kitchen construction and equipment simply in terms 
of ideal conditions. The materials discussed for use on table tops are: tile, Noris 
glass, cement fiber, wood, and Albarine — tile, of course, being preferred. Three 
general plans were suggested for the arrangement of the tables: the hollow square, 
two parallel lines, and the group method. No decision was reached as to 
preference. Fred C. Whitcomb. 

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. 

HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE. 

The Seventh Annual High School Conference was held at the University of 
Illinois on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, November 17-19, 1910, with the 
largest attendance in the history of these conferences. The increase in attendance 
from seventy-five in 1905 to nearly eight hundred in 1910 is certainly a remarkable 
growth, and demonstrates the fact that the High School Conference is meeting 
the needs of the high schools of the state. 

The principal features of the general sessions were two addresses: "Needed 
Readjustments in the High School Curriculum" by Professor E. C. Elliot, Depart- 
ment of Education, University of Wisconsin; and "State Aid to High Schools in 
Minnesota, and How it Works." by George B. Aiton, State High School Inspector. 

There were twelve sections represented, each with two sessions on Friday 
morning and afternoon, as follows: Administration, Agriculture, Biology, Classics, 
Commercial Studies, Domestic Science, English, Mathematics, Modern Languages, 
Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Manual Arts. The Manual Arts Section 
held two interesting sessions in the Lecture Room of the Wood Shops. W. T. 
Bawden was appointed Chairman and P. J. Freeman, in charge of the Mechanical 
Engineering Shops of the University of Illinois, Secretary. William H. Varnum, 
Director of Fine Arts at James Millikin University, Decatur, was the first speaker, 
and as chairman, presented the report of the committee appointed at the Con- 
ference in 1908 to arrange courses of study in mechanical drawing, freehand 
drawing and design that would be recognized by the University for entrance 
credit. The report outlines work for grades one to eight inclusive, and also the 
four years of high school. For students desiring to prepare for engineering or 
architecture, a special high school course is prepared, giving more attention to 
mechanical drawing, design and crafts. In this course it is recommended that 
approximately one-third of the time be given to representative drawing, one- 
third to modeling, design and crafts work, and one-third to mechanical drawing. 
In the regular high school course, approximately one-third of the time should be 
devoted to representative drawing and two-thirds to decorative composition, 
design, constructive design and crafts work. It is proposed that this high school 
work be offered for a credit of two units on the basis of 240 hours for each. The 



ASSOCIATIONS. 289 

work outlined for the grades is such as will prepare the student to do his high 
school work to the best advantage. 

The members of the committee working with Mr. Varnum were Miss Ida M. 
Tindall, Supervisor of Drawing, Pontiac, Fred D. Crawshaw, Department of 
Education, University of Wisconsin, E. V. Lawrence, formerly connected with 
the Fine Arts Department of the University of Illinois, and F. D. Thompson, 
Galesburg. The outlines of work as submitted by the committee are substantially 
in agreement with those adopted by the North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools and the Western Drawing and Manual Training Association. 

In the discussion following the report, some doubt was expressed as to the 
ability of the average high school student to do the work outlined. The chairman 
of the committee reported that inasmuch as the syllabus was a collection of various 
methods of doing this sort of work, it was not to be considered something new and 
untried, but the result of actual experience in the different schools. It was 
brought out in the discussion that the drawing courses are all tending toward the 
practical and the opinion was expressed by some members that there should be 
more mechanical drawing in the grades. After considerable discussion as to the 
advisability of adopting the report of the committee at this time, a motion was 
made and carried that the report be adopted. 

The next speaker was Supt. F. U. White, of Galva, who reported upon the 
results obtained from the use of the first unit of manual training. The speaker 
said that no difficulty was found in doing the work prescribed and that the 
students were putting in extra time in order to be allowed to take the work in 
manual training. He found that there is great value in the use of simple ex- 
ercises as a means of leading up to the more advanced work. Of the students 
eligible to take the work in manual training the first year, ninty-nine per cent 
of the students were enrolled ; for the second year there were eighty-one per cent, 
fifty-two per cent for the third, and twenty-seven per cent for the fourth year. 

The next speaker was Miss Anna G. Brown, supervisor of manual training, 
Jacksonville, who said that the work was easy to follow out and suggested that the 
list of electives should be larger so that the majority should not feel tied down 
to a rigid course. A. C. Newell, director of manual training, State Normal 
University, Normal, reported that he had found it a good plan to present the re- 
view work in the first part of the first year of high school in the form of exercises 
quite different from those used in the eighth grade. He was of the opinion that 
some modification of the exercise method is better than to attempt to build large 
pieces of furniture which requife too much time to finish. 

The next speaker was Superintendent H. B. Wilson, of Decatur, whose subject 
was "Motivising in Manual Training." The speaker illustrated very aptly how 
much better work may be accomplished if the person is only interested in what he 
is doing. He suggested that the child should be taught that there is something 
to be gained by doing any certain work; lead him to attempt to make some ob- 
ject which he may present to the school or to his parents and then if he encounters 
difficulties in the construction of the object, he should be shown by means of the 
exercises how that difficulty can be overcome. Thus he will be led on, rather 
than driven, and with much better results. He does not then do the work blindly 
but goes at it like an artist who attacks any problem in design. If the teacher 



290 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

will look to the play of the boy in school he will find many things which can 
wisely be made in the manual training course. Let the boy make a sled in the 
winter season or ornaments of metal and he will not only get the practice but 
the pleasure as well. The child will feel that the thing he is doing has a purpose 
and some meaning and will gladly do all necessary work to accomplish the end 
desired. 

The meeting adjourned at noon for luncheon which was served by the faculty 
of the University of Illinois in the gymnasium of the Woman's Building. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The first speaker at the afternoon session was Professor F. D. Crawshaw, 
University of Wisconsin, who presented an outline of work to be offered for the 
second unit in manual training. The first unit of work has already been outlined 
and accepted by the University of Illinois. In discussing the details of the work 
to be offered for the second unit, Mr. Crawshaw recommends that no single line 
of work be prescribed, but that the student be offered the opportunity to elect from 
the group consisting of machine drawing, wood-turning and pattern-making, 
wood-turning and cabinet-making, forging and machine-shop. It is proposed that 
any combination of the subjects may be made providing the student does no less 
than 180 hours in any given subject towards credit for the second unit. It was 
suggested that the presentation of this work should be in the form of a manual 
and not merely an outline. It should consist of the course of study and outline, 
together with a set of suggestions for the teaching of the subjects. We need a 
standardization which will permit a certain amount of latitude, rather than an 
ironclad outline. In reply to a question it was suggested that a bibliography be 
added to the outline. The Manual Arts Section voted to recommend to the general 
Conference Committee of the University that the report be printed for distribution. 

The next speaker was Miss Harriet Day of the University of Illinois upon the 
relations between art and manual training. The speaker stated that the high 
school is too much a preparatory place for the college; that it does not train 
sufficiently for life work. The period of reconstruction has continued from after 
the Civil War until 1896, as can be shown by the many ugly decorations in 
buildings and design, but now we are beginning an era of more simple tastes. 
The idea of the design in color should be taught which would aid in the selection 
of every day materials in life, so that the purchaser would be guided by proper 
harmony in color and not by price. Teach manual arts to train the pupil to 
design objects which may serve a useful purpose. There is great need for 
household arts and also art in dress so that we may not blindly follow fashions. 

A permanent executive committee was appointed to have charge of the ac- 
tivities of the ensuing year and the arrangements for the program for the 1911 
Conference. This committee is composed of E. J. Lake, department of fine arts 
of the University of Illinois, Chairman; Miss Clara E. Ela, director of art de- 
partment, State Normal University, Normal; Miss Anna G. Brown, supervisor 
of manual training, Jacksonville; and A. P. Laughlin, supervisor of manual 
training, Peoria. 



ASSOCIATIONS. 291 

Dean W. F. M. Goss of the College of Engineering was present and took the 
opportunity to express his appreciation of the work of the Manual Arts Section. 
He stated his opinion that the time may come when the work of the college in the 
field of manual training will be given over to the high school, and the college will 
then push further into engineering fields in its shopwork. The engineering college 
must take up the problems of shop management, costs, etc., and other similar 
questions, and leave the elementary work to the high schools. 

P. J. Freeman, 
Department of Mechanical Engineering, 
University of Illinois. 

BOSTON MANUAL TRAINING CLUB. 

A special meeting of the Club was held at the North Bennet Street Industrial 
School, Saturday, November 19, to listen to an address by Robert H. Lawsson, 
Director of the Beverly Industrial School of the United Shoe Machinery Com- 
pany, Beverly, on "Mechanical Drawing for Industrial Schools." In this school 
practically no time is spent on geometrical figures; the work of drawing and 
sketching parts of the machines which are made in the shop is begun at once. A 
new idea is the making of assembly drawings on brown paper and then having 
the student go over the pencil-lines with colored pencils; thus, yellow for brass, 
blue for steel, black for cast iron. In this way the boys were able to grasp the 
idea of the shape and position of the various parts and the board of engineers 
is saved much time in checking the drawings. 

The regular meeting for December was held on Saturday, the 3d, at which 
time Arthur Carpenter gave a very inteesting and instructive talk on the "Origin 
and Manufacture of Various Varnishes and Glues." The talk was illustrated 
with a large number of specimens showing the various kinds of products and 
the stages of manufacture. — Edwin M. Roberts, Secretary, 

74 Stevens Street, Lowell, Mass. 

MISSOURI TEACHERS' ASOCIATION. 

The Missouri State Teachers' Association met in annual session in St. Joseph, 
November 10-12, over four thousand teachers registering. In the general and 
department meetings considerable attention was given to manual, industrial and 
vocational training. In fact the broad theme running thru the program might 
be called "The Practical vs. the Cultural Aim of Education." 

President J. A. Koentz, of Carrollton, in his address on "What is a Practical 
Education?" defined the term to mean and include the ability to live in harmony 
with one's age and surroundings, to contribute to the material or spiritual interests 
of mankind or both, and thru this ministry to be enabled to earn an honest living, 
He also said that the present trend toward vocational training is no cause for 
alarm. On the contrary, it is a hopeful sign when the relation of an education 
to a life of usefulness can be clearly and directly traced. 

"Resolved, That the Public Schools Should be Vocationalized." was to have 
been debated by Dr. A. E. Winship, Editor Journal of Education, Boston, and 



292 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

J. C. Monaghan, of New York. Prof. Monaghan was ill and unable to be present 
and his place was taken by Supt. Carroll G. Pearse of Milwaukee. The main 
points brought out by the affirmative was that the great waste in natural re- 
sources now going on in America could be minimized if vocations were taught in 
the schools, and that the great numbers of boys and girls, who go out of the 
schools unprepared to earn a living, could be given the knowledge of a trade. 
Dr. Winship contended that to teach boys and girls trades would but place on 
the market more persons than would be necessary in certain trades, and that 
places would have to be sought at other employments. He declared that if boys 
went thru school and secured a good high school education, they nearly always 
found renumerative employment. He favored manual training as now taught 
in the schools. 

C. G. Rathmann, assistant superintendent, St. Louis, read a paper on "The 
Progress of Vocational Education in Germany," before the Educational Council. 
•'How Can the Demand That Industrial Training be Made an Integral Part of. 
the Elementary School be Fulfilled?" was the topic discussed in the Department 
of Elementary Schools: 1. Guiding Principles, Prof. W. W. Charters, Univ. of 
Mo., Columbia; 2. Practical Problems Involved, Miss Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Asst. Supt., Rochester, N. Y. 

Before the Department of Drawing and Manual Training several ten-minute 
papers were read, followed by an address on "The Trade School and Manual 
Training," by Lewis Gustafson, superintendent David Rankin School of Trades 
St. Louis. He said, in part: 

"Trade training is not manual training as the latter is now popularly under- 
stood. It is not the making of raffia baskets, or glove-boxes, or mission furniture, 
or hammered metalwork. It is not even household cooking, or home dressmaking 
or millinery. These things are all excellent; they are essential elements of our 
modern education; but they are not trade teachings; they are not industrial ed- 
ucation ; only by the greatest laxity of interpretation are they vocational training. 
They are not vocational, because they do not train for a vocation; they are not 
industrial, because they have nothing whatever to do with industry. 

"Wherever and whenever manual training is taught in such a way that in 
addition to these purposes and functions it has the purpose and function of giving 
boys and girls a knowledge of the fundamental principles of industrial and other 
gainful occupations, it becomes to that extent vocational and industrial. In- 
dustrial or vocational training is more or less general. Like manual training it 
may be taken up by young children in the elementary schools. In fact it may be 
and often is incorporated with manual training; it may even be a highly in- 
tensified form of manual training. To be truly vocational it must be free from 
dilettanteism. One might call it applied manual training, in the sense that we 
speak of applied art, applied mathematics or applied science. It must be manual 
training for future vocational use. 

"Trade teaching is highly specialized and definite. It is the preparation of a 
boy or a girl for earning a living in the exercise of a vocation called a trade, and 
a definite trade at that. No child under the age of fourteen or fifteen is prepared 
to undertake seriously the learning of a trade; and sixteen or seventeen is a better 
age than fourteen. By common consent most trades take apprentices at a min- 



ASSOCIATIONS. 293 

imum age of sixteen. To speak of trade teaching in the elementary school is 
absurd. What does a child of ten or twelve or fourteen know about life that he 
should at that age choose his life vocation ? What right have we to choose it 
for him? Even if the choice were made, what could he learn that he could put 
to remunerative use of the highly specialized, highly skilled, and physically 
laborious activities of any trade? Only in the years that belong to the secondary 
school has the real trade school a place." — August Ahrens, 

State Normal School, Warrensburg, Mo. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION. 

Secretary Shepard has issued a bulletin announcing the meeting of the Depart- 
ment of Superintendence at Mobile, x\labama, February 23-25; and the Forty- 
Ninth Annual Convention of the National Education Association at San Francisco, 
July 8-14, 1911. 

ILLINOIS MANUAL ARTS ASSOCIATION. 

The announcement of the Mobile meeting one week earlier than had been 
anticipated required a change in the plans for the meeting of the Illinois Manual 
Arts Association which had been scheduled for February 24-25. The executive 
committee, after consultation with the local committees at Normal and Bloom- 
ington, decided to postpone the meeting to Friday and Saturday, March 3-4, 1911. 

The prospect of an unusually strong program and the excellence of the 
railroad connections to Bloomington should combine to make this the best meeting 
that has yet been held by the Association. The sessions on Friday afternoon and 
evening, including the annual banquet at six, will be held in the new Manual 
Arts Building of the State Normal University at Normal, and the Saturday 
morning session will meet at the Bloomington High School. 

A significant feature of this meeting is to be the presence, and participation 
on the program, of three members of the Sub-Committee on the Manual Arts, of 
the Illinois Education Commission. The chairman of the Sub-Committee, Eugene 
Davenport, Dean of the College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, will make 
the principal address following the banquet on Friday evening. Dr. David 
Felmley, President of the State Normal University, Normal, and Dr. T. C. 
Burgess, Director, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, will address the Asso- 
ciation at the Saturday morning session. A full and frank discussion of some of 
the problems of the manual arts in the public schools is promised. 

Copies of the program may be obtained from the secretary, Wilson H. Hender- 
son, Public High School, Springfield, with whom also may be made arrangements 
for banquet reservations. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

George Seaton, Editor 

MODEL MONOPLANE. 

With the increasing number of nights in aeroplanes the interest of the 
boys is being directed in many cases to the construction of models. While this 
kind of work may be best suited to the home, the teacher can help in many 
ways, as in the organizing of aviation meets, which has been done in Cleve- 
land, and by giving a few talks to the boys upon the principles underlying the 
construction of a successful flyer. At first the efforts of the boys should be 
guided toward the simpler forms of construction as these are much more 
apt to be successful. As they become better acquainted with the conditions 
that must be met, they will be able to go ahead with more elaborate types of 
construction, solving the new problems encountered with considerable enthusiasm. 

A form a trifle more simple than the one shown might be made by using 
a single propeller in place of two, but it will have the disadvantage that 
the machine will tend to tip because of the thrust of the propeller. This can 
be offset by a small weight on the opposite side. If the backbone of the machine 
shown should not prove stiff enough to resist the pull of the rubber bands used, 
a vertical strut can be added near the center of the frame and a fish, line 
run from the front, over this strut to the rear. The rear cross-strip may be 
prevented from slipping forward by the use of a small angle block glued and 
bradded to the backbone just in front of the cross-strip. This is shown in the 
side view of the machine. The cross-strip is braced by two diagonals about 
J4 inch wide and a full sixteenth thick. The main plane and the smaller one, 
termed the elevator, should be about fg inch thick at the heaviest part, just for- 
ward of the middle and taper to less than :lz at the edges. The planes should be 
curved to fit upon the bolsters which are shown in detail. The curving can 
be done by steaming in front of a teakettle spout, keeping the convex side 
toward the steam. When the proper curvature is secured the planes are bradded 
and glued to the bolsters. These bolsters are just as wide as the backbone 
and are held in position by rubber bands passing around the backbone and the 
ends of the bolsters. This allows the position of the planes to be changed to 
secure the proper elevation in flight and makes their replacing easy in case 
of damage. The propellers are intended to be cut from a solid block of wood 
as shown in the sketch, and shaped somewhat as indicated in the top view of 
the machine. A light wire runs thru the center of the propeller and thru a hole 
in the cross-strip, ending in a little hook upon which the rubber band can be 
placed. To secure light running, two glass beads are placed between the pro- 
peller and the cross-strip. The bearing in the cross-strip is not particularly good 
and could well be improved to counteract the diagonal pull of the rubber band. 
Three or four strands of rubber band is inch to % inch wide should be used, 
and are held at the front upon a small wire hook. One propeller is made 
right-handed and the other left-handed and both are wound up with the same 

294 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



295 



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296 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



297 



number of turns in opposite directions. In launching, the machine is held above 
the head with the propellers resting against the back of the hand to prevent 
their revolving, and a slight forward throw is given. The drawings are 
from a machine which weighed an ounce and a half. This is a bit light, as 
the monoplane is very fragile and easily 
damaged. The machine shown in the 
drawing is intended to fly to the left. By 
reversing the planes, it can be made to 
operate with the propellers ahead. 



This pedestal is one which has been 
made by boys in the grammar grades, 
Cleveland, under the supervision of Albert 
L. Polscher. For the upright, two pieces 
5 II" wide, and two pieces S l / 2 " wide are 
used. The two wide pieces are first 
doweled together and the narrow pieces 
are then doweled into these. The bottom 
cross-piece is screwed on and the top is 
held in place by dowels. A variation in 
the design is suggested by the use of a 
central post to which the four side pieces 
are to be doweled. In this case, of course, 
the side pieces would all be of equal 
width. The post should be about 1^2" 
square, and should be made to extend 
Y2" below and above the opening in the 
center. 

BOX. 

The problem of box construction is one 

which deserves a place in the experience 

of every boy in our manual training 

classes. A. W. Garritt gives an excellent 

analysis of the subject in the December 

number of the School Arts Book. Leon 

L. Winslow, supervisor of manual train- 
ing at Niagara Falls has secured some pedestal. 

good results along this line. The working 

drawing is copied from one produced by one of his pupils in carrying out one step 
of the problem. As presented to the class, the problem is one which may 
satisfy any one of a number of different needs of the boy. The box may 
serve for camera or electric battery, for stamps, handkerchiefs, gloves or sta- 
tionery, the only limitations set being broad ones in the way of dimensions 
and the requirement of the dado joint. Each student determines the sizes 
that will suit his needs, makes a working drawing, a decorative design to 




298 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



299 



Cooking Index. 



be applied to the sides and top, a perspective sketch of the finished box, and 
models a detail of the carving in clay. Some of the steps in the construction 
are indicated on the working drawing. A piece of V2" stock is chosen 
sufficiently long and wide to make the sides and ends. After planing the 
face side and joint edge, the piece is cut into sections for the ends and sides. 
The ends are made \ l A" longer than the inside dimensions and the sides 2" longer. 
The two sides and the two ends are 
nailed together with ^4" brads placed 
tV from the ends. By thus nailing 
the pieces together it becomes im- 
possible to make the mistake of laying 
off any of the dimension lines where 
they will will show on the completed 
box. The ends are first laid out as 
shown in Fig. 1 and then sawed apart 
on the lines. The gage-lines for the 
joint are then carried across the ends 
of the pieces with the same setting of 
the gage. The sides are gaged to *4" 
more than the inside dimension of the 
box and then planed to the gage-lines. 
The lines for the joint are laid out on 
the sides by superposition as shown in 
Fig. 2. After the grooves have been 
cut, as shown in Fig. 3, the sides are 
cut off just outside of the lines and 
the box is ready to go together. In 
putting it together the fact that one 
edge of the ends has been left un- 
planed will cause the ends to project 
a trifle above the sides, as shown in Fig. 4. After the box has been glued 
together this projection can be planed off as also the slight projection of the sides 
beyond the ends. The top and bottom are left a trifle large, and planed down 
flush with the sides of the box after the glue has set. The depth of the box and 
the depth of the cover are gaged from the bottom and from the top of the box, 
the box is sawed apart between these gage lines and the rough edges left are 
planed to the lines. The box is now ready for hinges and lock, for the final 
decoration, and the finish. 

In connection with this problem is shown a box suggested by Henry W. Leland 
of Leominster, Mass. The box made by his boys takes the form of a container 
for cooking recipes, which makes a "cook-book" far more flexible and valuable 
than the old time form. 




Use cards 3 wide 



MEGAPHONE. 



This is a project which approached quite close to the ideal in the way in which 
it solved itself after once being suggested. Perhaps its success was partly due 
to the fact that it was begun during the football season. The dimensions given 



300 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS. 



301 



are those decided upon by the boys of East Cleveland. Two designs for the 
mouthpiece are given, the first being planned for mandrel turning, while the 
second must be turned upon screw and cup chuck. In either case it is well to 
have the wood of the part away from the mouth sufficiently heavy to carry the 
tacks which hold the cardboard in place. The need for a pattern for the card- 
board taught more about the theory of development than is ordinarily possible 
by any amount of talk on the teacher's part, while the desire for the display of 
the school colors and name upon the cardboard gave an incentive for work in 
applied design and lettering. Enough cardboard was allowed for a lap to be 
fastened together with brass paper fasteners or a lacing of ribbon. 




BOXES WITH INCISED DECORATION. 



CURRENT ITEMS 

CENTRAL STATES. 

The most interesting and vital topic for educators is the question as to whether 
the capacity acquired in one study can be transferred to another. It would seem 
from the experiments that have been observed that so far as the subject matter 
is concerned it cannot be transferred, but so far as capacity is dependent upon 
the method pursued in the study, it is transferable to a considerable extent to 
studies in which the same method is used. So far as it is concerned, with the 
amount of intensive work put into a subject, the capacity acquired is transferable 
to an indefinite amount. A. Lawrence Lowell, 

President of Harvard University. 

NORTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

Thru the death of Mrs. Mary Hunt Loomis of Chicago sufficient funds are now 
available for the establishment of Loomis Institute on the site of the old Loomis 
homestead in Connecticut. The estate of Mrs. Loomis is estimated at approx- 
imately $1,500,000. and the trustees previously had $600,000. Loomis Institute 
had its beginnings in a compact entered into more than thirty-five years ago by 
four brothers and a sister. All possessed considerable property but none had 
children to inherit it and it was agreed that the wealth of each should be willed 
to Loomis Institute which should take the place of sons and daughters in the 
perpetuation of an honored name. It is expected that the school will possess 
many features similar to Pratt Institute and Simmons College. Applicants for 
admission as students must be between twelve and twenty years of age. That the 
technical side will be emphasized is apparent from the following statement made 
by John M. Taylor of Hartford, the president of the board of trustees, "So far 
as we are now able to foresee, the children and youths which may be entrusted 
to Loomis Institute will go out from it equipped to win their way in the world, 
with both head and hands." It is expected that Loomis Institute will have the 
moral and financial support of all the members of the Loomis family in America. 

"To furnish education in the mechanic arts for young men in Massachusetts" 
was the aim of Arioch Wentworth in leaving $3,500,000 for the establishment 
of Wentworth Institute in Boston. This school which is to be under the principal- 
ship of Arthur L. Williston formerly of Pratt Institute, will occupy a beautiful site 
on Huntington Avenue nearly opposite the new Museum of Fine Arts and not 
far from Simmons College. 

In a recent statement concerning the propose and scope of the institute Mr. 
Williston has said that the school is to train young men for a higher degree of 
efficiency in the mechanical trades. It will offer a limited number of courses 
two years in length, and a larger number one year in length. Mr. Williston 
says that the boys who enter Wentworth Institute will in the main come from 

302 



CURRENT ITEMS. 303 

the great army who leave the public schools at the end of the compulsory school 
period and therefore do not enter high schools. Many of them will be boys who 
have entered unskilled occupations and then finding the opportunities for ad- 
vancement too few and too uncertain, will be glad to turn back to the school that 
will offer them instruction of such a practical character that they can immediately 
use it in obtaining a higher grade of employment. It is therefore expected that 
many boys will enter Wentworth Institute with some practical experience in 
earning a living. 

A significant part of Mr. Williston's statement refers to the methods of in- 
struction. The school will aim to avoid all work that gives merely a superficial 
knowledge of shop methods. On the other hand, each of the courses offered will 
include instruction in the principles of applied sciences which are essential to 
the thoro understandng of trade processes, and the curriculum of the school 
will provide time for instruction in laying out work, in mechanical drawing, 
in trade computation and estimating, in the nature and physical properties of 
the materials used, in practical mechanics, and in any other special branch of 
applied science that may be necessary to a truer understanding of any particular 
trade. 

Nevertheless, the greatest amount of time and the greatest emphasis will, 
in every trade course, be placed upon the doing of things — upon the actual 
handling of tools and machinery, and the production of concrete practical results. 

JUL 

At a recent meeting of school superintendents of Massachusetts held at Wor- 
cester a resolution was passed from which we quote the following: "Resolved, 
That the Massachusetts Superintendents' Association believes in the education of 
the hand as well as of the brain. 

"That we are in sympathy with the efforts of the State Board of Education to 
extend industrial education in Massachusetts, especially to increase the oppor- 
tunities for better training for efficiency of pupils between the ages of 14 and 16, 
and that we pledge to that board our hearty and cordial cooperation in these 
efforts." 

-JUL 

Governor Aram J. Pothier of Rhode Island has recently made some significant 
statements concerning manual training. He says, "The past year has seen many 
converts among educators to the idea of elementary manual training in the lower 
grades. The same is true regarding agricultural courses." Again he savs, "It 
is right that we should concern ourselves deeply with the practical side of 
education, but it is vital that the higher aim of the school should not be over- 
looked. While we are training the mind and hand of the child to useful 
material ends, we must be certain that we are also training the heart and 
developing the moral sense to the highest possible state." 

JUL 

Some thoroly artistic printing is being done in the school print shop of the 
Norwich Academy, Norwich, Conn., under the manual training instructor 
Frederic H. Canston. The print shop, which he calls the Academy Press, has 



304 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

issued an excellent booklet entitled "The Inland City," a letter and poem by 
Edmund Clarence Stedman. The drawings for the illustrations were made by 
the Norwich Art School. In typography, presswork and binding, the booklet 
displays work excellent in quality. Another booklet from the same press is a 
descriptive circular of the Norwich Art School illustrated with half-tones. 

One of the latest developments in vocational education in Boston is the opening 
of a course for janitors in the Mechanics Arts high school building. This school 
is an effort to enable men now in the service to receive instruction which will 
make them more efficient in their work, and help them to earn higher grade 
liscenses under the school committee of Boston. 

At a recent meeting of the Vermont State Grange the subjects of agricultural 
education and conservation were considered in the annual address of the state 
master, C. F. Smith. He pointed out the great need of the conservation of soil 
fertility, which led him to recognize the great need of more practical education 
for the farmer. He said that we should teach our boys not only how to make 
two blades of grass grow where one grows now but how to grow four blades in 
the place of one; also how to make one blade give the net profit for the two or 
four blades. He spoke of the agricultural college as doing excellent work in all 
that it was designed to do, but pointed to a missing link between the college and 
the district school. He then proposed an agricultural high school for every county 
in the state. This should be in connection with a demonstration farm so 
that boys in the school could not only learn the science of agriculture but also 
how to apply each principle learned. He would have a department where girls, 
could be taught the art of housekeeping and home-making. In other words, 
Vermont is beginning to wake up to the need of agricultural and manual arts 
high schools similar to those already established in Minnesota and Wisconsin. 

JJL 

From October 3d to October 28th, New York City presented to its citizens a 
huge collection of charts and statistical diagrams, and models of all kinds. This 
was dubbed a Budget Exhibition from the fact that the material had been 
gathered together to show the people of the city how their money is spent. 
Estimates of the amounts needed by the different departments for the year to 
come was explained by the head of each department thru a number of striking 
and ingenious devices. 

The Board of Education, with its request for nearly thirty-six millions of 
dollars, was given a large share in the Budget Exhibition, that it might explain 
how it was going to spend this staggering sum. Its explanation was made up 
of a great collection of facts, figures, and concrete results. Over eighty charts 
explained in detail what was needed in the way of increased funds for day 
schools, evening schools, vacation schools, shops, kitchens, and the like. The two 
new vocational schools, for boys and girls, made extensive showings of their 
work. The supply department covered many tables with examples of the different 
materials furnished to the schools, and showed the economical fashion in which 



CURRENT ITEMS. 305 

these were procured and distributed. The truant school, the school for the deaf, 
the classes for defectives and classes for the blind also had a chance to make 
their appeals in concrete fashion. 

The booths which held these different exhibits were lined with photographs. 
Over four hundred of these pictures served to show the activities of every part 
of the system from the open-air classes on the ferry-boats to the truant farm. 
This pictorial showing was unique. It represented the largest exhibition of 
photographs of the city's school work which has ever been shown. Thru it 
visitors could secure in a few minutes, a view of the system from the kindergaretn 
to the highest classes of the high schools. 

Considerable space was given to the manual arts, and many charts explained 
the reasons why more shops and kitchens, and additioanl work in domestic art, 
should be provided. These charts were supported by appealing illustrations of 
the good work done. The large photographs showed the children at work, and 
the booths themselves were filled with the products of their labor. The latter 
included, for the boys, substantial pieces of furniture, and for the girls, many 
interesting examples of practical dressmaking and millinery, together with a 
toothsome exhibition of things cooked in the school kitchens. 

Many thousands of citizens visited this exhibition. On certain days it was 
estimated that not less than 20,000 persons had passed thru the halls. As an 
object lesson in the work of the city and in explanation of the complex machinery 
needed to run a great municipality, it proved most instructive and illuminating. 
There was perhaps no more interesting illustration of the attention and respect 
which it excited, than the attitude of the public toward the educational showing. 
In the month during which the show was open, an army of people, including 
large groups of children from the schools, crowded to the utmost the aisles and 
booths of the school department. In all that time, not a chart or diagram was 
wantonly injured, and the cakes and goodies of the cooking classes lying open 
upon the tables, were untouched of eager hands. 

Jut 

Dr. William H. Maxwell, superintendent of public schools in New York City 
in his last report recommended that sewing and cooking be taught to all girls 
in the seventh and eighth grades and that all girls over twelve years of age be 
taught to cook. To carry out this plan in 1911, Mrs. Mary E. Williams director 
of department of domestic science, will need twenty-five additional teachers. 
This will bring the total number of cooking teachers up to more than one hundred 
and fifty. Last year the number of sewing teachers in New York City was sixty- 
one and the number of shopwork teachers eighty-one. 

Milton E. Hershey, "the Chololate King," for whom was named the town of 
Hershey on the Reading railway, a few miles out of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
is establishing an industrial school for orphans. The plan of the school is 
similar to that of Girard College of Philadelphia. Boys will be taken when only 
six or eight years old and will remain in the school until they are eighteen, 
or until they can support themselves. At first the school will occupy the old 
Hershey homestead, but it is the intention of the founder to enlarge the school 



306 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




CURRENT ITEMS. 307 

from time to time as the number of applicants increases. In order to do this 
he has turned over to the trustees five hundred acres of land for the purpose 
of the school. Agricultue will be one of the pominent studies in the school. 
George E. Copenhaver, at present superintendent of farms for Mr. Heshey, 
will be superintendent of the new school. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

In an effort to make more effective the industrial side of the work of the 
McKinley and the Armstrong manual training schools in Washington, D. C, a 
plan has been proposed which involves changing the instruction and methods 
to suit the needs of pupils desiring to enter upon a trade immediately after 
graduation from the schools. It is proposed that both institutions give courses 
equivalent to an apprenticeship in a trade shop and to do this without omitting 
the fundamentals of a good general education. The high efficiency of these 
manual training schools in their present form is recognized, but they do not 
afford the opportunity that is desired for the development of skilled workers. 
It is pointed out in this connection that the manual training school is not doing 
for its students what the business high school is doing thru the preparation of 
stenographers and bookkeepers, who are made ready for immediate employment. 
Moreover, it is believed that many seventh and eighth grade pupils who now 
leave school could be induced to remain longer if more definite technical in- 
struction were given in these high schools. 

JJL 

It has been estimated that the total cost of building and maintaining a 
battle-ship for twenty years, the estimated life of such a ship, is about thirty- 
two million dollars. In order to make clear what this means, the Wheeling 
Register has estimated that the cost of each ship would buy eight thousand farms 
at $4,000 each, or would construct 1,600 churches at an average cost of $21,000 
each; it would build and equip fifty manual training schools with the tools and 
appliances necessary to teach useful trades to 75,000 young people each year; 
it would build a macadam road from New York to Chicago; or it would 
build and equip forty magnificent Y. M. C. A. buildings. 

NORTH CENTRAL STATES. 

The city of St. Paul, Minnesota, has opened industrial classes for backward 
boys in two of its grammar school buildings. These classes take boys who are 
slow in their school studies, place them under a man teacher and enable them 
to pursue a course which shifts the emphasis from the cultural to the practical. 
Half of the day is devoted to academic subjects and the other half to the manual 
arts, including especially mechanical drawing. The number of students in the 
school is limited so that the teacher may have an opportunity to study the needs 
of each individual boy. The aim is to allow each pupil to develop in a rational 
way. Superintendent Heeter's idea in establishing these classes is not to bring 
boys back to grade so much as it is to help them to find out their aptitudes and 
prepare them for real work in the world. 



308 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




CURRENT ITEMS. 309 

The Chicago Normal School is to have a new arts building in the near future. 
In external appearance it will probably be almost a duplicate of the present 
practice school building. It will be placed at the east end of the main building, 
and connected by a bridge. The arts building and a new gymnasium, which 
will be constructed at the same time, will together cost about $350,000. 

-&£ 

Just out of Rockford, 111., there are four districts, the school houses all located 
on an interurban line. These have consolidated, voted to build a house costing 
$18,000 on the site of the old Free Soil School. The site contains three acres. 
The building will be steam heated with fan ventilation. It will contain water 
and plumbing and electric lights. A full high school course will be offered, 
manual training, domestic science and agriculture will be taught. There will be 
an enrollment of 125 pupils. Only teachers trained in normal schools or colleges 
will be employed. The people mean to have the very best facilities for their 
children. Are there not other districts situated along electric lines that could do 
likewise? 

JUL 

From the Press Bulletin issued by the state department of public instruction 
in Illinois, we learn that the number of schools maintaining manual training 
courses has increased from 78 to 97 during the past year, and the number of 
schools maintaining domestic science from 55 to 75. 

JJL 

The sub-committee appointed by the Illinois Educational Commission to draft 
a report on the teaching of manual training, domestic science and agriculture in 
the public schools of the state has presented its report to the Commission. This 
report represents one of the most thorogoing efforts ever put forth in Illinois 
to make a study of what is desirable and what is possible in the way of offering 
instruction in these subjects in the common schools. In time the report will be 
printed for distribution. 

JJL 

Cincinnati reports success with its construction schools. The instruction is 
being given by "practical men right from the shops," and the trade unions are 
in favor of the schools. An enlargement is contemplated. 

JJL 

Superintendent Davidson of Omaha, Nebraska, is placing special emphasis on 
the need for more practical education thru manual training, including cooking 
and sewing. The Omalia Bee, in a recent editorial on vocational training, is 
seconding the efforts of the superintendent. The editorial closes with the 
following: "Our educational system should be so arranged as to furnish the great- 
est possible liberty of choice to the individual along with the most thoro training in 
the fundamentals of both mental and manual usefulness." The editorial further 
points out that the question to be determined is not whether we should have vo- 
cational training, but when it shall begin. "Experience has proven" that a large 
percentage of children attending public schools, do not advance beyond the 7th 
or 8th grades. This would seem to indicate that there is where this training is 



310 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

most needed. "The manual training high schools are doing excellent work in 
their way but they are part of the higher educational system. The children 
who drop out of school after they have finished the grammar grades, get no 
benefit whatever from the manual training given in the high school, and they 
are really the ones it is desired to reach by vocational training." 

WESTERN STATES. 

Acting in accordance with a resolution passed by the county superintendents 
of Utah at a convention held in Salt Lake City last April, a committee of these 
educators, including State Superintendent Nelson, has recently completed a 
revision of a course of study for the public schools of Utah. The revision 
applies to courses in all state schools outside of cities of the first and second 
classes and in country districts of the first class. By it more stress is to be laid 
on manual training and domestic science courses, which the committee believes 
should become an important factor in the elementary schools thruout the state. 
The new course also makes recommendations intended to modernize the methods 
of teaching in the elementary grades. 

JUL 

The city of Chico, California has just completed a thoroly modern school 
building in which there is space for manual training shops, bath room, print 
shop, and club rooms, in addition to the classrooms. The school has the use of 
a large tract of land which will be farmed every year by the pupils. All 
students receive instruction in agriculture. Some students have individual plots 
of land to look after while others work on the community plan. They seem to 
be getting their little farm down to a paying basis and market their crops in a 
businesslike way. They not only sell the garden truck to their parents, but 
they also dispose of a considerable amount to the local merchants. A school 
bank with a student office force takes care of the money, loans cash on notes 
when necessary and goes thru all the regular banking forms, giving experience 
of the right sort to both students comprising the office force and those appearing 
in the capacity of depositors and patrons. 

CANADA. 

In Winnipeg two new centers have been opened recently, and the corner stones 
of two new technical high schools have been laid. These two schools when 
equipped will cost over $800,000. They will be used for trade school teaching 
in the evenings. 

Edmonton, Alberta, has three manual training centers, each provided with 
twenty woodworking benches and all necessary tools. Clay modeling, paper 
and cardboard construction, sewing, weaving, and basketry of native willows 
are given in the lower grades. Alberta is remodeling its courses of instruction, 
and it is expected that manual training will be placed on the grant-earning list. 



CURRENT ITEMS. 311 

The Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Technical Education has 
completed its tour of Western Canada and the Pacific Slope states having 
covered about one hundred cities and towns and taken testimony of some fifteen 
hundred witnesses since the first of November. The Commissioners report that 
everywhere they have found a great recent development of interest in educational 
matters generally and particularly in technical education. The Commission will 
sail for Europe late in February and will spend approximately two months in 
Great Britain, one month in France, one in Germany, and one divided among 
the smaller countries. 

ENGLAND. 

The genial editor of Manual Training, H. Williams, Smith, has recently been 
selected to establish manual training work in the Commercial Travellers' schools 
at Pinner in Middlesex. These schools prepare solely for commercial pursuits, 
but are desirous of having the best of manual instuction for its general edu- 
cational value. 

James T. Baily of St. Albans has resigned the business managership of Manual 
Training and accepted an associate editorship on the same journal. He will take 
charge of the examination department and the "Model of the Month." 

The death of John H. Naylor in October removed one of the most active of 
the London teachers of manual training. For about nine years he has been 
associated with Evan Ortner in the manual training works at the Royal Military 
Academy, Woolwich. Last summer he was the director of the school for teachers 
at Brighton. He was at one time the secretary of the London branch of the 
National Association of Manual Training Teachers, and later the general 
secretary. He was a member of the examinations board of the National Union 
of Teachers. 



REVIEWS 

Principles of Educational Woodwork. By Charles S. Binns and Rufus E. 
Marsden. Published by J. M. Dent & Co., London, and E. P. Dutton & Co., 
New York, 1909 7 l / 2 x 5in. ; pp. 310; price 5s. net. 

This epoch-making book which recently came to my desk has been read, and 
part of it re-read, with the greatest interest, and having found it worth while I 
shall carefully study the chapters on pedagogy till the authors' methods become 
fully assimilated. 

The aim of the book is not the giving of information about tools and processes, 
or a "subject content" for manual training teachers, but rather the pointing out 
of scholarly and practical methods of teaching from the psychological side. And 
best of all, it is not written by a psychologist, but by experienced manual training 
men who are evidently skilled and have knowledge of tools and processes, and 
besides all this, know how to apply the best educational methods to shopwork. 
Up to the present time but little has been printed in book form on the pedagogy 
and psychology of manual training that is concrete enough to be really helpful 
to the handwork teacher. This book will be of special benefit to young teachers, 
and in fact to any one who has not made a long study of the best methods of 
class instruction in shopwork. 

In the United States there are at least four types of demands upon the manual 
training teacher which are very difficult to harmonize. These may be classified 
as follows: 

(1) Demands from school boards for "so called" practical work, meaning 
repair work, and construction of articles useful to the school district (making a 
logical course impossible). 

(2) Strong demand for trade instruction. 

(3) Influence of the artists who claim that design should be basic, and 
that a feeling for form, outline and decoration is more important than sequences 
of tool processes. 

(4) The demand of the psychologists who claim that handwork has no place 
in schools unless it has a "subject content," and that courses must be arranged 
in progressive steps which will excite the instincts which give impulses to action ; 
mainly, play, curiosity and ownership. 

The authors ignore the first demand, probably because if carried to an extreme 
it has proved a failure sooner or later wherever tried. They have little to say 
about trade or industrial education, important as they may be, most likely because 
they do not consider it the same as manual training, and realize that trade or 
industrial work can be profitable only where considerable time can be given to 
it, obtaining skill by repeating the processes or by using factory methods. Such 
work is for special schools and is of little value to any except those children who 
are to go into the industries. The value of art or design influence is emphasized 
as being very important, but the greatest stress of all is put upon lesson plans 
and the proper development of each process. Methods of class teaching are 
illustrated and little is said about individual teaching. Manual training teachers 

312 



REVIEWS. 313 

who use the individual method will be agreeably surprised at the benefits that 
come from class teaching, and this book shows how the latter method can be used. 

The chapters on motor training, interest and attention are written from the 
view point of experienced manual training teachers. The authors take the 
ground that the work given to the child should interest him as much as possible, 
and his attention will be greatly increased thereby. 

The chapter on discipline ought to be read by every manual training teacher 
as it is full of helpful suggestions. The few paragraphs in the chapter on the 
teacher are only too short, and contain a list of books dealing with methods of 
education, child study, psychology and manual training. 

Two chapters are given to trees and timber, one to tools and materials, another 
to drawing, and the last to suggestions for bench work in wood, with a large 
number of working drawings in the back of the book. The last few chapters 
are not of especial interest to Americans, having been written for the teachers of 
England where the conditions are somewhat different in many respects from our 
own. 

I believe that this book will be much used by classes in manual training or- 
ganization in our Normal Schools and Universities in the near future, and will 
find a place in the library of every manual training teacher. Superintendents, 
principals and members of school boards would be wiser, more practical and 
helpful if they would read the first few chapters, — but this is only a dream, not 
to come true in these busy days. A. C. Newell. 

Director of Manual Training, Illinois State Normal University, 

Normal, 111. 

Elementary Cabinet Work. By Frank Henry Selden. Rand, McNally & Co., 
Chicago, 1909; pp. 278; price, $1.00. 

This book covers the general principles of furniture construction as dealt with 
in the manual training shop. It is intended to be placed in the hands of each 
pupil and presupposes on his part a knowledge of the correct use of common 
woodworking tools. 

Part I deals in a general way with the various joints, forms of construction, 
and methods of working applicable to furniture making in a school shop. Part 

II deals with type forms of cabinet work, showing working drawings and illus- 
trations of finished pieces such as stools, tables, cases, cabinets and frames. Part 

III describes briefly some of the tools and materials necessary for cabinet work 
that would not ordinarily be used in elementary woodwork. 

The book is profusely illustrated thruout, showing completed models and rep- 
resenting the steps and processes in laying out, cutting, fitting and assembling 
various types of cabinet work. The directions for the use of tools and methods 
of construction described, tho appearing to be somewhat individual at times, 
are thoroly workmanlike in character and clearly and concisely written. For 
the sake of the technical infomation contained in the book it would be of great 
value in the hands of any pupil. 

Some of the drawings are disappointing in regard to technique and the illus- 
trations are not all as clear as might be desired. A statement in the introduction 
implies that design is to be taught thru the variety of designs presented and 



314 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

the sugestions for new forms and combinations. Some of these suggestions 
are loose and misleading, as for example the following, "The use for which 
the box is made determines the dimensions of height, width, and length. There 
are no set rules. The nearer the box is to the form of a cube, the more it will 
hold for the amount of material on the outside." Clearly the suggestions re- 
garding design are made from the standpoint of the factory designer rather 
than from that of the craftsman or artist. Louis F. Olson, 

Director of Manual Training, 
Madison, Wis. 

RESERVED FOR LATER NOTICE. 

The Essentials of Character. By Edward O. Sisson, professor of education, 
University of Washington, published by the Macmillan Company, New York. 
Price, $1.00. 

Tlie Flush of Dawn. By Henry Turner Bailey, editor of the School Arts 
Book, published by the Davis Press, Worcester, Massachusetts. Price, $1.25. 

Carton Designing for Juniors. By Joseph Henry Judd, superintendent of 
handicraft, Manchester, England, published by E. J. Arnold & Son, Leeds. 



. Technical Training in the Berkeley High School. By Charles S. Evans, 
director of the department of mechanic arts, Berkeley, California. A small 
pamphlet discussing high school manual training work and showing boys at 
work building and equipping a workshop. 

Glamorgan Summer School. A. Sutcliffe, organizer, Barry, Wales. 

Report of Commissioner of Education. Volume 1, 1910. Bureau of Education, 
Washington, D. C. Contains a chapter on industrial education in the United 
States, a chapter on the Prussian system of vocational schools, one on agricultural 
education, and several other chapters of interest to students of present day 
problems in education. 

Manual Arts Number of Bulletin of State Normal School, Platts-ville, Wisconsin. 
V. M. Russell, instructor in manual arts. An illustrated circular giving many 
problems in manual training which correlate with science instruction, engineering, 
sports, and life on the farm. 

Sloyd Training School, Boston, Massachusetts. Circular for the twenty-second 
year of this famous school directed by Gustaf Larsson. 

Legislation upon Industrial Education in the United States. By Edward C. 
Elliott, professor of education, University of Wisconsin, and C. A. Prosser, 
deputy commissioner of education in Massachusetts. This is bulletin No. 12 
published by the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, and 
is a most comprehensive and helpful publication on the subject. It contains a 
table giving a comparative analysis of state legislation on industrial and trade 
education in Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Wisconsin, Ohio, and 
New Jersey. 




THE LATE SENATOR JAMES H. STOUT, OF WISCONSIN 



VOLUME XII NUMBER 4 



Manual Training Magazine 



APRIL, 1911 



COOPERATIVE PLAN FOR WOODWORK IN RURAL 
SCHOOLS. 

Clinton S. Van Deusen. 
With Drawings by Edwin V. Lawrence. 

IN considering the need of manual training in rural schools, it may 
be said that manual training would give boys new interests and tend 
to keep them on the farm ; it would keep more boys in school. Farm 
work needs system, and manual training would help to develop it. 
Modern farm machinery requires technical knowledge such as is gained 
in manual training work. It is not, however, the purpose of this paper 
to discuss the need of manual training, but rather to take for granted 
that this need is recognized by those who have given thought to the 
matter, and to offer a practical plan for carrying it on. 

Few people realize how strenuous is the day's work of a rural school 
teacher, and how unsatisfactory are many of the conditions under which 
she works. Any plan which materially adds to her labors is out of the 
question, especially when we consider that about fifteen per cent of such 
teachers have received less than a high school education and more than 
ten per cent of them are teaching without previous experience. Of 
course, it is not impossible for some of the stronger or more experienced 
teachers, or for those working under the best of conditions, actually to 
carry on some manual training work without assistance. Instances can 
be referred to where excellent work is now being done, but this is the 
rare exception and cannot soon become the rule. The purpose in pre- 
senting the plan outlined in this paper is to suggest a means by which 
woodworking can be given where it is most needed, that is, in the less 
favored schools. 

315 



316 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

In preparing the data given below I was assisted by W. C. Cushing, 
a student at Bradley Polytechnic Institute. He became so much in- 
terested in the subject that he finally selected it for his graduating thesis, 
and tried out the plan in a one-room country school. The selection of 
Mr. Cushing to assist me was indeed fortunate, as he was able to bring 
to the work experience both as a pupil and teacher in rural schools, also 
experience as principal of a graded school. 

In considering how to present the subject, it was decided that it would 
be better to work out a definite plan that could be followed under some- 
what unfavorable conditions than to confuse the subject by experiment- 
ing with several plans that might be followed under various conditions. 
Teachers working under better conditions can easily extend or modify 
the plans proposed for the less favored. 

The essentials of the proposed plan are as follows: A director is to 
be employed for twenty-five schools. He is to visit each school once a 
week, directing and criticizing the work of the boys, who do most of 
their work when the director is not present, working from illustrated 
typewritten or printed instructions. The director is also responsible for 
planning the course and providing material, and has general care of the 
equipment. By this plan the regular teacher's work is certainly not in- 
creased and by interested cooperation with the director, her cares may 
be considerably reduced. 

The following are possible schedules for the director and the boys, 
but of course these would have to be rearranged to meet different con- 
ditions. 

Possible schedule for one day's ivork of Director — 

8-9 A.M. 10-11 A.M. 12-1 P.M. 2-3 P.M. 4-5 P.M. 

1st School. 2d School. 3d School. 4th School. 5th School. 

Possible schedule for five boys, A , B, C, D, and E — 

8-9 A.M. 12-1 Noon 4-5 P.M. 

Monday A B D 

Tuesday B C E 

Wednesday C D A 

Thursday D E B 

Friday E A C 

It will be noticed that the vital part of the plan is the director. He 
should be a good, enthusiastic teacher, altho most of his teaching is done 
thru the typewritten instructions which the boys follow. He should be 
a good organizer and manager, so that the work will move along 
promptly and smoothly without delays such as might be caused by 



COOPERATIVE PLAN FOR RURAL SCHOOLS. 



317 



lack of equipment or material. He should have a thoro knowledge of 
woodworking and of the tools used in the work, and should be really 
in sympathy with the boys and their life on the farm. Of course it will 
be difficult to find men 
filling all of these require- 
ments until steps are 
taken to prepare teachers 
for such work. 

In studying the question 
of equipment for the 
work, considerable 
thought has been given to 
designing a 1 o w-c o s t 
bench. A working draw- 
ing of this bench is given 
in Plate I. It is made of 
such stock material as 
could be secured from anv 
lumber dealer and it is 
simple in construction. 
The vise, which is very 
often the expensive part of 

a bench is made with a five cent wing-nut bolt, and the entire material 
used in making the bench should cost less than one dollar. In using 
the vise it is clamped as tight as possible by turning the wing-nut and 
then a further tightening is accomplished by pushing down the lever 
which is fastened to the head of the bolt. The bench has but two legs 
which support the front of it, and provision is made for screwing the 
back of it against a wall. Under some conditions it might be advisable 
to place it in the schoolroom but often a better place can be found in the 
coat-room or elsewhere. This bench with the tools listed below provides 
an effective equipment for carrying on the proposed work. 




Bench. 

Handy saw— Bishop. 

Brace. 

One each, auger-bits — tV, %", 1", 1%". 

Bit-stock drill 4/32". 
Countersink. 
Sloyd knife. 



EQUIPMENT. 

Jack-plane — Stanley No. 5, with extra 

iron for each pupil. 
Block-plane — Stanley No. 9%. 
Hammer. 
Try-Square. 
Marking-gauge. 
Screwdriver. 



31S 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 





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COOPERATIVE PLAN FOR RURAL SCHOOLS. 



319 



Foot rule. 

Spokeshave — Stanley No. 54. 

1 " Firmer — chisel. 

%." Firmer — chisel. 

1 " Firmer — gouge. 



Combination oilstone — India No. 029. 

Bench-hook. 

Bench-brush. 

Planing support. 

Winding sticks. 

Dowel-plate. 



In planning the course it is not necessary that all, or even most, of the 
earlier models be distinctively farm models, but they should be such as 
will be of real interest to the boys and should involve fundamental tool 
processes which the boy may use later in making things for the farm. It 
should, however, be remembered that a large part of the value of this 
work is the training the boy receives in doing things in a systematic and 
orderly way. System in doing things is a fundamental habit that should 
be cultivated in boys that they may be effective workers in their later 
life. Few, if any, other school subjects offer so good an opportunity 
for this training as woodworking. The course as outlined below is 
suggestive but need not be followed. Any course should, however, be 
as carefully planned as this one. For the eighth grade the work has not 
been outlined, but it will be noticed that in the list of suggested models 
a larger number are directly connected with farm life. 



Models. 



proposed course for seventh grade. 
Tool Processes. 



Prepared stock. 



1 — Peck crate Measuring \ 

2 — Marble-board Knife lining [ 

3 — Bird-house Crosscut-sawing ( 

Nailing j 

4 — Gobang board Gaging } 

5 — Counting board Boring, peg-making > Prepared stock. 

6 — Window stick Rip-sawing ) 

7 — Rope wind Free planing 

8 — Coat-and-hat rack. . Accurate planing. 

9 — Stirring paddle Simple modeling, sanding. 

10— Pen-tray Gouging. 

11 — Broomholder Vertical chiseling, use of screws. 

12 — Windmill Simple joinery. 

13 — Milk-stool. 



SUGGESTED MODELS FOR EIGHTH GRADE. 



Dibble, hygroscope, hatchet handle, swingletree, trestle, sled, saw-buck, 
chicken-coop, chicken-feeder, egg-tester, snow-plow, garden marker, dog-kennel, 
wagon-jack. 



320 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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COOPERATIVE PLAN FOR RURAL SCHOOLS. 321 

In regard to the material it might be said that the school should not 
be expected to supply more than the instruction, and if the boys want 
the completed models they should pay for the material. If, however, 
they do not care to take the models under these conditions, the director 
may sell them to other pupils or to outsiders. 

The cost of the entire equipment for the work should not be more than 
twelve dollars for each school, which is less than is paid for many of the 
charts and maps purchased for rural schools. The expense of mainten- 
ance is estimated as follows : The salary of the director should be twelve 
hundred dollars a year, and he should be able to pay traveling expenses, 
supply typewritten instructions and so manage the material problem that 
the added expense would not exceed $300 per year. This would be 
an increase of sixty dollars in the annual expense of the school, but it 
would be an investment in progressive education that would yield big 
returns in the better development of the young men of the country. In 
reality it means that a farmer now paying a tax of ten dollars would be 
called on to pay but one dollar additional. I am sure that the farmers 
of this land will not let the crop of boys go neglected for this paltry sum. 

In trying out the plan as referred to above, Mr. Gushing arranged 
to give it a trial in a one-room school located two and one-half miles 
from the Institute. He conducted the work as if he was the director 
and this was one of his twenty-five schools. The experiment proved 
very satisfactory, and it is felt that the plan is thoroly practical as far 
as each school is concerned. The question yet to be solved is whether 
it is possible to get twenty-five schools to cooperate in the plan. It 
might be added that the county superintendent and teacher were very 
favorably impressed with the work as carried on in this school, and the 
boys were very enthusiastic over it. All the pieces were paid for by the 
makers except one, and that was eagerly purchased by a fellow pupil. 

Consolidation of schools is an excellent idea to be carried out where 
possible for improving conditions in rural schools, but the consolidation 
idea has been in existence for about twenty-five years and still there are 
many one-room schools and many persons believe there will be for a long 
time to come. Shall we not try to help these schools in some other way? 
This plan is an effort along this line. Instead of concentrating the 
equipment as in the consolidated school it is distributed among the 
twenty-five schools, and instead of transporting the pupils to the con- 
solidated school the director is transported to the twenty-five schools. 



322 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



Below is given a copy of the typewritten instructions and drawings 
for making the first model as worked up and used by Mr. Gushing in 
the school referred to : 

EXERCISE I— THE PECK CRATE (PLATE II). 
1. Never use a pencil unless the directions say to use one. 





FIG. 1. 



2. From Fig. 1 learn the parts of a try-square and be ready to name them 
when I come again. 

3. Before beginning to work on a piece of wood, look it over; select the 
better face and mark it with a light pencil line., thus /, Fig. 2. This is called, the 




fig. 3. 



working face. In the same way select the better side and mark it with two light 
pencil lines, thus //. This side is called the joint side. 

4. Never put a try-square on a piece of wood unless the face of the beam 
rests against either the working face or the joint side (Fig. 3). 

5. Mark the working face and the joint side of one of the long sticks (Fig. 2), 
as explained in paragraph 3. 



SQUARING AROUND. 

6. Make a knife-line around the stick, far enough from the end to be on 
perfect wood, in the following manner: Place the beam of the square against 



COOPERATIVE PLAN FOR RURAL SCHOOLS. 



323 




FIG. 4. 



either the working face or the joint side. Figs. 4 and 5 show how to hold the 
try-square. Next draw a line with the point of the knife along the blade of the 
square. Fig. 8 shows how to hold the knife. Place the square on another side 
so that a line may be drawn which connects with the end of the line drawn. 
Continue to draw 
the knife-line en- 
tirely around the 
piece. This is called -; 
squaring around. 
Before placing the 
square upon the 
wood, see that the 
beam comes against 
one of the sides 

which you have marked. Fig. 3 shows that the line may be drawn on two faces 
with the beam against the joint side, and on two sides with the beam against the 
working face. The lines should meet at the four edges of the stick if you have 
followed the instructions. If they do not meet, find your mistake and correct it, 
or move over one-quarter of an inch and square around again. 

SAWING OFF. 

7. You are now ready to saw off the end. Notice that saw teeth are on each 
edge of the saw. Use the finer saw ; it is the cross-cut saw. Saw as close to the 
line as you can without touching it, keeping the saw out in the waste wood (Fig. 9). 

MEASURE TO LENGTH. 

8. With the rule in the right 
hand and the try-square in the 
left hand, slide the try-square 
along until the edge of the blade 
is 8" (the mark " means inches) 
from the end just sawed (Fig. 6). 
Lay down the rule without mov- 
ing the square and draw a knife- 
line across the stick at the edge 
of the blade of the square. Con- 
tinue this line around stick as 






FIG. 7. 



fig. 8. 



324 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



explained in paragraph 6. In measuring the longer pieces the knife should be used 
as in Fig. 7. 




fig. 9. 



9. Saw off at this line (Fig. 9). Which side of the line must you saw in order 
to leave the piece just 8" long? 

10. In a similar manner saw four pieces S" long. Be sure to square around 
each end. Holding them all in your hand, stand them on ends on some level 

surface, and see if they are equal in length. 
If any are not of the correct length, lay 
them aside and make others. If your 
pieces are not of the correct length, will 
your crate hold just a peck? Will you be 
proud of your work? 

11. Next saw two pieces 6%". Use 
the pieces which you have spoiled, if there 
are any. Remember to square around every 
time before you saw. 

12. You have now sawed all the 
pieces for one end of the crate; see the end 
view in the drawing of the crate. Lay the 
two dV-i" pieces flatwise on the table and 
parallel. Select two of the 8" pieces which 
are exactly of a length and nail them, as 
illustrated in Fig. 10, with one brad in each 
end of each piece. Take care to make the 
pieces "flush" or even at the ends. From 
the drawings, see where to put the brads. 
Now square the frame as shown in Fig. 10, 

and drive in the other brads. Test again with the square. Nail on the other pieces, 
getting the location from the drawings. Take care that the hammer does not mar 
the wood. 

13. Saw, as explained before, ten pieces 12%" long. Take your time and be 
accurate. Test for length as explained in paragraph 10. If any are not of the 
correct length, lay them aside and saw others. 

14. Saw three pieces 11%" long, using the pieces which you have just spoiled, 
if possible. 




FIG. 10. 



COOPERATIVE PLAN FOR RURAL SCHOOLS. 



325 



15. Saw pieces for the other end and nail them together as explained in 
paragraphs 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. 

16. Select four of the 12%" pieces which are exactly of the same length and 
nail, with one brad in each end of each piece, to the two end pieces as shown in 
Fig. 11. See that the ends of these slats are just flush with the corners of the end 
frames. Test with the try-square ; straighten, and drive in the other brads. Use 
the large brads. Nail on the other side slats, getting the location from the drawing. 

17. Turn the crate so that the bottom may be nailed on (see the two views on 
the drawing). Nail on the two outside slats with one brad in each end of each 
piece. Make them flush with whatever they join. Test with square and straighten ; 
drive in other brads. Nail on other bottom slats, getting location from the drawing. 




fig. 11. 




THE SECOND YEAR NIGHT SCHOOL CLASS 
IN ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING IN THE MARYLAND 
INSTITUTE. 

II. TRAINING IN FRAME CONSTRUCTION 
AND DETAILING. 1 

James Frederick Hopkins. 

THE first article of this series outlined a four years course in arch- 
itectural drafting planned upon a basis which would appeal to 
the artisan. In attempting to describe the spirit of this work we 
tried to show how it had been made to parallel the needs of the boss car- 
penter, the expert mill-man, the careful building superintendent, and the 
broad minded architect in training readers of drawing and draftsmen for- 
useful service in these four related fields. 

It is the purpose of the present article to describe briefly the work of 

'Copyright, 1911, by James Frederick Hopkins. 

326 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



327 




THE PENCILED "LAYOUT" 

FOR THE STUDY OF FRAMED CONSTRUCTION. 

This reproduction, which for the sake of convenience and clearness, was 
made in ink instead of pencil, shows the character of the "Layout." Certain 
lines, such as center and checking lines, which were an important and necessary 
part of the student's lightly penciled drawing have been omitted. The positions 
and dimensions of the house masses were taken from a blueprint, copies of 
which were furnished to all students of the class. This blueprint was laid 
out on V s " scale, while the study of frame construction was to be on 1 /i" scale. 



328 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




STUDY OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

This is a reproduction of the drawing carried into its First Stage and 
showing foundations, piers, cellar windows, and water-table completed, and 
the first floor laid. This drawing should be studied in connection with the 
sketch and its notes on the opposite page. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



329 



the second year, wherein the interest centers on a knowledge of con- 
struction, full size detailing, and special problems in the field of frame 
structures for service with the mill-men or on the buildings. 

Many teachers who have outlined consistent courses in architectural 
drafting and who have aimed so to arrange their problems that one years' 
work would safely rest upon the foundation of the preceding season's 
study, have found the field of constructive details the most puzzling to 



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SKETCH OF WATER-TABLE AND CELLAR WINDOW. 

This sketch was drawn on the blackboard of the schoolroom after the manner of the 
illustration on page 338. It was sketched freehand by the students as freely 
as in the sketch on page 339. Drawn to scale in the note-books with 
the same thoughtful care as the scale drawing on page 339 
it served as thoroly understood material for further- 
ing the drawing on the opposite page. 

present properly. Some have endeavored to train in knowledge of con- 
struction by use of models, either made full size, or on reduced scale. 
In many instances lectures and the use of note-books have aided in this 
important undertaking. Other instructors have trained their students 
by developing sheets from charts or text-books on constructive details. 
Still others have endeavored to reach their goal by the use of carefully 
planned projects which when multiplied in blueprints have furnished the 
material for faithful work in many interested classes. While all such 
equipment and methods are vital and necessary for obtaining the best 



330 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




STUDY OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

A reproduction of the classroom work carried into its Second Stage, and 
showing the completed side walls with first and second story windows, and 
the second floor laid. The reader will notice the marks of progress in 
this stage in elevation and section as well as plan. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



331 



results, yet it should always be remembered that the accomplishing of a 
certain number of drawings in a winter's course is not the only goal to 
be attained. Unless the models, lectures, note and text-books, and sheets 
developed are utilized upon a basis which appeals to the artisan, parallels 



P 



i 



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: «^ EL-ft-VAT,! OK - 



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l^'JC-Ai-i. DRAWINS J--HE.E.T M°- i 
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SKETCH OF SECOND STORY WINDOW. 

This sketch after being explained from the blackboard and from 

the window model, sketched freehand and drawn to scale, 

was the inspiration for the work shown opposite. The 

reader will recognize that these sketches only show 

the lines necessary for proper technique of 

M" scale drawings. 



his natural train of thought gained on many a building's growth, and 
harmonizes with the best of office practice and procedure, the effort fails 
of its most practical accomplishment. 

Primarily then, the course should grow as a building grows and the 
sheet technique be consistent with the scale chosen for the drawings. 
Thus will the artisan's point of view be happily met and the demands 
of the best office practice be satisfied. 



332 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




STUDY OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

A reproduction of the classroom work carried into its Third Stage, and 
showing the cornice,- roof, and attic floor completed. In this stage the greatest 
progress naturally shows in the section. 



■■A' 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



333 



Every teacher of architectural details will testify to the difficulties 
he has experienced in maintaining clear ideas of relationship between the 
portions of construction on which he has concentrated the interest of 
his classes. As every building is an aggregation of related units, as for 
instance, foundation material, lumber, fastenings, bricks, plastering, 
doors, sashes, etc., so the winter's study of details should be a clearly 
thought out, thoroly understood, and broadly studied project of unified 
elements rather than a scattering course of unrelated details. 



7(/T%\VP\t*& 



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SKETCH OF CORNICE, ROOF, AND THIRD FLOOR CONSTRUCTION. 

These graphic notes, after thoro study in explanation, sketch, and scale drawing, gave 
the power to intelligently raise the rafters, fashion the cornice, bridge the third 
floor, and set studs and the tie beams which also carry the attic ceiling. 



The training of the first year course in the Institute offered the very 
best- preparation for the problems we are describing. The boys who 
had entered the previous year, full of the thirst for knowledge of how 
to read blueprints and to understand the working-drawings of building 
construction, had been carried to the point where they were safely 
grounded in the ability to block out, in elementary fashion, the plans, 
elevations, and sections of a not too complicated structure. Training 
in elementary mathematics and the review of practical arithmetic as 



334 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




Jl JL 



STUDY OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

A reproduction of the classroom work carried into the Fourth Stage and 
showing the completion of the dormers and their windows. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



335 



applied in building problems had, in addition, brought them to the point 
where they were ready intelligently to combine the materials of frame 
construction. 

The limits of this second year field, and the necessity of developing 
power which should lead up to a third year course were just as clearly 




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SKETCH OF THE DORMER AND ITS DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. 

This sketch, when thoroly understood, provides material for an intelligent completion 
of the roof elevation and section. Filed away in a scale drawing, it becomes 
an important part of the year's note-book, serving, like the other 
< sketches, for suggestive treatment of %" scale drawings. 

fixed. Frame construction was to be the watch word of the year, frame 
construction developed from the artisan's point of view, studied in re- 
lated details, and treated in the technique of consistent office practice 
in *4" scale, f^" scale, and full size detail drawing. 

When the changes which led to the present status of the second year 
work were first discussed it seemed as if the only solution of the problem 



336 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




STUDY OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

A reproduction of the classroom work carried into its Fifth Stage and 
showing the completion in elevation, section, and plan of the front and side 
porches. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



337 



lay along somewhat untried lines if the desired detail study was to be 
maintained in a thoroly related unit. The proper study of a frame 
building involves plans, elevations, and sections, if all elements of the 
construction are to be clearly studied and understood. To draw com- 
plete plans and the four elevations of the house seemed impossible in 
the time allowed, yet it seemed necessary to keep the student's state of 
mind in the constructive field. Realizing that construction and details 




SKETCH OF THE SIDE AND ENTRANCE PORCHES. 

This sketch, one of the most interesting of the series, always marks a point of 

progress and encouragement to the students. With the accomplishment of 

this step the building seems to take more complete form, and students 

now turn with interest to the details of inside finish. 



were the only questions of importance, the first study was so arranged 
that only the vital portions of a plan, elevation, and section were in- 
cluded. Thus reduced to lowest terms and the problem lightened of 
all unnecessary effort, the work proceeded as shown in the series of 
progressive illustrations here presented. These reproductions have been 
taken from one of the very drawings as the work progressed. Back and 
forth from the class room to the engraver's establishment has traveled 
the drawing-board and there has resulted a series of progressive studies 
on which, as on a moving picture film, the reader may see the progress 



33S 



MIX UAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



339 




II 



-RFEHAND SKETCH MADE FROM THE BLACKBOARD 
BY AN ARTISAN STUDENT. 



SCALE DRAWING MADE FOR THE NOTE-BOOK 
FROM THE ABOVE FREEHAND SKETCH. 



540 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




STUDY OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

A reproduction of the classroom work carried into its Sixth Stage and 
showing the completion of the stairway in the section and stairway plan. 



.ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



341 



of the work. Indeed it is a story that hardly relies upon words for its 
telling. 

The illustrations shown on pages 338 and 339 representing the class- 
room blackboard with its sketch of stair building details, the freehand 
notes made from this board by an artisan student, and his sketch drawn 
instrumentally to scale, should be of much interest to the reader seeking 
insight into the methods under which this work was conducted. 




SKETCH OF STAIRS. 

This sketch which should be studied in connection with the blackboard, the freehand 

sketch and the scale drawing illustrated on pages 338 and 339 marks an important 

step in the inside finish. The reader will recognize that while almost every 

important element of stair building in the average country house is here 

introduced, that it is treated solely as a sketch drawn to scale. This 

only emphasizes the fact that all these sketches should be read as 

notes and not with the strict interpretation of what an 

architect calls a "detail drawing." 

This same expert reader will undoubtedly recognize a discrepancy 
between the drawing on the blackboard and the note-book sketch, and 
this, while brought about by the limiting dimensions of the blackboard, 
was intentional upon the part of the instructor. This trap for the un- 
wary student, consisting of a different number of steps in the stairway 
shown on the blackboard from a number called for by the "Layout," 
was properly explained by the teacher. It will be seen that the student 
has responded to that warning in the making of the sketch, and has so 



342 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




STUDY 

A reproduction of the 
showing the completion of 
section, and plans. 


OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

classroom work carried into its Seventh Stage and 
the trim and the hanging of the doors in elevation, 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 



343 



amplified the number of his steps that they coincide accurately with the 
house in question. Thus are those who would blindly copy spurred to 
keener thought and accurate personal endeavor. 

The rough freehand sketch and the instrumental note-book sheet 
illustrated, were taken at random from among the students of the class 
and illustrate very fairly the technique which the course is developing. 
It may add to the reader's appreciation to learn that the man who made 
these drawings is a carpenter, working daily on heavy outdoor con- 



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SKETCH OF DOORS. 

These sketches of the front door, the sliding doors in the lower hall, and the single 

doors in second and third story, play important parts in the seventh 

stage of the study. With the hanging of the doors the 

inside finish of the house is accomplished. 

struction work. Any school may well be proud of those who, after a 
day's work in winter weather, come in to its night classes and accomplish 
such draftsmanlike results. The tale of how this young artisan heard 
of the Institute, how he hoped to advance himself in his trade by night 
study, how he has worked thru the industrial grades from boy to helper 
and on to skilled workman is an interesting one which can not be told 
at this time. We can only record his enthusiastic statement concerning 
the Institute's part in his career and offer it in his own words, "Say, if 
I can only keep on at this I'll be a boss some day myself." 



>44 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




< &t 



STUDY OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

A reproduction of the classroom work carried into its Eighth Stage and 
showing the closing of the study in workmanlike fashion, by the addition of 
dimensions, explanatory notes, and the simple lettering without which no 
drawing is complete. The student who has carried forward this study has 
seen his sheet grow as a building grows and has kept his technique thoroly 
consistent with the scale chosen for the drawing. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING. 345 

Teachers of experience who may read this article and its description 
of an effort which has long since passed the experimental stage may 
question concerning the amount of time put upon this study and whether 
the interest of the students lagged at any point in its progress. 

Many teachers very properly advocate developing the individual class 
exercises in such a manner that fresh problems will frequently appear 
and thus counteract the spirit of fatigue which otherwise may creep in. 
This, however, is a situation more in keeping with first year work than 
it is with the state of mind of the more seasoned students of this second 
year. Training which shall develop the power of sustained effort can not 
at some time be amiss in any educational scheme, and the interest with 
which this probem has grown as each link added itself to the lengthening 
chain has carried with it a growing power for independent effort most 
refreshing to contemplate. 

The amount of absence in any night school class is the indicator by 
which the successful teacher tests the pressure of student interest in the 
work. This study of frame construction started in early October and 
ran thru to about two weeks before Christmas. Aside from the empty 
places due to absence from the city and the necessity of working over 
time upon the part of some of the artisan students, the attendance showed 
a record most remarkable and encouraging, and at the close of the study 
practically all work was handed in. 

With the completion of this *4" scale drawing of the different ele- 
vations, coupled with the scaled note-book sketches rendered instrumen- 
tally, there had developed a consistent knowledge of related frame 
construction and the way it should be rendered at this scale in an archi- 
tect's office, which we do not believe could be so easily, so entertainingly 
and so soundly taught in any series of sheets not as closely related. The 
story of how this knowledge was carried into y±" scale studies and then 
into the full size drawings for the mill and the building, is still a tale 
of the second year work, but is an article in itself and must await another 
opportunity for its telling. 



VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR BOYS IN LEEDS. 

John F. Reigart. 

LEEDS is the fifth city in England and has a population of about 
450,000. Its industries are diversified, including the manufac- 
ture of woolen and linen goods, iron-founding and machine-mak- 
ing. In the range and efficiency of its municipal activities Leeds occupies 
an advanced position. The educational facilities are exceptionally complete, 
from the schools for defectives and delinquents, to university, technical, 
artistic, musical and professional education. The announcement, in 
cutline, of the technical evening schools alone requires a pamphlet of 
470 pages. School attendance is compulsory from the age of five to 
fourteen. The completeness of the scheme of manual training will be 
recalled by readers of Professor Bennett's articles on "Manual Training 
Schools in Europe." 1 My primary object in visiting Leeds was to study 
that feature of vocational training in which this is the pioneer city in 
England, namely, Day Preparatory Trade Schools. 

THE PROBLEM OF THE INTERMEDIATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

Of all the problems of industrial education which demand solution in 
this country, the most difficult is perhaps the one of the intermediate 
industrial school. Such a school must be practical, yet it must not teach 
any trade ; it must have adequate facilities, yet the expense must not be 
prohibitive of its extension to all who are likely to enter upon the trades 
with only an elementary education ; it must be adapted to children who 
are incapable of higher technical occupations, yet it must not take a form 
of class distinction so as to violate the popular conceptions of democracy. 
The age of entrance must be low enough to secure a year or two of 
instruction for those who leave as soon as the law allows, yet not so low 
as to cause premature selection of occupation, or to lower the age of 
entrance into trades. The course of study, to have value, must be 
adapted to local conditions, yet it must not expand the labor supply in the 
local industries. The aim must be to cultivate skill (in an indefinite 
sense), combined with industrial intelligence (also not defined). 

1 See April, 1910, number, pp. 360-365. 

346 



VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR BOYS IN LEEDS. 347 

Only a partial solution of the problem has been attempted in the inter- 
mediate vocational schools established in various parts of this country, 
as reported in the Descriptive List of Trade Schools, published by the 
National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. All these 
schools limit their opportunities to selected groups of children. The aim 
seems to be to make a record for turning out efficient workers, rather than 
to render more useful the children whose intellectual endowment dooms 
them to the ranks of the unskilled so long as the way to all forms of 
vocational training is barred by sixth, seventh or eighth grade standards. 
An entrance age of fourteen further limits opportunities to those who are 
not forced by poverty or other circumstances to begin work at the earliest 
legal age. As an additional aid to making a record for the school, entrance 
is sometimes conditioned not only upon the grade and age, but upon 
satisfactory marks in studies and conduct, and the manifestation of an 
aptitude in the use of tools. A further check upon the limitation of the 
vast numbers of children entering upon unskilled, or semi-skilled forms 
of labor, is the great expense attached to our present schools. Most of 
the schools in the list already referred to are conducted at a per capita 
expense greatly in excess of that for high schools. It is safe to predict 
that communities will be slow in the extension of such expensive schools. 

THE ENGLISH POINT OF VIEW. 

I turn to the entrance requirement of the Holbeck Day Preparatory 
Trade School of Leeds : "Any boy who has attended an elementary 
school regularly, and who is 13 years of age, is eligible for admission." 
In this connection it may be suggestive to note the problem of day indus- 
trial education as it was formulated by the London Education Committee: 

The Committee think that special day schools of the day industrial school type 
might, with advantage, be established for the temporary treatment of children 
who are not up to the normal school standard, and are not yet so defective as 
to warrant treatment as "mentally deficient." 

This different educational treatment would mainly consist of a further de- 
velopment of the concrete method of instruction by means of manual and in- 
dustrial training, but fewer than the usual number of children would be taught 
by each teacher. It is of importance to bear in mind that the child who may be 
carelessly termed a backward child may not be really backward but only not 
normal in regard to standard of education, inasmuch as the conditions of his life 
may have been such as to have prevented him from attaining that standard of 
education which a child in ordinary circumstances would attain, or he may be 



34S MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

simply not normal consequent upon backwardness in acquiring ordinary school 
knowledge altho possessing a ready ability to acquire instruction of a manual or 
industrial character. Such children are, of course, not suitable for a special 
school, but do not fall readily in with the normal curriculum of an ordinary 
school. It is absolutely necessary that the curriculum in the ordinary graded 
school should be suited to the requirements and the capacities of the great 
majority of the children attending it, but we believe the Committee will agree 
that it is undesirable to set up the same aims and provide the same kind of 
teaching for the children who have either been from their circumstances retarded 
in their ordinary education, or who, by their condition, are better suited to acquire 
knowledge bv means of manual or industrial occupations. We are, moreover, of 
opinion that it would be injurious to the self-respect of children of this kind to 
segregate them in schools to be known as "backward schools," the more especially 
as it is not unreasonable to suppose that if they were given the kind of education 
suited to their condition they would by means of their development in manual 
and industrial work become the better able to acquire the ordinary academical 
knowledge of the elementary school. We are advised that among the duller 
children to be found in some of the poorer districts there is room for a type of 
education differing very widely from that which has become traditional in the 
ordinarv graded schools — a type which should enable such children to make use 
of the opportunities for industrial employment after leaving school by allowing 
them to develop their intelligence thru their fingers in the day school itself. 
Such a school would not be regarded as a "backward school" but as one in which 
special attention is paid to industrial training, and it is very probable that for 
the sake of the practical instruction so given many parents would of their own 
choice send their children to such schools. We think, therefore, after having 
given prolonged consideration to the question, that it is desirable for such a type 
of school to be established, but we are of the opinion that it would be advisable 
that the fullest information be obtained as to the working of such a school in 
London, and that it would be well to make an experiment and for the present 
to confine that experiment to one school. This school should be at Saffron-hill. 
This experiment, if adopted, should furnish valuable information as to the effect 
of giving a more practical turn to the instruction in schools situated in industrial 
neighborhoods where it is reasonable to suppose that the majority of the children 
would, if not given an early opportunity of receiving some industrial training, 
probably drift into the ranks of the unemployed and, too frequently, unemployable 
class. 

Evidently the English point of view, at least that of London and Leeds, 
is different from the American. The one is that of the welfare of the 
child, the other is that of the employer. Our plan, as thus far formulated, 
is not calculated to diminish the available supply of ignorant, unskilled 
labor, but to shorten the period of unprofitable learning in the factories 
in the case of those who are intelligent enough to be destined for the 
higher forms of labor. 



VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR BOYS IN LEEDS. 349 

THE LEEDS DAY PREPARATORY TRADE SCHOOL. 

The Leeds plan was initiated about four years ago, and has been adopted 
by other towns in England. Its distinctive features are: 

( 1 ) Liberal entrance conditions as to age and attainments. 

(2) An intensive use of a very moderate equipment. 

(3) The use of the same equipment for day and evenings schools. 

(4) Individual instruction, providing for the inevitable irregularity 
of entrance and of leaving for work and for the successive use of the limited 
number of machines. 

(5) An intimate correlation of studies. 

(6) The supplementing of instruction by visits to the manufacturing 
works. 

(7) A correlation with evening technical schools, including preparation 
for the third year of the engineering course. 

In 1908, ninety boys were under instruction in Leeds. The oppor- 
tunities of these schools as well as the other means of securing a technical 
education are suggested to the elementary pupils thruout the city by the 
following directions printed on the backs of the blank books supplied 
to the schools: 

THE ROAD TO SUCCESS. 

You will soon be leaving the elementary day school, when perhaps you may 
be inclined to think that your education is finished. This should not be so, 
however, if you wish to be successful in your future career. You have made a 
good beginning in the day school, but it is most necessary that you still further 
continue your studies, in order to enable you better to earn your own living, to add 
to your interest and pleasure in life, and to fit you to take your part as a useful 
member of the community. There are now plenty of opportunities in the city of 
Leeds for bright scholars to continue their education beyond the elementary schools. 

The best way is to endeaver to gain one of the numerous scholarships offered 
for competition yearly by the Education Committee. Among the scholarships 
offered, the following may be mentioned: 

(1) Junior City Scholarships, which are provided to take promising boys and 
girls from the elementary to the secondary day schools of the city. 

(2) Junior Art Scholarships, to take promising boys and girls, who show a 
decided taste for drawing and art work, to the Leeds School of Art for day work 

(3) Junior Domestic Scholarships, to take promising girls to a junior course 
of practical training in domestic subjects. 

(4) Junior Technological Scholarships, to be competed for by boys and girls 
of 14 years of age who are already in attendance at day preparatory trade schools. 

If you are successful in gaining a junior city scholarship you will be able tc 
continue your education at a secondary day school, which will extend your know- 
ledge and widen your ideas and so better equip you for your future career. The 



350 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



scholarships, with certain conditions, are open to all boys and girls attending the 
elementary schools of the city. If your parents are unable to allow you to continue 
your studies at a secondary school, it will be well for you to continue your 
education at one of the day preparatory trade schools which have been recently 
opened, or one of the technical evening schools of the city. It should be remem- 
bered that the better the education you have received the better will be your chance 
of being successful in life. 



THE COURSE OF STUDY. 

For my visit I selected the Holbeck Day Preparatory School, at 
Holbeck Mechanics' Institute. The boys in attendance appeared to be 

on a par with the boys in our 
special classes, that is, those who 
could not complete an elementary 
school course. Yet the interest in 
their studies and the accuracy 
shown in their work and note- 
books seemed decidedly superior to 
what could be expected of this class 
of boys. I accounted for this by 
the absence of merely formal work ; 
every lesson seemed to have an in- 
trinsic value. On the day of my 
visit the composition lesson was on 
the process of making Bessemer 
steel. I doubt if any boy thought 
he was being taught writing, com- 
position and spelling. 

The mathematical studies are 
closely associated with problems in mechanics and construction. The 
determination of areas and volumes by numerical and graphic solutions, 
English and metric units of measurement, simple algebraic principles and 
formulas, and percentage constitute the leading topics. These are taught, 
not as arithmetic, algebra and geometry, but as topics in pracitcal 
mathematics. Tho no text-book is closely followed, the book most 
favored by the head master is Consterdine and Barnes' Rudiments of 
Practical Arithmetic, published by John Murray, London, 1905. 

To my mind the most significant work in the school is that of the 
laboratory for mechanics. The observer of methods in technical instruc- 
tion in England is struck by the large part played by experimental work. 




fig. 1. holbeck 
mechanics' institute. 



VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR BOYS IN LEEDS. 



351 




3 52 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR BOYS IN LEEDS. 353 

In evening schools as well as in the great technological institutions, the 
laboratories are well equipped and are crowded with students, while 
the shop equipment is meager as compared with our schools of a similar 
class. In training, experimentation is held superior to production, 
thought to skill. There is a reason for this if the object be to develop 
"industrial intelligence." The rule holds good even in schools of so 
low a grade as these vocational schools for backward boys. In the 
Holbeck school the laboratory is proportionately better equipped than 
the shops, Fig. 2. The note-books of pupils are evidence of painstaking 
work on the mechanical forces, volume and density, elasticity, friction, etc. 
However, it seemed to me that many of the boys are swamped by the 
more difficult problems and are incapable of any great degree of intelli- 
gent initiative. Yet even the weaker boys may gain much by this method 
of getting at the meaning of things — in lieu of knowledge, mere acquaint- 
ance is of value. 

The English, mathematics, and laboratory mechanics are taught by 
the head master, who is assisted in the more strictly manual work of 
the shops by skilled artisans. The head master is thoroly acquainted 
with each boy and is able to direct him in respect to both his studies and 
his employment. 

INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION. 

As the organization of studies is from the standpoint of the laboratory, 
so likewise do laboratory methods prevail in all the instruction. Under 
specific directions, a boy works at an experiment or a mathematical 
problem or a drawing or a construction ; and when he has finished that 
piece of work he proceeds to the next. There is no time wasted in 
waiting for other boys to catch up, and each has an opportunity to 
develop his own resources. This individual instruction serves both 
to economize in equipment and to attain the ends for which the course 
is planned: "improving the general education, developing common sense 
and reasoning power, and enabling a boy to acquire the necessary manual 
dexterity to ensure that, he shall be put at once on useful work when he 
enters the shops." 

SUGGESTIVENESS OF THE LEEDS EXPERIMENT. 

The Leeds plan of the day preparatory trade school, tho not a final 
solution of the problem of industrial education, offers many suggestions 
in regard to that portion of the field which has not yet received adequate 
recognition in the plans under way in this country — that is, in the case 



354 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR BOYS IN LEEDS. 355 

of pupils who are unable to make normal progress in the grades of the 
elementary school. First, every effort is made to draft all the more 
capable boys into the secondary schools and into special schools of arts 
and crafts. Then, there are provided the vocational schools with low 
standards of admission and with courses adapted to moderate capacity. 
We may sum up the points worthy of consideration : 

1. A preparatory industrial training should be within the reach of 
any child capable of becoming an independent, self-supporting workman. 

2. The type of school should be determined by the industries of the 
locality. 

3. In large cities there should be many schools of various types, 
rather than a few large schools. These schools should be near the 
industrial establishments and in touch with them, and within walking 
distance of the homes of the pupils. 

4. The schools should be small, with a principal who is a teacher, 
and who can be in touch with the pupils in school and after they have 
left to go to work. 

5. To render extension possible, the management must be economical 
and the equipment moderate. The test of efficiency should be, not in 
the completeness of equipment, but in the elevation of the industrial 
and economic level of the community. 

6. The laboratory should rank on an equality with the shop ; experi- 
mental processes, with methods of instruction ; intelligence with skill. 

7. Academic studies should be taught in direct connection with the 
problems of the laboratory and the shop. 

8. To meet the difficult conditions in schools of this type, to provide 
for the varying standards of admission and for awakening interest, and 
to meet the capacity of both quick and slow boys, the class system should 
be replaced by individual methods of instruction. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 

George William Eggers. 
Oscar Lincoln McMurry. 

V. INFLUENCES AND INSTRUMENTS OF DESIGN. 1 ' 5 

WHAT is the logical order of events in making a design for a 
book? The watchword of the modern world is, "Be prac- 
tical." The supreme test today is the test of service. "What 
is it good for?" "What can it do?" "Will it work?" These are the 
all-important questions. Even wealth has ceased to justify leisure. Kings 
and kaisers set their sons to learning trades. Charity has given place to 
philanthropy. Philosophy is offering us pragmatism. Beauty exists 
only where it enriches our daily lives. The day of bric-a-brac has past. 
Up from the background of the fine arts has been hammered the arts 
and crafts. Every one of these movements is a recognition of this supreme 
requisite of service in all things. 

FITNESS. 

What has this to do with bookbinding in the school? Simply this: 
It answers our opening question. Service or fitness for service must 
constitute the prime influence which determines the character of our 
design, whatever we may be planning to make, and however our individual 
temperament may tend to shape it. 

For example, some one says, "Make a book." We immediately ask, 
"What kind of book?" "How large?" "What shape?" "What color?" 
"What materials?" "What form of construction?" and numberless 
other questions. The original speaker may undertake to answer each 
of our questions in detail and so lead us along step by step. He may, on 
the other hand, answer us by telling us what the book is for — by restating 
the problem in terms of service, as: "Make a book for a small number 
of poetical quotations about native trees, to be used as a desk reference 
book." In this case we can deduce the answer to all of our questions for 
ourselves — especially if we have experienced the need of such a book as 

10 Copyright, 1911, George W. Eggers. 

356 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 357 

we have been told to make. In this case we ourselves answer as well as 
ask the questions and we do it from our own experience, our guide being 
the purpose which the book is to serve. 

This process of asking and answering for ourselves such questions as 
will make our book adequate and fine is the process of designing. The 
answers to these questions expressed graphically on a piece of paper 
constitute our design. The one who most vitally and subtly questions 
and who most completely and finely answers himself in the course of the 
problem, — he is the truest designer. 

The questions and answers which relate to the more mechanical and 
obvious needs may be somewhat crudely classified as the constructive 
element in the process of designing. The questions and answers which 
have to do with the more subtle and delicately sensed aspects of the 
problem — questions whose answers must be more or less personal with 
the individual maker — may be called the art element of the problem. 
Just what the point is at which these two come together is a somewhat 
debatable question, and fortunately an unimportant one. 

In all this questioning and answering, in all this making of choices, the 
consideration of service, of fitness to purpose, is the prime influence. 
But it is more than a first influence; it is a constant influence. From 
the beginning to the end of the process we must not for one instant allow 
any other idea seriously to outweigh the idea of having our book serve 
its peculiar purpose perfectly — peculiarly. 

CONGRUITY. 

Now any object in which every element has been fashioned under the 
influence of one constant idea has character, consistency, congruity. 
The stateroom of a ship has a different character from the stateroom 
of a Pullman car. Every line in the ship is a response to the unstable 
quality of water and wind ; every line in the Pullman car recognizes 
the level and solid track and the forward and backward strain. Neither 
of these was designed primarily with a view to artistic harmony, but 
each is harmonious and consistent and congruous because of the imma- 
nence of one dominating idea. 

Nature responds to conditions in a similar way. An apple tree has 
apple character all thru, and is in no detail to be confused with a peach 
tree. Again, an apple tree growing on a high wind-swept place becomes 
in every line different from his brother apple tree of the hollow where 
conditions are different. 



358 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Congruity in nature always, and in art to some extent, is the result of 
a constant unremitting response to conditions, and usually of a struggle 
toward a finer adaptation — fitness for service. 

During the greater part of its history the human race has had nature 
to look at — nature and little else. During countless generations man's 
eyes have been growing accustomed to nature's consistency. Every line 
in the wind-swept cloud prepares the eye for the next line, every color 
of the evening hills prepares the eye for the color of the sky beyond. 
Nature's congruity or consistency is a condition in which the accidental 
scar is ever being soothed and healed by the unseen hand. In this con- 
gruity, then, men's eyes have found repose, comfort, beauty; and the 
artists whom we call great have embodied this quality in their pictures 
and buildings and in their pots and rugs and baskets. 

This congruity which is found in all things beautiful is a second 
quality to be sought when we design a book. For it is not enough to 
make the book merely adequate — it is not enough to recognize merely 
our first principles of fitness. A thing may be adequate to its purpose 
and yet exhibit no evidence of the beautiful, which is the supreme 
attribute of perfection. This congruity which is to some degree incidental 
to mechanical fitness is to a still greater degree, an esthetic quality. 
The more delicate choices between color and color and between line and 
line which make a book beautiful are often so subtle as not to affect its 
serviceability one way or the other. 

In modern design teaching this one element of congruity has received 
practically all the attention, the principles known as "balance, rhythm, 
and harmony," being of course principles of congruity. Indeed, design 
as it is now taught, might be quite correctly known as a "science of 
artistic congruity." 

SIGNIFICANCE. 

Any design embodying this quality of congruity together with fitness 
in all of its parts cannot, from the standpoint of art, be an offensive 
design. Every line, every color, every bit of material, every constructive 
device, will be adapted to its place by reason of mechanical necessity, 
or else by reason of some peculiar appropriateness. Every part will be, 
so to speak, made to order. Therefore, every part will in some more 
or less evident way declare its relation to the whole, to the idea under- 
lying the whole, or to some essentially related idea. Every part will be, 
at least in an incidental way, significant. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 359 

Significance, as a conscious, intentional thing, is the last word in 
design. As in the case of fitness and congruity, the field of "significance" 
may overlap the others. The elements in a design may, however, be 
congruous and fit and yet lack the vitalizing quality of significance — the 
quality which makes the work completely an expression, superlatively 
"an embodiment of the idea," the quality which enriches the mere form 
and color of all great art. 

Children in the schools should come to look for this quality in the 
works of art they study — knowing that in constructive design as well 
as in pictorial art, every movement, every color, and every detail has its 
purpose, its place and its share of meaning. A thoro cognizance of this 
fact is the only key to a thoro appreciation of any art. The one who 
quotes Tennyson's line as saying, "When that which drew from out 
the mighty deep turns again home," may become enthusiastic over the 
poem "Crossing the Bar," but he does not appreciate it. Even the manner 
of touch in the different parts of a drawing or a painting is full of 
meaning — and he who runs should read. 

Of this quality of significance, the third and last of our "principles 
of design" (if we may appropriate the term) more will have to be said 
in another essay. Its place in the subject of design is that of the jewel 
in the ring. It is the ultimate touch. It essentiallizes the meaning of 
the whole. 

THE INSTRUMENTS, MATERIALS OR ELEMENTS OF DESIGN. 

Now, as to the working use of these principles of design : What are 
these choices to which we have referred ? What are the commodities 
concerning which we question ourselves in course of the process of 
designing? 

The elements with which our choosings and our questionings have to 
deal are, in the main proportion, movements, colors, textures, materials, 
and constructive devices. These elements are, so to speak, the designer's 
instruments. Each of these elements may be used with, or without, 
fitness, congruity, and significance. Each of these elements is full of 
suggestion. One material, for example, is delicate, another sturdy; one 
color or color combination thrilling or major in character, another minor; 
one form robust, another spirituelle ; one constructive device suggestive 
of tremendous weight and strength, another delicate and airy. (Who 
has not observed the use of delicate constructive devices by the Japanese, 
for whose work delicacy has become a synonym, or the misuse of the keyed 



360 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



mortise-and-tenon joint which has condemned some types of modern 
furniture?) 

The well-designed book, however, gives one complete and single 
impression with its form and its use in one and the same character. 

A diagram setting forth the operation of these principles of design 
upon the elements of the book-making problem follows : 





Fitness. 


CONGRUITY. 


Significance. 


Proportions 


Fitness of propor- 
tions to purpose or 
idea to be em- 
bodied. 


Congruity of propor- 
tions with each 
other and with 
character of ideas 
to be embodied. 


Significance in the 
suggestions which 
the proportions 
give. 


Movements 


Fitness of move- 
ments to purpose 
or idea to be em- 
bodied. 


Congruity of move- 
ments with each 
other and with 
character of ideas 
to be embodied. 


Significance in the 
suggestions which 
the movements give. 


Colors 


Fitness of colors to 
purpose or idea to 
be embodied. 


Congruity of colors 
with each other 
and with character 
of ideas to be em- 
bodied. 


Significance in the 
suggestions which 
the colors give. 


Texture 


Fitness of textures 
to purpose or idea 
to be embodied. 


Congruity of textures 
with each other 
and with character 
of ideas to be em- 
bodied. 


Significance in the 
suggestions which 
the textures give. 


Materials 


Fitness of materials 
to purpose or idea 
to be embodied. 


Congruity of materi- 
als with each other 
and with character 
of ideas to be em- 
bodied. 


Significance in the 
suggestions which 
the materials give. 


Construc- 
tive 
devices 


Fitness of construc- 
tive d'evices to 
idea to be em- 
bodied. 


Congruity of construc- 
tive devices with 
eacl. other and with 
ideas to be em- 
bodied. 


Significance in the 
suggestions which 
the constructive de- 
vices give. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 361 

VI. PROBLEMS FORMING THE FIRST GROUP.' 7 

(Continued.) 













<Sp 






~~; * 






^j + 


8 :2S?iv» |H 




1 



BOOKS WITH HINGED FLEXIBLE COVERS AND JAPANESE SEWING. 

The rebinding of books comes, in the nature of things, as a review of 
principles of design and construction already worked out. In the 
rebinding one may note the devices in matters of construction — some of 
them good, some not — made use of in the trade ; likewise something as 
to kinds and qualities of materials selected for books of different grades. 
Now r and then a book illustrating old time methods may be compared 
with one showing present-day methods. Comparison of books having 
certain constructive details may be made with others bound under entirely 
different conditions, as of books having stapled sections and solid backs, 
with books made of sections sewed thru the fold and with flexible backs. 
Children should have, therefore, experience in rebinding magazines 
and bound printed matter, along with the designing and making of new 
books. 



BOOKS WITH HINGED FLEXIBLE COVERS AND JAPANESE SEWING. 

A series of books, examples of sewing sections thru the sides, following 
the construction lines given in Problem 2, Tree Book, 18 but with added 

"Copyright, 1911, Oscar L. McMurry. 

18 See October, 1910, number; pp. 16, 18, 20. 



il,- 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



Books with Flexible Covers and Japanese. 
Sewing. 



Flexible. Cover 




(a)_ Sketch Book, 

With Folded Sheets Sewed 
Thru S/de, Hing-ed Flex- 
ble Covers. 



eaves of Sketching paper 
in colors. 



Leaves Folped at 
Hinge.. 




Detail Showing Construc- 
tion of Flexible 
Cover 



Lining 



g= 

>Cloth Hi 




Lining Paper 



Detail of Cloth Corner. Section of Cover Book cloth 




(b)_ Picture Book, 

With Stubbed Leaves Sewed 
thru Side, Hinged Flexible 
Co vers. 



Leaves with Stubs, 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 363 

detail, may be planned by children of the upper grades, to be used for 
sketches, silhouettes, etc. 

11. Book for Sketches or Pictures (Grade VI). Covers hinged and 
flexible, manila boar.d, linen or book cloth for cover, lining paper, spacing 
and drilling for sewing or lacing, (a) For sketches, leaves of sketching 





■ ^.^ 

~ " 



SEVERAL-SECTION BOOK SEWED ON TAPES ATTACHED TO SEWING-BOARD WITH 
THUMB-TACKS. 

paper in colors, folded at hinge. (b) For pictures, silhouettes, etc., 
leaves of cover paper folded at fore edge. Stubs of cover paper. 

TAPE-SEWED BOOKS. 

It may be necessary to bind the sections and covers of a book more firmly 
together than is possible in thread-sewed books. This may be done in a 
very elementary way, or if desired more elaborately, by introducing bands 
or tapes at the back of the book, secured to the back by sewing around the 
tapes as the sections are sewed. The number and spacing being deter- 
mined, the tapes may be attached to a board by thumb-tacks for books 
of few* sections or strung in regular sewing-frames for books of many 
sections. 11 ' 

39 Accompanying illustrations show the sewing-board ad sewing-frames 
designed and worked up in the school shop. 



364 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



Tape Sewed Books. 




L Book Cl 



(°-LBook Showinq- 
tapes secured 
to inner Face of 
Board. ('Case.Bind- 
ing). 




DE.TAIL OF SEWINCr. 
Tape. . 




DETAIL OF 

Catch-up Stitch 



(b). Book Showing 
Tapes Secured between Split 
Board Cover. 




Cover 



C c ). Book sewed on 



© 



Delta il 

Show- 
ing, 

Rounded Back. 




Tapes laced into /tap* O Y} n 1 
Boards. / i7 fl /T"^ - - < 




=^/ I VI 80ARD. 



HtftOBAND v Catch-up STITCH. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



365 



Cord Sewed Books 

Books of Several Sections sewed on Cords 
Board Covers, ZigZaq-, Hand-made Heap Band, 



(a).. Book with Cords 
SE.T into Saw Kerfs 
for Pla/m Ba ck. 



Cords ready for 
Lacing, (after being 
Frayed, Saturated with 
Paste ano Pointed. 



Holes to Receive 
Cords , made 
with Awl. . 




End of Cord 

TO BE CUT 

Close, to Board 



Detail. 
Show ing Lac^ 
ing. 



Cord Saturated with 
Paste, ready for Lacing, 



Detail Tsection) showing cords 
in saw Kerfs, and Method of 
Sev/i n<j. 




ok with Cords Form 
Bands on Back 



, AFTER LAC- 

g- Ready for 



MCt 




Detail, ( Cords forming 
Bands on Back") Showing 
Method of Sewing- 



Detail of Hano-made. 

Head Band, made of a 
Several Ply Cord with SiLrt 
Thread wrapped around it, using 



Detail 
Showing 

ZlG; ZAQ. 



Sei/e?al Ply Cord. 



Sutton mole Stitch. 




catch stitch 



366 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SEWING-FRAME STRUNG UP FOR TAPE SEWING. 




SEWING BOOK ON CORDS. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



367 




INSERTION OF TAPES INTO SPLIT BOARDS. 
BOOK WITH TAPES PASTED AGAINST INNER FACE OF BOARD. 




LACING TAPES INTO COVER OF BOOK. 



36S 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



12. Blank or Printed Books Sewed on Tapes, (a) Books, (Grade 
VI ) , may be sewed on board with back glued to hold sections and 
tapes in place. Tapes are to be pasted to inner face of board covers. 
Finish with case binding, (b) Books of many sections, (Grade VII), 
are to be sewed on frame with back glued to secure sections and tapes in 




MAKING SAW-KERFS IN BACK OF BOOK TO RECEIVE CORDS. 



place. Tapes glued to end paper or waste sheet are to be slipped between 
boards (split boards) glued together. Covers in place, the back and 
sides are to be finished in usual manner, (c) Books of many sections, 
(Grade VIII), are to be sewed on frame. Threads across tapes may be 
gathered into bundles by catch-up stitches as a means of holding sections 
more firmly together, and in case of open back giving decorative detail. 
Bands with decorative edge (head-bands) are glued to head and tail 
at back to resist strains and to give a finish. Tapes and sections are to 
be glued and back rounded. Covers are to be attached by lacing of 
tapes into boards. Tapes may show, if desired, as bands across the back 
of the finished book or the spaces between tapes may be filled up by 
pasting on layers of paper c o as to give a plain back. 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



369 




CORD-SEWED BOOKS. 

The cord-sewed book gives us the ideal in the matter of sewing book 
sections and securing of covers to the book. Cords in place of bands 
break the back into panels for titles, number of volume and name of 
publisher. The design must determine not only the size, number and 
spacing of cords, but also whether 
the back of the book is to be plain 
or broken into panels. In the case 
of plain back the cords are to be 
set into notches or saw-kerfs ; if the 
back is to be paneled the cords are 
to be set against the back. The 
rounding of the back and the form- 
ing of the flanges to receive cover 
boards, the marking up of points 
for drilling holes to receive cord 
lacings, and the fraying of cords 
require careful measurements and 
manipulation. 

In opening of books the cloth or 
leather of the back is either pasted 
firmly against the back so as to form a flexible back, or is entirely free 
except at the edge where tapes or cords join the covers. In the latter 
case the cloth or leather takes convex form as the book opens, while 
the back of the book is concave. In order to insure smoothness and 
shapeliness to leather or cloth back as book opens, a strip of strong 
flexible paper a little shorter than the book and just three times as wide 
as the book is thick, is folded into three even widths, the center glued 
to back of book and the other widths folded upon the center piece. 
This folded strip acting as a form for back is known as hollow back 
construction. It is necessary that the back of book be rounded and 
made smooth before the hollow back strip is glued in place. 

The introduction of the zigzag or plait at the joint between the 
cover and book tends to remove the strain due to folding back the cover. 
The zigzag involves the making of a plait in the outer leaf of end section. 
The strain on back of books in taking out of bookcase and in handling 
is in a measure overcome by inserting cords between boards at back 
of book, wrapping these cords and looping around kettle stitch, thus 
forming headbands. 



FRAYING ENDS OF CORDS FOR LACING INTO 
BOARD COVERS. 



370 



MAXUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




BOOK PUBLISHED IN 1638, BOUND IN FLEXIBLE COVER ( VELLUM ) AND FLEXIBLE BACK. 







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£ * ■ "V 






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BOOK PUBLISHED IN 1638, SEWED ON CORDS (LEATHER THONGS). 



BOOKBINDING IN THE SCHOOL. 



371 



13. Blank or Printed Books Sewed on Cords, (a) Book, (Grade 
VIII), is to be sewed on cords set into saw-kerfs for plain back. Board- 
covers — zigzags, hollow back — linen or buffing for back and corners, 
cover paper covers, end papers for lining, stock head-bands, (b) Printed 
book of many sections may be sewed on cords set against back of book, 
the cords to form panels on back of book. Board covers, flexible back, 
zigzag, hand-made head-band, morocco for back and corners, cover 
papers, lining papers. Blind tooled title. 

(To be continued.) 




SEWING-FRAME DESIGNED AND MADE IN SHOPS OF CHICAGO TEACHERS COLLEGE. 




SMOKING SET. 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
THE GRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS, VI. 1 

Arthur F. Payne. 

THE square smoking set is shown not as a regular problem in this 
course, but to give some idea of the possibilities that lie in the 
development of the processes of bending and riveting. It was 
made almost entirely from flat metal by bending, the only "raising" being 
on the cover of the box and the base of the matchbox holder, which was 
done in exactly the same manner as described for the lantern-top. The 
large tray, the ash-tray and the box, were all made in practically the same 
manner ; a rectangular piece of copper was cut to size ; then the corners 
were snipped out with the shears and the sides and ends bent up, forming 
the tray or box ; the side and end pieces were next cut to shape and fitted ; 
then the brass trimming along the edges was fitted to its place, these 
together making three thicknesses of metal at the top edge and two at 
the bottom edge. The holes were then drilled and the rivets put in. 
This set is also a good example of the means of construction becoming a 
feature of the decoration. 

'Copyright, 1911, by Arthur F. Payne. 



372 



METALU'ORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 



373 




The fireplace hood shows another possibility of bending and riveting. 
The design on the front was beaten up from the back with the ball end 
of the ball-pein hammer. Another problem 
that may be constructed by bending and rivet- 
ing is the humidor shown in the photograph. 
A flat piece of copper was cut to size, bent 
around and the seam drilled and riveted, the 
feet cut out and shaped, and a tight-fitting 
bottom was driven in from the top and held 
by parts of the edge bent under at the bottom. 

The next regular problem in the series we 
are following is the round plate. This may 
vary in size according to its use. The card- 
tray is usually from five to seven inches in 
diameter and rather shallow. The fruit plate humidor. 

from nine to twelve inches and rather deep, with a wide border. 

The method of making a round plate of any diameter is as follows: 
Cut out of 18 gage soft copper or brass a circle *4" larger in diameter 
than you want the plate to be; next, lap over the edge y % " all around 
the flat piece of metal in exactly the same manner as described for lapping 
the edge of the book-ends, being careful to follow the steps as show in 
the drawing in June 1910 issue. When lapping over the edge be careful 
not to strike the hammer on the flat part of the copper, as that will make 
a disfiguring mark that will show on the finished plate. If it is desired 
to etch a design around the border, the design must be painted on after 
the edge has been lapped over, remembering that the design must be 
painted on the side opposite to that on which the lap is seen. Paint the 
design on with sapolin ; then etch it and remove the sapolin in exactly 
the same manner as described in the April 1910 issue. Now we have 
to beat down the depression in the plate. First draw a line with the 
pencil dividers where the depression starts ; then hold the plate on the end 
of a block of wood and beat it down on the edge of the block with the 
ball pein hammer along the pencil line, as is shown in the photograph. 
If the plate is to have a deep depression, it will be necessary to anneal 
it, as described in the December 1910 issue, because it gets hard while 
being beaten down. Annealing a piece of work usually makes it dark 
and dirty, owing to a thin coating of black oxide that forms on copper 
when it is heated. To clean it, immerse for about ten minutes in a 
solution of one part sulphuric acid and two parts water; then wash 



374 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



in running water. Be careful not to get any of this acid solution on 
the clothes, as it will destroy the cloth. It will not hurt the hands 
if it is immediately washed off with cold water. Now polish the plate 
with emery cloth or steel wool, or, better still, with the wire polishing 
brush costing 30c, illustrated in the photograph, and it is ready for the 
process of planishing described in the last issue. For the planishing of 
the plate we shall need the following new tools : 

No. 10 bottom-stake, costing 65 cents. 

No. 146-A tee-stake, costing 75 cents. 




NEW TOOLS REQUIRED. 



These are shown in the illustration. After the plate has been well 
polished, put the No. 10 bottom-stake in the vise and hold the plate on 
top of it. Start planishing the bottom of the plate in the center with 
the flat face of the ball-pein hammer, gradually working out toward 
the edge. Do this planishing carefully, striking lightly with the center 
of the hammer. It is not necessary to raise the hammer more than four 
inches away from the plate to get a blow of sufficient force. When the 
bottom is smooth it should be slightly raised in the center so that the 
plate will rest on the outer edge of the bottom. To planish the side of 
the plate put the No. 146-A tee-stake in the vise and planish from the 
outside, as shown in the photograph. Next, place the edge or border 
of the plate flat on the lapping-stake, and beat it flat and smooth with 
the mallet. (Lapping-stake, and mallet illustrated in the June, 1910, 
issue). The plate is now ready for polishing, coloring and wax-finishing 
by the previously described methods. 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. 



375 



The large oval serving tray in the photograph was made in exactly 
the same way as the round plate, excepting that the edge or border was 
planished the same as the bottom. Handles may be made of heavy round 
wire and riveted on, or holes may be cut out with the saw frame, and the 
edge lapped. Both of these styles are shown in the photographs. 




To make the fluted and modeled plates shown in the photographs, first 
lap the edge, then beat down the depression and anneal as described 



376 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



before; then get a piece of hard wood about 8" long, 2" wide and 1" 
thick, and on the end file a flute the same shape as you wish to reproduce 
on the plate border, and with the end of the neck hammer that fits the 




SERVING TRAY. 



flute best, beat the plate border into the wooden model ; then planish 
and finish.. 

The rectangular trays are made in a little different manner from the 
round trays, the method being as follows: Cut out a piece of metal about 




FLUTED AND MODELED PLATES. 

Yi" larger than you wish the finished tray to be ; on the edge of the block 
of wood beat down the depression with the neck hammer ; then cut the 
tray to the desired outline and lap over the edge; planish and finish. 
The reason for this difference in method between the round and rect- 
angular trays is that the sides draw in on any square or rectangular piece 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT. Ill 



PLANISHING THE BOTTOM OF THE PLATE. 




RECTANGULAR TRAYS 



378 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



of work in the same way as shown in the drawing of the lantern-top in 
the last issue. 

The problems described in this and the last issue will call for pains- 






RECTANGULAR TRAYS. 



taking care and attention to details, and as it is not possible to make a 
good lantern or plate without some previous experience, the easiest and 
best way is to start at the beginning of the series and make at least one 




SERVING TRAY WITH WIRE HANDLES. 

of each of the problems described and in that way get familiar with the 
tools and processes, remembering that it is always better to have one 
good piece of work tban many poor ones. 

( To be continued.) 



THE RELATION BETWEEN AND THE CONTENT IN 

MANUAL TRAINING AND ENGINEERING 

SHOP COURSES. 

II. 

Fred D. Crawshaw. 

The preceding article made an analysis of the present situation with 
regard to existing shop courses in manual training high schools and 
engineering colleges. 

The present article attempts to define the character of shopwork for 
prospective engineers. 

COLLEGE PREPARATORY SHOP COURSE. 

The secondary school shop course, which prepares for engineering 
college shopwork, differs principally from the shop course given other 
students in these particulars: 

1st. Students are constantly led to see that their shopwork means 
to them advanced credit in the engineering college. This means that the 
high schoolattempts to duplicate the shopwork of the engineering course. 

2d. The shop courses are planned to correlate with the science depart- 
ments, so that a knowledge of physical and chemical laws is exemplified 
in the shopwork. 

3d. Mathematics is applied in the shopwork and given a turn which 
leads the student to think of the mathematics-shop combination in future 
engineering study. 

4th. Laboratory experiments are performed in the shop and are given 
in connection with shop problems as characteristic parts of shop courses. 
Speed tests and calculations, power measurement and efficiency tests, 
simple tests in strength of materials — such as bending and breaking under 
different conditions — and numerous other ordinary laboratory operations 
are used to embellish and vitalize the shopwork. 

Now it must be evident because of the variety of purpose in these high 
school shop courses, and the self-sufficiency of or lack of real purpose 
in the engineering college shop courses, that the shop preparation which 

379 



380 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

the engineer of today gets is either a series of duplications or else a com- 
bination of theory and practice, which may or may not meet his needs. 
With this analysis of the present situation, it is my purpose to outline in 
some detail certain phases of shop courses which, thru the high school, 
but more particularly in the engineering college, will be engineering as 
well as mechanical in character. Before doing this, however, I suggest 
the following kinds of shopwork thru the high school and college, which 
seem to me essential for the student who is being educated in the direction 
of engineering. In doing this I am not supposing that other lines of 
work might not well be offered. Such other work, however, is not 
considered of first importance for the student in question. 

1st. Woodwork in the following order: Bench-work, including pat- 
tern-making, and framing. 

2d. Metalwork in the following order: Bench-work, including chip- 
ping and filing and sheet metal work, speed lathe hand tool turning and 
spinning, forging and machine construction with laboratory practice 
as a necessary adjunct. 

3d. Foundry work in the following order: Snap flask molding, 
loam molding, metal mixing and testing. 

It is assumed that in connection with the above lines of work an intimate 
correlation will be developed between the shops and the science and 
testing laboratories; otherwise a fourth line of work should be indicated, 
which would outline the experimental and investigational side of the the 
shop courses. It is also assumed that problems of economy of labor and 
production will be made prominent in the above outlines. 

Below appear some of the essentials in each of the above suggested 
courses. 

1 . WOODWORK. 

As manual training is now organized, bench-work in wood is very 
often begun in the upper two grades of the grammar school and con- 
tinues thru the first and sometimes thru the first two years of the high 
school. If this is the case, the course should be so planned for these 
years that there will be little if any duplication of effort when the 
student leaves the grammar school and enters the high school. The 
continuity of the work, as well as its character, should make a lack 
of interest on the part of the student impossible. Stress should be laid 
upon the place wood should have in mechanical and engineering work 
by introducing problems which have a direct bearing upon practical 
out-of-school problems, and by giving illustrated talks which will forcibly 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SHOP COURSES. 381 

demonstrate the use of wood in general construction work. It is quite 
essential in these early years that the student should be impressed with 
the fact that an accurate determination of sizes in construction is quite 
as necessary as accurate construction itself. To this end the course 
should provide for testing wood and different kinds of wood used under 
different conditions. Without the mathematical knowledge necessary 
to calculate for safety in construction, simple devices may be planned 
to show by experimental means the comparative strength of different 
woods and different sized pieces of the same kind of wood. Such work 
will early lay the foundation for independent thought and investigation 
on the part of the student. 

At the end of the first two years in the high school, the average student 
should know how to handle and be able to do good work with the 
ordinary woodworking tools and machinery. In addition to this, he 
should have developed a judgment upon wood construction, which will 
enable him to select the best woods and use the most effective joints 
for ordinary wood construction that does not involve the use of elemen- 
tary mechanics. I would exclude from the course up to this point prob- 
lems in roof and bridge construction, which are sometimes given in high 
school courses for the first two years. 

A course in wood-turning and pattern-making follows the course in 
bench- and machine-work in wood. Inasmuch as pattern-making in- 
volves the use of wood-turning tools, I deem it wise to carry on courses 
in wood-turning and pattern-making simultaneously. Time is gained 
by this arrangement and besides, the student applies his wood-turning 
in a work which has a trade significance and therefore, at least, an 
engineering bearing. 

The usual method of teaching wood-turning is to demonstrate and 
explain how each of a number of articles is turned. To my mind, the 
result of this is mentally, as well as physically, a mechanical process. 
If so, the student becomes by this method an operator thru continued 
practice. He does not, however, necessarily become a thinking operator. 
I am sure that in all wood-turning a mathematical analysis is possible, 
and that the method of teaching it is not by showing the student how 
to turn a particular form, but why the tool is used in a particular way 
to accomplish certain results. The mathematical principle of tangency 
is the basis of all wood-turning cuts ; and when the student has a knowl- 
edge of this fact and appreciates its application in the use of each wood- 
turning tool, he has mastered the art of wood-turning. He may then 



382 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

acquire skill in wood-turning in a course in pattern-making, rather 
than by turning exercises which have no meaning for him except as 
practice work. 

For the student who is looking toward engineering as his life work, 
the why of any problem is quite as essential as the how, and for this 
reason, if for no other, the method of approach above indicated is a 
desirable one to develop a correct mental attitude. 

The first work in pattern-making, and the only work in this branch 
of wood construction which should be taught in the high school, must 
deal with the principles underlying the pattern-maker's trade. There 
is so much involved in patternmaking, which requires a knowledge of 
other trades, that the high school student has quite enough to do to 
master and apply the principles of shrinkage, draft, finish, etc., together 
with gaining a correct knowledge of ordinary pattern construction. 
I would reserve for the college course in pattern-making all work in 
machine pattern-making, including problems in design, testing and 
economic production. 

The student's shopwork in wood in his engineering college course is 
limited to a course in pattern-making, suggested in the last sentence of the 
above paragraph, and to a course in framing. If the student's high 
school course in pattern-making has been of the character above described, 
his college course in this subject need lay very little stress upon what 
has been called, "the principles underlying the patternmaker's trade." 
He may at once begin the construction of patterns for machine parts. 
In doing so he should be brought face to face with the problems of design 
and economic production. In the design of a pattern he must consider 
the use to which the casting is to be put. This immediately raises the 
question of strength, and involves calculations and tests under work- 
ing conditions. He studies the subject of mixing metals and compares 
the iron casting with the steel casting. He inquires into the present 
methods of ascertaining why patterns are so carefully designed and rede- 
signed for the castings of model machines, and seeks to improve upon 
these methods. In short, he is not a pattern-maker alone, but an engi- 
neer who is looking for the best possible production as the result of 
experiments, investigations and such calculations as he may use. 

In the construction of the pattern he must be guided by the thought 
that his patterns are to be used under different conditions of production. 
Is there to be one casting or many castings to be made from a pattern? 
Will it pay to make a very substantial pattern or should he use a skeleton 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SHOP COURSES. 383 

form ? Or, perhaps, will a loam pattern be best, when time, expense, and 
finished product are severally and collectively considered? The con- 
struction of the pattern should really be a small part of the college 
student's work in the pattern-making course. From the larger con- 
sideration of his work he must get that broad view which can only be 
obtained by his placing himself as nearly as possible in the position of the 
manufacturer or engineer whose success depends upon his bringing to 
bear upon his problem all the fruits of his own and others' knowledge. 
From personal experience as a teacher of a college course in framing, 
I have become convinced that such a course serves as a climax for school 
wood-working in engineering courses. The student in his college sopho- 
more year has had descriptive geometry, some mechanics and enough 
mathematics to solve many of the problems in roof and bridge construc- 
tion. In the design and calculation incident to the construction of roof 
and bridge trusses, there is found the meat of engineering work. Nothing, 
so far as I know, so well serves the purpose of demonstrating the value 
of the college shop as a part in engineering training, as does a prac- 
tical course in wood framing. I once had the privilege of design- 
ing and building, with twenty-four college students, a frame building 
having a trussed hip roof, — also a Howe truss bridge. Without further 
comment upon the subject of framing as a desirable course in wood con- 
struction for engineering students, I merely suggest that the problems 
which were solved in the course above referred to make use of descriptive 
geometry, graphic statics and some mathematics. 

2. METALWORK. 

Metalwork of any consequence seldom begins before the second or third 
year in the high school. If begun at this point, the work is usually in 
thin metal and is art metalwork in some form or other. The metalwork 
which may be considered of direct value to the student of engineering 
tendencies, begins as a rule in the last high school year or the first or 
second year of college. Little can be said concerning the early bench- 
work in metal, which will affect present beginning courses already estab- 
lished in elements of engineering principles. It is well that every 
engineering student should be familiar with as many shop processes as 
possible. A precise and definite work in chipping, filing, sheet metal 
pattern construction and hand tool turning, which has a definite relation 
to similar work in commercial shops, cannot help but be beneficial. Care 
must be taken not to consume too much time in this work, however, as 



3S4 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

it must be clearly understood that such work is given engineering students 
largely for the purpose of familiarizing them with shop processes. It 
is not given for the purpose of making skillful workmen. 

Forging in engineering courses might be put in the same class as the 
metalwork just mentioned so far as its purpose is concerned. If I were 
to criticize the average college course in forging, I would condemn the 
practice of consuming time in making many things simply for the things 
themselves, regardless of the kind of work involved in the making. Some 
schools run to art forging, others to tool making, and so on, but few 
emphasize in a comprehensive way the use of different kinds of iron 
and steel and the best methods of handling them in the fire. Much of 
real value for future engineering work might be introduced in the forge- 
shop by making comparative tests of heated metals under fixed conditions. 
I suggest also the introduction of drop-forge work and work involving 
the use of large pieces of metal under power hammers. The engineer is 
much more liable to be called upon to deal with heavy metal construction 
than he is with light metal construction ; hence, the necessity of knowledge 
concerning the manufacture and use of heavy metal construction parts. 

It is in the machine-shop, however, where I would suggest the greatest 
changes in school shop practice. So far as I am able to learn, there are 
comparatively few of our engineering colleges that lay much stress in 
the machine-shop upon manufacturing as such, or upon shop methods 
which may be termed engineering in character. Machine-shop courses 
as they are at present outlined, emphasize machine manipulation. The 
average student, when he has completed his machine-shop course, has very 
little knowledge of how a machine-shop should be organized and operated 
to produce economic results. He has almost no idea of shop efficiency. 
He has been technologically taught, but the questions of labor and cost 
have been ignored in his education. According to the report of the last 
president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, fifty per cent, 
of the members of the Society are directly connected with the organization 
and management of capital and labor. It would seem that our machine- 
shop courses should be designed to apply business methods by correlating 
properly conditions of commercial economy with conditions of pure tech- 
nique, if engineering students are to get a proper training for the work 
which this report indicates they will do. Much of the present work of 
"muscular effort" and "finger skill" should be substituted by work in- 
volving "critical comparison." 

The machine-shop course, then, should minimize handwork as such and 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SHOP COURSES. 385 

introduce more class work and demonstrating work which deals with 
practical engineering problems. Machines will be run to produce eco- 
nomical results as well as technical results. The}' will be run under 
different power conditions and under different loads produced by different 
tool cuts and speeds. Efficiency tests will be made. Estimates of wear 
and tear in machines will be made. Judgment will be formed upon 
operative and maintenance cost. Shop designs and arrangements will be 
studied. The relation of the power-plant to the machine-shop will be 
determined, both as regards location and operation. In a word, the 
student will be trained to observe, criticize and pass judgment upon 
economic shop management and production, rather than to operate ma- 
chines as an individual mechanic. By so doing and because he will 
receive instruction which will contribute toward the practice of his 
future profession, rather than that of an industrial workman, he will 
acquire the mental attitude of the engineer. 

3. FOUNDRY WORK. 

The course in foundry work should be planned upon the same broad 
lines as those suggested for the course in machine-shop practice. The 
engineering student is not getting his just deserts, if from his work in 
the foundry he gets only a knowledge of ordinary job shopwork. This 
he should get, to be sure, but, comparatively speaking, this will be of 
little value to him in his engineering growth or in future engineering 
practice. With, and in addition to this, he must be given the oppor- 
tunity to "engineer" some problem in foundry practice. Let his course 
provide instruction in metal mixing and testing, in sweep work and 
loam molding, in cost computations and in methods of producing castings 
for "hurry" jobs. Give him the management of the foundry for a day 
and force him to get results under definite requirements. The foundry 
affords an opportunity for such an experience with comparatively little 
danger of serious results. 

I feel certain that in the somewhat detailed presentation of the frame- 
work of a course of study in woodwork and in metalwork, I have made my 
point clear. It is my belief that it is only just to the engineering profession 
that the schools which send men out into the field of engineering should 
embellish their shop courses by adding practical accompaniments to the 
commonplace shop technique. In accordance with an old saying, "Where 
there is smoke there must be some fire;" when we find many of the 
practical engineers of today complaining of the college preparation of 



386 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

engineering students, we may safely conclude that something can be done 
to make this preparation better. I have endeavored to show how the 
shops may help to do this. 

In conclusion I would summarize as follows: 

1. So organize the shopwork of the secondary schools and colleges 
that a definite and continuous line of shopwork thruout both may be 
established. 

2. Let the character of the shopwork be such that the student will 
live and grow in an engineering as well as in a mechanical atmosphere. 

3. Make every problem a possible one, to be dealt with by the 
student as he will deal with it after he leaves school, when he will be 
in practical competition with his fellows. 

4. Minimize hand skill, but give every student enough handwork 
in every shop process essential to engineering practice, to familiarize 
him with the best shop methods. 

5. Enrich every shop course with lectures, demonstrations, investi- 
gations, experiments, and tests which will give the student a wide-angle 
view of the shop and its possibilities as a part of an engineer's equipment. 



EDITORIAL 

WITH the growing popularity of the term "vocational" during 
the past few months educational discussions have become more 
and more stimulating to the teacher of manual training. He 
begins to see the dawn of a great opportunity, yet in some quarters there 
seems to be a tendency to develop a very irrational competition between 
manual traning and vocational training, and in others to denounce man- 
ual training because it is not wholly vocational in character. A rather 
amusing case of the latter is found in an address given a short time ago 
by Charles D. Hine, secretary of the State Board of Education of Con- 
necticut. He is reported to have characterized manual training as 
"merely another of the innumerable fantastic additions which have been 
made to the school curriculum. It comes to nothing, and is not intended 
to come to anything, and it reaches its destination." 

Vocational The word "vocational" has come into our vocabulary not 
1 raining and (-, ecause general education is a failure, but because general 
Training education alone is insufficient to meet our present needs as 

an industrial nation. Likewise the need of vocational training does not 
imply the failure of manual training as a means of general education, 
but merely that under present limitations it is insufficient to meet the 
demands for practical training in handwork. The same might be said 
with less emphasis of mathematics and geography ; but, owing to the fact 
that manual training has been looked upon as more vocational than 
other subjects, it is the natural point of attack for those who do not know 
the value of manual training or comprehend the breadth and real signifi- 
cance of the vocational school movement. For example, the Catholic 
Educational Review for February sees no conflict between vocational 
education and liberal education, but under the heading "The Passing 
of Manual Training" says: "The fact that the National Association of 
Manufacturers, the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial 
Education, the American Federation of Labor, and the National Educa- 
tion Association have, at their annual meetings during the past two years, 
emphatically endorsed the policy of developing vocational education in 

387 



388 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

our schools, is sufficient evidence that the time has passed for considering 
whether or not vocational training will supersede manual training." 
Surely the vocational training movement is not expected to supersede 
manual training! On the contrary, it should supplement, enrich and 
help bring it to its true place in school work. We regret to hear of any 
effort to place the one in opposition to the other or to give undue emphasis 
to the differences between them. It would be just as logical to place 
mathematics in opposition to vocational training, for the work in mathe- 
matics may or may not be vocational. The degree to which it is voca- 
tional will depend upon the after experiences of the persons taught and 
upon the content and method of the instruction. The same is true of 
work in manual training. 

If lines of demarkation must be drawn between vocational 
The training and manual training, we wish that those who draw 

them would study the address on vocational education given 
by Dr. David Snedden of Massachusetts at the Oregon State Teachers' 
Association during the holidays. After defining liberal education as an 
education that is intended to free the mind, he says : 

"Vocational education is any education that fits people to do a particular 
kind of work in the world — a productive work whereby these people earn a living. 
The education of a medical college is vocational ; the education of a normal school 
is vocational; the education that trains the bricklayer is vocational; the education 
that makes stenographers is vocational ; the education that prepares a trades worker 
or a farmer or a woman to manage the household, and whose controlling purpose 
is to prepare for these vocations is vocational education. We are making a great 
deal of difficulty at the present time in trying to define as vocational education 
the things that have very little relation to it. Manual training, for example, has 
very little relation to vocational education. For a few people manual training is 
somewhat vocational. Woodworking in woodworking shops may be more or less 
vocational for the future carpenter, but certainly it is not vocational for the future 
bookkeeper, or for the future lawyer. That does not in any way detract from the 
value of manual training, understand. I believe most emphatically in it, but it 
belongs to the category of liberal education. It is the kind of education that 
broadens and ripens and deepens the general capacity, but it doesn't fit one directly 
to earn a living. Very little of our arithmetic, very little of our penmanship, can 
be considered vocational. You can make arithmetic vocational. When you delib- 
erately set out the kind of arithmetic the farmer or the bookkeeper or the lumber- 
man wants, then you get into a vocational category, for you are deliberately ad- 
justing it for the purpose of these workers." 

But manual training is not only the natural point of attack for those 
who feel that they must combat something in order to build up the 



EDITORIAL. 389 

vocational work, but it is also and chiefly the natural basis upon which to 
build up a large and important section of vocational work. This explains 
in part, at least, why many of the delegates who were sent to the recent 
Boston meeting of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial 
Education to listen to the numerous papers on vocational training went 
home and immediately recommended an extension of the manual training 
facilities of their cities. It is not to be supposed that they considered 
that in so doing they were acting in opposition to the ideas advanced 
concerning vocational training. On the contrary, many of them were 
enthusiastic over the addresses they had heard. But to them manual 
training was part and parcel of the same thing, and its development was 
the safest, surest and most natural road leading toward the vocational 
end desired. 

It is easy to see how this popular association of manual training and 
vocational training seems very illogical and even damaging to certain 
converts to the new movement and to the makers of definitions, but when 
one recalls the steps leading up to the introduction of the word "voca- 
tional" into our pedagogical vocabulary, the association of the two terms 
seems natural. In the '60s and '70s of the last century we were clam- 
oring for industrial education ; as a result we have drawing and manual 
training in our public schools. Again we are clamoring for industrial 
education; the result will be more and better drawing and manual train- 
ing and some vocational training. The present indications are that the 
pure trade school will not immediately become an important factor in 
our public education. It seems clear, however, that vocational courses 
in one form or another are sure to increase steadily as the result of the 
present wide-spread demand. 

One reason for the popularity of the vocational idea is its comprehen- 
siveness, touching, as it does, and with the possibility of extending, almost 
every branch of general education. A second is found in the fact that it 
is in harmony with the expressed desires of organized labor and many 
social reformers with reference to education. Finally, we find a reason 
in the fact that, like the term manual training, the term vocational train- 
ing is sufficiently indefinite and new to allow of many shades of meaning. 
This is a convenience that has certainly been taken advantage of by 
public speakers and the daily press during the past three months. 



390 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

With all the popularity of this new term and its natural 

The association with manual training comes an exceptional op- 

Manual , i • • 

Training portunity to the teachers and directors ot manual training. 

Teacher's This has heen forcefully pointed out bv Lewis Gustafson, 
Opportunity ' *\ 

superintendent of the David Kanlcen, Jr., School or Me- 
chanical Trades, in a recent address before a body of manual training 
teachers at St. Joseph, Mo. We quote the following, which not only 
points out the opportunity, but also, in a measure, the way to meet it : 

"The public schools must increasingly train for vocations; that is inevitable. 
The great task of the public schools from now on will be to coordinate, as never 
before, with the industrial and commercial life of the community as well as with 
the intellectual. They must give their pupils an equipment and a training that 
will be of use to them in earning a livelihood, as well as in the enjoyment of such 
leisure as may fall to their lot. 

"Just how they will do this of course nobody yet knows. My own feeling is 
that our existing courses in commerce and in manual training point out the way. 
If we can extend manual training into the earlier elementary grades, devote a 
large amount of time to it, intensify it, rearrange its content so that it will teach 
our boys and girls the fundamental and essential processes that enter into all 
industry, and if we can in the later grammar grades and the earlier high school 
grades supplement this training by intensive vocational training in groups of 
allied trades rather than in individual trades we shall have gone far to bring 
about the thing we are seeking. It is possible, I believe, in woodworking, for 
instance, to give a boy such advanced practical and theoretical courses in the opera- 
tions which are common to carpentry, pattern-making, and cabinet-making as will 
fit him to enter any one of the three with what we may call advanced standing. 
He will not, of course, be a competent carpenter, pattern-maker, or cabinet-maker 
without further specialization either in a trade school or in the trade itself, but he 
will have made a good beginning in all three. He will, moreover, have chosen 
only a group of trades instead of a special trade and will have gained the 
inestimable advantage of delaying his choice of a specific vocation until he has 
arrived at some degree of maturity. 

"The same method can be applied to other groups of trades without running 
up the cost to prohibitive limits and without laying the school system open to the 
charge of subsidizing certain activities at the expense of others. Along with this 
instruction naturally will go instruction in the more definite application of arith- 
metic, science, geography, and history. The commercial and agricultural vocations 
will of course have to be given a like emphasis. All this can be done without 
sacrificing the efficiency which the educational system already has. It means 
simply giving point and direction to what is now being taught in the abstract. 
It means no sacrifice of culture but rather an increase. It means making the schools 
more powerful in the preparation of boys and girls for the business of life, which 
after all is the only reason for which the schools exist. 

"That universal vocational and industrial and trade education is bound to 
come I cannot for a moment doubt. With you, the manual training teachers of 



EDITORIAL. 391 

the country, rests the power of giving it impulse and direction. You have the 
shops and the tools and the pupils. You have the education and technical equip- 
ment. You have the legal nine points of possession. It rests with you to say 
whether separate vocational and industrial schools shall spring up all over the 
country as they are springing up in New York and Massachusetts, whether sep- 
arate public trade schools shall be started in all our large cities as they now exist 
in Milwaukee, Philadelphia, and Portland, or isolated private trade schools 
supported by private generosity as in St. Louis. And lastly, it rests with you 
whether, this state of affairs being possible, the industrial workers of our country 
shall have the advantage of a broad and generous industrial education or be 
narrowly trained for their vocations and for those alone, whether manual train- 
ing shall rise to the occasion and become the most vital part of our education 
in the future or be relegated to the side lines of the country's activities, reserved 
as a pleasant occupation and accomplishment for the sons and daughters of the 
well-to-do, degenerating into a sort of masculine fancy-work." 

In our last issue we recorded the death of Senator Stout of 
Senator 
James H. Wisconsin. In this issue we present his portrait as a 

Stout frontispiece, and the following appreciative statement of 

his life and his work, which has been prepared at our request by Dr. L. D. 

Harvey, director of Stout Institute: 

"James H. Stout, the founder of the Stout Institute, died at his home in 
Menomonie, Wisconsin, December 8th. His death is a great loss to the educational 
interests, not only of his home city, but of his state, and the country at large. His 
work in the public schools of Menomonie attracted attention to them a number 
of years ago. It was the first city in the United States to offer an opportunity 
to every pupil in the public schools to have instruction in manual training or 
domestic art and science from the kindergarten thru the high school. At the 
time when these facilities were first offered, little was known of either subject 
in most of the cities of the Northwest, and in most cases where anything had been 
done, the work had been confined to the high schools. There was no demand 
for this work on the part of the people in Menomonie. Mr. Stout erected a build- 
ing, equipped it for both lines of work and employed the teachers to try out the 
experiment. Very shortly a demand for its extension was developed and he 
erected a second building, ample in size to accommodate all pupils for instructional 
purposes in these subjects. In 1897 this building with all its contents was burned, 
and he then erected the third building and equipped it. It was said by competent 
judges who had seen the best equipped buildings for this line of work in this 
country and in Europe that there was nothing in the world surpassing it. He had 
erected two buildings to be used as kindergartens for public school children and 
employed the kindergartners to inaugurate that work. This was done at a time 
when the kindergarten was practically unknown in Wisconsin outside of three or 
four of the larger cities. 

"The work in the Menomonie schools attracted attention and many people 
visited the city to observe it, and much interest was awakened thruout the 



392 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



state, and even outside it, for the introduction of similar work elsewhere. There 
was no institution devoted to the training of kindergartners in the northwestern 
part of the state, and inquiries as to where kindergarten teachers could be secured 
were frequently directed to the school authorities at Menomonie. It was decided 
to open a kindergarten training school to prepare teachers for that section of the 
state. The school was opened under the auspices of the Board of Education with 
the understanding that all expenses would be borne by Mr. Stout. This was 
continued until the state was prepared to open such a department in the normal 
school at Superior, when it was no longer necessary for it to be maintained by 
private enterprise. 

"In 1903 the work of preparing teachers of manual training and domestic 
art and science was begun in Menomonie, and has continued until the present 
time. It was at first under the nominal control of the board of education, but with 
the understanding that all expenses would be borne by Mr. Stout and not by the 
city. The work grew until it seemed wise to modify the plan of organization, 
and in 1908 the Stout Institute was incorporated to carry on the work and other 
lines related to it. 

"The unique thing in Mr. Stout's career was that he was not only a promoter 
of instruction in the manual and domestic arts in his own city, but that he seemed 
equally interested in influencing other communities in the same direction. For 
sixteen years preceding his death he was a member of the state senate and chair- 
man of its committee on education. He had no political ambition and much of 
the work of the legislature was distasteful to him, yet he was always to be found 
at his post of duty and remained in the legislature for a number of years 
primarily with the hope of being able to secure better educational laws and thus 
to be of service to the state. At his own expense he tried out the kindergarten in his 
home town. He demonstrated its usefulness to that community and to representa- 
tives of many communities in the state. He did not stop here, but secured the 
passage of laws encouraging the establishment of kindergartens, and making it 
easy to establish them. 

"He put large sums of money into the development of manual training and 
domestic art and science in the Menomonie schools. During one session of the 
legislature he secured the use of a large room in the capital and had set up an 
exhibit of the work of pupils in the public schools of Menomonie. He invited 
members of the legislature and their friends to examine it. He interested them 
in it and followed it up by securing the enactment of the law encouraging the 
introduction of these subjects into the high schools thru direct state aid. 

"He was a believer in the value of libraries and in making them accessible 
to people. He demonstrated his belief by purchasing thirty traveling libraries 
and sending them out in his own county. He was active in securing the establish- 
ment bv law of a state library commission to encourage the growth of libraries, 
and also a law providing for the establishment of local traveling libraries by 
county boards at county expense. 

"He was a believer in better schools for the country boy and girl, and his 
influence was most potent in securing the legislation that provided for the estab- 
lishment of the Wisconsin county training schools and county schools of agriculture 
and domestic economy. 



EDITORIAL. 



393 



"In the legislature, or outside of it, his influence was for whatever would 
improve educational conditions, either in school or outside the school. While he 
was particularly interested in and directed most of his benefactions toward the 
improvement of conditions in elementary and secondary schools he was one of 
the best friends the exponents of higher education had in the state. 

"In the later years of his life his interest centered largely in the development 
of the institution which now bears his name. While its principal work is the 
training of teachers, he was equally interested in its lines of experimental work 
in the home-maker's school and in the work of the trade school with public school 
pupils. His mind was busy with large plans for its future development. He 
lived to see in it a larger number of young men and women preparing themselves 
as teachers of the manual and domestic arts than could be found in any other 
institution in America. While this pleased him, he was far more interested in the 
quality of work done than in the number of people in the institution. 

"He will be sorely missed by those who have been associated with him, but 
his influence will long be felt, not only in his own state, but thruout the United 
States." 




ASSOCIATIONS 

SCHOOL CRAFTS CLUB. 

The second stated meeting of the School Crafts Club of New York City 
was held on Friday evening, January 13th, 1911, at the Atelier Building, 33 West 
67th Street. 

During the regular business session a movement was put on foot that seemed 
to call forth considerable discussion and interest. It was proposed and carried 
that the Club undertake the publication of a bulletin three or four times each year, 
the purpose of which would be to distribute among the members information of 
immediate interest. This will include: (1) The roll of the Club; (2) bibliog- 
raphies; (3) notices of meetings, societies, and exhibits; (4) periodical and book 
reviews; and (5) articles of interest by members of the Club. 

It was felt that such a publication would prove of value to the members and 
furnish opportunities for community work that would sustain interest in the Club. 
The first issue was planned for some time in February. 

After the business session Dr. E. B. Kent, chairman of the literary program, 
introduced the subject for the evening, "Methods of Handling Certain Constructive 
Projects with Elementary Classes." He said that the Club had had in the past 
a number of meetings discussing the "why" for the introduction of some particular 
phases of mechanical work into the shopwork, but that it was the purpose for this 
evening to tell somewhat in detail the "how" of some definite problems of this 
nature. 

"A Model Aeroplane" was the theme of a talk by I. Schneider, of the New 
York City schools. He explained the construction of base, wings, motor, and 
propeller of a simple monoplane, a number of which have been made in School 
No. 77. Several models were exhibited and explained, and examined by the 
members of the Club. Photographs of more elaborate models, made at the same 
school, were passed around also and much appreciated. The speaker said that a 
good introduction to this study would be thru the making and studying of kites 
and, indirectly in this way, the pressure of air currents; also, still nearer to the 
aeroplane, thru the making of a model glider. During the discussion the speaker 
was asked many questions about the model, the handling of classes in such work, 
kite contests, and the technical side of aeroplane construction. 

The second speaker, W. P. Kent, Jersey City, exhibited and discussed "A 
Soft Metal Steam Engine." In order to dispel any doubts as to the practicability 
of the project the speaker demonstrated that the engine would run even with 
lung power. He showed in detail, by means of parts, patterns, flasks, and charts 
of mechanical and perspective drawings, how the particular project was handled 
at the Ethical Culture School, New York. The engine is of the slide-valve type, 
having the same essential parts as any commercial engine, and the speaker claimed 
that the work would give the pupils good, stiff drill in the use of tools and have 
besides a larger interest and broader field for study than many of the projects 

394 



ASSOCIATIONS. 395 

usually found in the eighth grade. During the discussion the speaker answered 
the usual volley of questions. 

E. F. Judd, Montclair, N. J., spoke on "Cement and Concrete Construction 
as a Manual Training Problem." In a brief review of the history of cement and 
its uses he showed what an important and lasting place this useful material has 
played in the life of the human race. He explained briefly the manufacture of 
cement, and set forth the reasons for its use as study as a manual training problem. 
The fact that it is used so extensively in the building trades, which afford employ- 
ment to the large bulk of the race, justifies its use as a medium in the shop. The 
speaker exhibited models and photographs of a number of objects made in the 
Montclair schools. These included flower-pots for window and lawn, building 
blocks, birdhouses, sundial standards, lawn-rollers, and hitching-posts. 

Mr. Judd explained the various uses of the materials, methods of handling 
classes, and testing schemes for cement. A bibliography of material on cement 
work was passed around to the members and indicated the wealth of available 
printed matter. 

The Club is to have a series of round-table discussions during the year to 
enable the members to discuss more thoroly subjects of mutual interest. At the 
first, held in February, thse topics were presented: (1) Formal Exercises; (2) 
Mechanical Problems; (3) High School, and Art Work. 

— Fred P. Reagle, New York City. 

OKLAHOMA MANUAL ARTS ASSOCIATION. 

The Oklahoma Manual Training and Drawing Association held its annual 
meeting in Oklahoma City, December 29-30, 1911, at which time it was decided 
to change the name of the organization to the Oklahoma Manual Arts Association. 
The secretary was authorized to publish a full report of the proceedings of the 
meeting, to be ready for distribution by March 15th. The following officers were 
elected for 1911: President, V. O. Wilson, Central Normal School, Edmond ; 
Vice-President, Charles T. Jennings, Claremore; Secretary, L. P. Whitcomb, 
Southwestern Normal School, Weatherford ; Treasurer, Brownlow Hopper, Okla- 
homa City ; Member of the Executive Committee, M. S. Sweet, Lawton. 

PENNSYLVANIA EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Manual Training Section of the Pennsylvania Educational Association 
met in Harrisburg, December 28-29, 1910, with two sessions instead of one, as 
has been the custom heretofore. 

On Wednesday morning the subject for discussion was "The Manual Arts 
as Taught in the Pennsylvania Normal Schools." A request had been sent to the 
principals of the fourteen state normal schools asking that the heads of the 
manual training departments present at this meeting reports of the work carried 
on in the various schools, together with suggestions for possible improvements in 
the work. 

The result of the discussion was the adoption of the following resolution: 
"Whereas, The demand for instruction in the manual arts is increasing, and 
the instruction must, in many instances, be offered by the regular teachers; and 



396 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

inasmuch as this demand is growing to such an extent that in the near future 
teachers who have had no instruction in the manual arts will be seriously handi- 
capped in securing positions; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That we hereby recommend that in all Normal School courses in 
the state of Pennsylvania there be a minimum requirement of training in the 
manual arts equal to five recitation periods per week for one school year; and 
be it further 

"Resolved, That a copy of this preamble and resolutions be sent to the principal 
of each Normal School in Pennsylvania by the secretary; and, further, that the 
said preamble and resolutions be sent to the General Committee on Resolutions 
of this Association, with the request that the same be embodied in its report." 

A lecture, illustrated by lantern-slides, on "Some School Shops and Their 
Equipment" was given by George C. Hubbard, of the Oliver Machinery Company. 

The Thursday afternoon session was given to discussion of the following 
topics: "Solving the Skilled Mechanic Problem:" (a) "By Endowed Trade Schools," 
Harry S. Bitting, Director Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades; (b) 
"By Public Trade Schools," William C. Ash, Principal Philadelphia Trades 
School; (c) "By Schools Furthered by Manufacturers," C. R. Dooley, Educational 
Director Westinghouse Electrical and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburg. 

On Wednesday evening, at the general session of the Educational Association, 
Chief Authur D. Dean, Division of Trades Schools, New York, spoke on "The 
Establishment of Forms of Special Education," as one of the functions of a State 
Board of Education. 

The next meeting of the Manual Training Section will be held in Philadel- 
phia in December, 1911. The following officers were elected: President, Thellwell 
R. Coggeshall, superintendent of mechanical schools, Girard College, Philadelphia; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Lewis W. Cruikshank, Friends Select School, Philadelphia. 

— Iris W. Prouty, 
State Normal School, Millersville, Pa. 

WESTERN DRAWING AND MANUAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 

Preparations on a large scale are under way for the entertainment of the 
eighteenth annual meeting of the Association at Springfield, Illinois, May 2-5, 
1911. The demand for exhibit space has been so great that practically the entire 
floor of the immense State Armory will be used for this purpose. For programs 
and bulletins address the secretary, Miss Bertha L. Patt, State Teachers College, 
Cedar Falls, Iowa. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

George A. Seaton, Editor 



POTATO MASHER. 



The potato masher has long been designed for service but has seldom had much 
of beauty. The design here offered has a certain grace and lightness in its finished 
form which do not seem to militate against service. 



> \ 



COSTUMER. 

The costumer shown is very simple in its con- 
struction but affords a variation from the usual .one 
with a single central post. As shown, the posts 
taper slightly in one direction. The mortises should 
be laid out before planing this taper. If preferred, 
the posts can be made square thruout their length. 
The crosses upon the working drawing indicate the 
location of the hooks. 



The first-year high school boys of Worcester, 
Massachusetts, have been making the stool shown in 
this issue for the past two years. A. F. Ball, under 
whom the work was done, reports that the problem 
was quite as popular among the parents as among 
the boys. The design is that of H. W. Leland, of 
Leominster, Mass. The seat is made of five-sixteenth 
inch flat reed, which is wound around rails formed 
from one-inch dowel rods. All joints in the reed are 
made on the under side of the seat. A number of 
different patterns in the weave are possible. If the weave is in blocks of four 
the number of strands between the legs each way must be a multiple of four. If 
the weave is in blocks of three, the number of strands must be a multiple of three. 



r 



397 



39S 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




SHOP PROBLEMS. 



399 




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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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CURRENT ITEMS 

ACCORDING to reports published in a Chicago paper, German capitalists 
are about to establish a chain of engineering schools in China. Banks and 
manufacturers have subscribed liberally to the fund of half a million 
dollars to carry out this project. In Germany business and education have been 
welded into a powerful implement for the furthering of national success. This 
latest form of strategy in the Orient should not be lost sight of by other ambitious 
nations. It is better than war, and may be more lasting in its effect. 

JJL 

The oldest American labor organization is the International Typographical 
Union. It maintains a home for aged members, a tuberculosis sanitarium, besides 
a pension system which is of great benefit to the aged members. This organization 
also maintains a correspondence school which now has 1800 students. In order to 
keep up with the development in the printing arts the worker in printing estab- 
lishments must be more than a mere copyist. He must know the principles of 
design and of color harmony, in order to grow into the best positions now opening. 
Realizing this, the union has developed a very strong course in art as applied to 
printing. 

NORTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

About a year ago the city of Boston opened its first continuation school as an 
experiment with the cooperation of the leather and dry goods trades of the city. 
A recent issue of the Boston Globe gives the following outline of the subjects taken 
up in this school: 

"The shoe and leather course includes the production and distribution of 
leather, tanning processes, leather manufacture, recognition of kinds, grades and 
comparative values of leather manufacture and classification of shoes, commercial 
arithmetic, commercial geography, commercial correspondence, salesmanship and 
efficiency training. 

"The dry goods course includes fibers, cotton and cotton goods, wool, worsted 
and woolens, silk and silk fabrics, linen and linen fabrics, recognition and com- 
parison of mixed fabrics, simple tests for determining Quality, coloring materials 
and colors, preservation, care of stock, commercial arithmetic, commercial geog- 
raphy, commercial correspondence, salesmanship and efficiency training. 

"The course in preparatory salesmanship includes commercial correspondence, 
facility in oral and written expression, store arithmetic, sales slip practice, sources 
of merchandise and its distribution, raw materials, textiles, penmanship, design 
and color, hygiene, practical talks on the fundamental principles of success and 
salesmanship." 

JUL 

In developing the manual training work in Springfield, Mass., Mr. Egbert 
E. McNary, the supervisor, is giving considerable prominence to metalworking. 
He believes that the elements of metalworking offers just as great educational possi- 

401 



402 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

bilities as woodworking, and equally good hand training. He is also extending 
the work in the direction of concrete construction and printing. In one of the 
public schools the boys have made the concrete walk adjoining the entrance to the 
school. These newer processes are being taken up in order to give a broader 
industrial significance to the work in manual training. 

It is encouraging to learn that the advocates of vocational training in Mass- 
achusetts are not forgetting the manual training work in the lower grades of 
the elementary schools. In an article by Charles A. Prosser, deputy commissioner 
of education in charge of industrial education in Massachusetts, published in 
the Boston Globe in November, there appears the following statement: 

"Manual activities in the lower grades will serve as a basis of right teaching; 
in the upper grades they will serve the additional aim of vocational direction. 
In the upper grades of the elementary schools, beginning with the seventh grade, 
the children might well take certain studies together, differentiating so far as 
facilities will permit in others. 

"Girls returning home to mother at fourteen might well take the rich courses 
in domestic science and art, first aid to injured, sanitation and hygiene. 

"Boys expecting to enter upon business life at fourteen should be offered oppor- 
tunity for training in commercial arithmetic, commercial geography and the 
keeping of simple accounts. Boys entering industrial life at fourteen or who 
expect to attend industrial schools should have rich courses in mechanical 
drawing, manual training, industrial geography and arithmetic. 

"In these grades under careful direction each would find his bent and tendency. 
Such courses would place in the hands of the school authorities information on 
the basis of which wise vocational direction could be given." 

One of the surest ways to bring about reform in education is to present facts. 
This is illustrated in what followed a report recently made in the city of Somer- 
v.ille, Mass., concerning the number of girls that have left school during the past 
year. A canvass was made under the direction of the State Board of Education, 
which has led to the conclusion that an elementary industrial school for girls 
should be established in Somerville. During the past year 251 girls under sixteen 
years of age have left the schools of Somerville to go to work. Four years ago 
187 girls left for the same purpose. A comparison of the figures shows that the 
number of girls leaving during the past year is 34 per cent greater than that of 
four years ago. During the same period there has been an increase of only 13 
per cent in the population of the city. Of the 251 giris who left this year, 60 per 
cent were only fourteen years of age; 9 per cent had gone beyond the grammar 
grades, and 7 per cent left school before reaching the sixth grade. From personal 
visits to 146 homes it was found that 50 per cent of the girls might have gone on 
in school work had they desired to do so. Dissatisfaction with the opportunities 
presented by the regular curriculum and not economic necessity is the reason why 
6 per cent had left school. The parents of these girls desired them to have more 
education, but thought that a training was needed which would prepare the 
girls to become self-supporting in a year or two. It has been proposed to establish 



CURRENT ITEMS. 403 

a two-year industrial school course covering dressmaking, millinery, machine 
operating, and possibly other technical subjects. The course would also include 
academic subjects intended to enrich or broaden the training of the school. 

What promises to be a very remarkable and striking record of the place of 
science in modern industry will be presented in the series of papers which will 
constitute one of the main features of the Congress of Technology to be held in 
Boston on April lOth-llth, of this year. The first of these dates is the fiftieth 
anniversary of the chartering of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and 
the primary purpose of the Congress is fittingly to mark that anniversary. The 
papers will constitute a survey of engineering and industrial science as a whole, 
from a body of men who speak from first-hand experience with industrial problems 
all over the country. No similar discussion of the industries has been attempted 
on such a scale, and the record promises to be of unique suggestive value. 

JUL 

Harvard University is to offer a summer school course this year on the theory 
and practice of vocational guidance. This will be given by Meyer Bloomfield of 
the Vocation Bureau of Boston. The underlying purpose of the course is to develop 
in the schools what President Emeritus Eliot calls the "life-career motive." 

-it 

In a recent address Mr. Charles A. Prosser, deputy commissioner in the state 
of Massachusetts, said that there are forty thousand children between the ages 
of fourteen and sixteen in the state of Massachusetts who are wage earners. Of 
these only one out of six has reached the eighth year of the public schools; one 
out of four has reached the seventh year, and one out of two has reached the 
sixth year. All of these are without any industrial training. It has been found 
that eight out of ten of the parents of these children would have sent them to 
school longer if the school available were of such a character that they considered 
it worth while to make the sacrifice. These children, as a rule, are not able to 
enter a desirable occupation. They naturally drift into occupations where there 
is little chance of working up. 

JJL 

The High School Teachers' Association in New York City has a student's 
aid committee which is doing a work of increasing value. Indeed, it has become 
so valuable that it might easily grow into an employment bureau for the boys of 
the public schools. The aim of this committee is to bring the attention of em- 
ployers of labor to the various kinds of training given in the public schools and to 
ascertain from principals, and teachers, and in some cases from the students 
themselves, the kind of work for which each is best suited, and then to place each 
student in the position in which his talents will have full scope to develop. Fre- 
quently employers criticise the public schools because they do not employ the kind 
of boys that the teachers recommend, and it frequently occurs that a boy secures 
a position which is not at all suited to his capacity. The students' aid committee 
is doing much to improve this condition. 

In July, 1909, the school districts of Cheltenham Township and Jenkintown 
Borough, Pa., both suburban to Philadelphia, combined to employ C. E. Karlson, 



4<i4 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



then of Altoona, Pa., to take charge of the manual work in their schools. Mr. 
Karlson spends three and one-half days per week in Cheltenham district and one 
and one-half days in Jenkintown. In both these districts a full course of industrial 
work is taught, beginning with the first grade and ending with second year of the 
high school. In the Cheltenham high school an additional year's work has been 
planned. Mr. Karlson teaches all the work from the seventh grade up, and super- 
vises the work of grades I to VI. This combination has been very satisfactory to 
both districts and has given each the services of a first-class man who would hardly 
have been available in any other way. When districts are situated as these are, 
and the boards are sufficiently progressive to lay aside petty jealousies, and when 
they are willing to pay a first-class salary, there is no reason why this combination 
should not be effected. It should be added, however, that in all probability such 
an arrangement would not work in districts whose boards are not willing to turn 
over the entire management of the professional side of the schools to the principal 
or superintendent. 




BELLEVUE AVE. SHOP, MONTCLAIR, NEW JERSEY. 



A GRAMMAR SCHOOL WORKSHOP. 



The school workshop has been made the subject of considerable study. Every 
new center is the more or less satisfactory solution of the problem of arrangement 
of equipment in a given space. It is an effort to provide the means of handling 
a class with the least amount of waste in time, to provide facilities for the storage 
of supplies and tools, and some way of safely keeping unfinished work during the 
time when the class is not at work. 

The shop shown in the accompanying illustration is one of six in the town of 
Montclair, N. J., and what is said about equipment holds true of the others. It is 
unique in that it is housed in a structure especially built for the purpose. This 
shop measures 29x54 feet, and, having windows on all sides, allows the arrange- 
ment of equipment with but little reference to space or light. The equipment 
consists of twenty-four single benches with the usual tools, and a few essentials 



CURRENT ITEMS. 



405 



for simple metalwork. The benches are partially equipped with rapid-acting vises, 
the old wooden ones being replaced as they wear out. 

The demonstration theater was designed for a class of twenty, but larger 
classes have made twenty-five seats necessary. The demonstration bench has both 



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woodworking and machinists' vises. It is used also by students for such metal- 
work as comes in connection with the shop projects. This bench is provided with 
drawers for tools and compartments for sheet metals, etc. 

The lumber rack was made by bolting five pieces of 4x4-inch chestnut to the 



406 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



side wall, and inserting six 21-inch lengths of 1 '4-inch gas pipe in each upright. 
Such a rack is convenient, serviceable and inexpensive. 

The glue and finishing tables, not shown in the pictures, have zinc tops, and 
are provided with drawers and compartments for keeping the materials used. 
Thev provide the means for doing with cleanliness and order what sometimes is 
a rather troublesome part of shopwork. 




INTERIOR OF BELLEVUE AVE. SHOP, MONTCLAIR, NEW JERSEY. 



The permanent exhibit case measures 20 in. by 5 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft. It has 
adjustable shelves, glass doors, and is provided with the same style of lock as are 
the general tool case, supply cases and demonstration bench. 

The cabinets for pupils' unfinished work have been planned to meet the 
problem of providing a satisfactory place in which a pupil can keep his work 
from lesson to lesson. The first requirement of the shops seemed a standard size 
locker; secondly, it must be adjustable to provide for various sizes of projects; and 
lastly, local conditions demanded a system which could be moved without difficulty. 
The idea has developed into what is the most satisfactory system with which the 
writer has had experience, either as teacher or student. A sectional case was 
designed which meets equally with the needs of all classes in the art and handwork 
department, whether they be bookbinding, woodwork or sewing. Each section 
measures 20 in. by 24 in. by 36 in. The open case in the illustration shows the 
maximum number of compartments, eight pupils to the section, each pupil having 
a space &% in. x 10§^ in. x 18% in. for his work. By removing four or six of the 
upright partitions, the space may be given to four or even two pupils. Thus any 
piece of work up to 11 in. x 18% in. x 34 in. can be kept out of the way and under 



CURRENT ITEMS. 



407 



lock and key. Alternate sections are assigned to a class to avoid congestion and 
confusion. 

The cost of the building several years ago was $3,500. Local carpenters built 
the demonstration theater, lumber rack, cabinets, etc. The demonstration bench 
cost $27; the stain and glue tables approximately $4.50 per running foot; and the 
unfinished work cabinets $12 per section. These prices could without doubt be 
materially reduced where lumber is less expensive and where woodworking in- 
dustries abound. —Albert F. Siepert. 




SECTIONAL LOCKERS, MONTCLAIR, NEW JERSEY. 



NORTH CENTRAL STATES. 

Recent developments in educational circles in the state of Wisconsin and those 
likely to take place soon look toward an unprecedented interest and activity in 
the manual arts for the near future. 

Under the auspices of the School Arts and Home Economics Section of the 
Wisconsin State Teachers' Association, a committee is at work on a course of 
study in the manual arts. At present outlines of courses of study covering drawing 
and the different lines of shopwork for all grades from the kindergarten thru 
the high school have been drafted. None of these are ready for publication, but 
the present committee working upon them held a meeting in Oshkosh on the 
occasion of the recent meeting of the Northwestern Teachers' Association and 
planned a progressive line of work to be done during the ensuing year looking 
toward the ultimate publication of the report. Whenever publication is made, 
however, emphasis will be laid upon the fact that the outlines in the report are 
suggestive and tentative only. It is to be hoped, however, that they will serve 
as a means of vitalizing and to some extent standardizing the work of the manual 
arts in the state. 



40s MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

In the near future a bulletin on the teaching of the manual arts will be issued 
from the University of Wisconsin as one of the high school series. This bulletin 
has been prepared by Professor F. D. Crawshaw of the University of Wisconsin, 
assisted by Professor R. W. Selvidge of the University of Missouri. It will contain 
many outlines for courses of study in drawing and shopwork. These outlines will 
represent not only the combined individual views of the authors, but the collective 
views of many teachers and supervisors in the Central West. 

The faculty of the University of Wisconsin has voted to accept for purposes 
of entrance credit four units of high school work in vocational studies. These 
include manual arts, domestic science, commerce, and agriculture. A student may, 
therefore, if the regents of the university approve the action of the faculty, enter 
the university with credit given him for four years of high school work in any 
one of the subjects mentioned. Credit will be granted, however, only when the 
high school work has been approved as a result of university inspection. A student 
may also present four units for entrance credit by combining two units in one of 
the four vocational studies mentioned with two units in any other one of the four. 
No other four-unit combination can be made. 

The department of manual arts established in the University of Wisconsin 
at the beginning of the present academic year has been instrumental in having 
authorized by the faculty of the College of Letters and Science, a four-year course 
of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. The completion of 132 
units of work are necessary for the granting of the degree. Of the 132 units, ap- 
proximately 80 are prescribed, leaving 52 for free election. Of the 80 prescribed 
units, 39, which constitute the manual arts major, must be earned within the 
department of manual arts. 

The present state legislature will have an opportunity to take action upon a 
bill which has been drafted to provide for the establishment of continuation and 
vocational schools within the state. 

It thus appears that the people of Wisconsin will soon have an opportunity 
to develop the manual and industrial arts within the public high schools and in 
vocational schools of the continuation school type as few other states can do under 
present conditions. Already there are many well organized high school depart- 
ments in which manual training and drawing of a high grade are being taught. 

Governor A. O. Eberhart of Minnesota is a strong advocate of the consolida- 
tion of rural schools because he believes it to be the only effective means by which 
opportunities to secure an efficient and practical education can be placed within 
thj reach of the boys and girls on the farms. He says: "The common schools do 
not equip the boys and girls for agricultural pursuits, and, inasmuch as trade 
schools are too expensive, the only solution of the question remains in the con- 
solidation of our rural schools. Under this system it will be possible to incor- 
porate these advantages in the curriculum of the rural schools.'' 

An interesting movement has been started in Kansas City to induce the boys 
to remain in the manual training high school thruout the entire course. Many of 



CURRENT ITEMS. 409 

them have been stopping when about half way thru and going to work. Business 
and professional men of Kansas City, manufacturers, engineers, merchants, archi- 
tects, engravers, and mechanics, are joining in an effort to make it clear to the 
boys that they are not well enough equipped for the life work until they have 
completed the entire course. The first talk of the series has been given by one of 
the leading architects in the city. 

The city of Peoria, 111., has taken steps leading toward continuation school 
work. Evening classes in mechanical drawing and mathematics have been opened 
under the direction of A. P. Laughlin, supervisor of manual training. This has 
been done in cooperation with a committee from the carpenters' and builders' 
association and meets the approval of the carpenters' union. 

WESTERN STATES. 

The school board of Denver, Colorado, has authorized the construction of a 
manual training building to be used in conjunction with the north side high school. 
In architectural design this will be in harmony with the north side school. It is 
expected to cost $50,000. 

A plan for teaching agriculture and manual training in the rural schools 
under district supervision is being worked out by County Superintendent Busch 
of North Yakima, Washington. The plan provides for one teacher in each district 
who will teach agriculture and manual training in the consolidated schools in 
which will be laboratories and workshops. A good working library will be pro- 
vided for these subjects. The buildings under construction for such consolidated 
schools are costing from $10,000 to $28,000 each. 

The manual training and commercial high school of Oakland, California, is 
making an effort in common with many other California cities to secure a new 
building. It is proposed that bonds be voted to erect a new $600,000 building. 
The design for the new building has been prepared by Walter A. Tenney. It is 
intended to accommodate two thousand students. 

Santa Monica, California, has just voted $200,000 for a polytechnic high 
school. Some of us living east of the Rockies could learn a lesson in school cam- 
paigning, and incidentally in public enthusiasm for education, by studying the 
literature passed out to the voters of Santa Monica just before election day. On 
one sheet 18x24 inches were printed the important facts bearing on the question, 
and a large illustration of the proposed site of the new school, extensive views of 
similar schools already erected or in process of erection at Hollywood, Monrovia, 
Long Beach and Riverside, and five large half-tones of present equipment for 
work in manual training, cooking and sewing. 

HAWAII. 

Industrial training forms an important part of the work of the public schools 
of Hawaii just as it does in the Phillippines. The course includes agriculture, 
woodwork, printing and domestic science. Pupils to the number of 9,309 in 125 
schools have been engaged in systematic gardening. Two of the schools, including 



410 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

a reformatory school, have raised sugar cane on a commercial basis, the 1911 
crop being expected to yield over $5,000. 

Twenty schools are equipped for carpentry work, and 7,575 pupils are en- 
gaged in that work during the year. Seven schools are equipped for printing 
and do regular printing on school work, publishing a paper and many other 
things. Domestic science includes cooking, sewing, lace-making and weaving. 
Twelve schools have cooking departments. In sewing 8,500 pupils have been 
engaged. Nearly all the schools teach plain sewing to both boys and girls of the 
primary grades, while the higher forms of work, such as cutting and fitting of 
garments, are taught only to the girls of the higher grades. Twenty-one schools 
give instruction in lace-making. Five hundred pupils have done weaving with 
grass, bamboo and hala leaves. — Neiv York Sun. 

ENGLAND. 

A new system of central schools will be established by the London County 
Council to give an educational course not hitherto generally provided in either 
elementary or secondary schools. Generally speaking, the central schools will 
replace the existing higher elementary and higher grade schools; they will receive 
pupils at the age of eleven from surrounding contributing elementary schools, 
and will, as a rule, be carried on under the ordinary regulations of the board of 
education for elementary schools. Central schools will provide courses of instruc- 
tion extending over four years; all girls wiil go thru an approved course of 
domestic economy, and all boys thru an approved course of manual instruc.ion. 
It is expected that the curriculum will be framed with a view to the pupils leaving 
between the ages of fifteen and sixteen, that the courses of instruction will be 
organized to provide for the pupils the best possible equipment for entering the 
industrial or the commercial world as soon as they leave school, while at the 
same time qualifying them to commence some special course of technical training 
at a polytechnic or similar institution if they desire to continue their education 
further. The council intends that central schools shall give their pupils a definite 
bias towards some kind of industrial or commercial work, while ensuring that 
their intelligence shall be fully developed, and proposes that the schools shall be 
treated as schools of a non-local character. 

Mr. Tryhorn, superintendent of manual training in Liverpool, has been ap- 
pointed an inspector of manual training under the national board of education. 

The Schoolmaster recently published the following excerpt from a letter 
written by Dr. C. M. Woodward of St. Louis: "I am amazed at the rapid growth 
of the sentiment in favor of a vocational trend to manual training, and yet I am 
very unwilling to favor a general adoption of a narrow instead of a broad system 
of training. Give a boy what will really be best for him, and let alone the interests 
of the employer who would exploit him to hew wood and draw water. I have 
heard men teachers declare that we must have an ignorant menial class, and hence 
we must not train all boys. That this is public policy I deny. My slogan was: 
Put the whole boy to school. It now is: Put every boy to school, and train head 
and hands together." 



REVIEWS 

The Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes. By Francis A. Collins. The Century 
Company, New York, Oct. 1910; lY\ x 5% in.; 52 illustrations, mostly full 
page photographs; 308 pages; price, $1.20. 

Even if one has never thrilled to see an aviator soaring like a bird over the 
landscape, he can gain some idea of what that delightful sensation is from the 
first chapter of this fascinating book. To many a bright boy this book will 
prove an effective stimulus to try to make a toy aeroplane of his own, and so 
have the fun of an entirely new sport. Many of the illustrations (reduced in 
size) and some of the text appeared in three consecutive numbers of the St. 
Nicholas, and these have proven intensely interesting to the boy who likes to 
make things. Perhaps the newness of this sport accounts for the fact that the 
text and illustrations are almost wholly suggestive of what to do and how to do 
it rather than definite. There are no working drawings; but a working drawing 
might be useless because the successful flight of an aeroplane depends upon so 
many subtly varying conditions. The text makes one feel that in truth this is 
still an open field for invention. Consisting of two parts, the book first deals 
with "Models: How to Build and Fly Them;" and then of the "History and 
Science of Aviation," the later chapters reflecting some of the intense popular 
interest manifested in this new field. 

One would like to see the plates numbered and referred to in the text consist- 
ently in Arabic notation rather than by three systems, — letters, Arabic notation, and 
Roman notation ; also some photographs of the more recent notable flights de- 
scribed in the later chapters. Harris W. Moore. 

Design in Theory and Practice. By Ernest A. Batchelder, Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia. Published by the Macmillan Company, New York, 1910 ; 5^x8 in. ; pp. 268 ; 
258 illustrations; price, $1.75 net. 

In his preface the author states that it is the aim of this book to be helpful, not 
only to teachers and students, but to others who feel the lack of a standard to 
assist them in forming a judgment in questions of design. 

The introductory chapter states the purpose of the study of design as being 
to stimulate the imagination, to develop original thought, to strengthen judgment 
and to acquire the power to express one's self in a clear and intelligent manner. 
The second chapter treats of utility, or adequate service, which in design is of 
the utmost importance. The historical development of the construction problem 
of lighting is then taken up and fully illustrated. The third chapter deals with 
the three elementary esthetic principles of rhythm, balance ar>d harmony. Many 
illustrations are given to make their meaning clear. The necessity of good con- 
struction is then emphasized. 

The chapter on "Materials" gives an interesting study of the art of primitive 
peoples. Chapter six is devoted to tools and processes. Medieval iron work is 
given as an interesting illustration of tool-wrought ornament. "Refinement of 
Proportion" is the title of the next chapter and may be summarized thus: There 
must be coordination of all of the parts to make a whole. 

411 



412 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

The chapter on "The Play Impulse" is very interesting and helps one to 
understand the work and character of the Medieval craftsman. "The Idea and 
Nature," chapter nine, teaches that we must have ideas before we go to nature. 
Nature furnishes merely the raw material, and not the finished design. In the 
author's treatment of "From the Parts to the Whole" and "From the Whole to the 
Parts," he suggests two directly opposite methods of approach in designing. 

The concluding chapter shows the necessity of more art training for the 
craftsman and more craft work for the artist. In each chapter there are a number of 
problems given to be worked out by the student; these probelms are fully illustrated 
and are very comprehensible. The subject of design has been so thoroly covered, 
and so clearly stated in this book that it is sure to prove valuable for both students 
and teachers. — Adelaide Mickel. 

Vocational Education. By John M. Gillette. American Book Company, 
New York, 1910; 5x7%"; viii -f- 303 pp. 

This book is the result of a number of years of study and investigation in 
connection with the author's course of lectures on history and social science. 
It will be welcomed by the student of education for its presentation of the 
question as to what education should do for society. 

"The field of education contemplated is that of the elementary public schools. 
While the principles of social adjustment might very well govern all grades of 
educational effort, and while sometimes, in the course of discussing some phase 
of the general subject of training, the higher grades have been touched on, it 
must be borne in mind that only the schools below the secondary schools are 
explicitly involved." 

The book is divided into three parts. Part I, The Educational Renaissance, 
discusses in three chapters The Vocational Movement and Concept, Some Ac- 
complished Results, and The Reaction on Education and the School. 

In Part II, Social Demands on Education, the sub-topics are: Society and 
the Individual, Democracy and Its Imperatives, Importance of the Economic 
Interest in Society and Its Significance for Education, Pathological Demands 
on Education, The Social End of Education and Other Ends, and State Educa- 
tion and Religion. 

Part III is entitled Methods of Socialization, and the chapter headings are: 
Criterion of Socialization, Socialization of the Program of Studies, Socialization 
of Subjects, and Some Socialized Programs. The book is fully indexed. 

— w. T. B. 

Shop Mathematics. By Edward E. Holton. Published by The Taylor-Holden 
Company, Springfield, Mass., 1910; 7%x5 in.; 212 pages; price, $1.25, postpaid. 

"Shop Mathematics" should more properly be called "Machine-Shop Mathe- 
matics," as it is confined to the practical problems arising in actual machine-shop 
practice. The problems are arranged under appropriate headings and fairly cover 
the field including mechanical powers, machines, horse power, boilers, etc. 

Rules are given and illustrative examples are worked out, followed by prob- 
lems to be worked by the pupil. No attempt is made to present mathematical 
theory upon which the rules are based, or the mathematical principles of compu- 
tation. The work seems to be well done, tho here and there simpler methods of 



REVIEWS. 413 

computation might be presented. No attention is given to calculation errors, and 
often results are given to a degree of refinement that is not warranted by the 
accuracy of the measured data. 

It is a valuable collection of problems for use by a class taking machine-shop 
work, but it is rather too technical to be used as a source of problems in classes in 
mathematics. — G E. Comstock, 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute. 

Physics. By Charles R. Mann and George R. Twiss. Scott, Foresman & Co., 
Chicago, 1910, Revised edition; 7 l / 2 x 5 in. ; pp. 424. 

Considering the drudgery entailed in the study of elementary physics by the 
plan generally followed in text books, the new Mann & Twiss Physics, divided 
into two parts, first "Physics every child should know," and second, "Physics 
preparatory to advanced work," is worthy of most careful consideration by 
every teacher of the subject. — Albert W. Jamison. 

Simple Woodwork for Junior Classes. By Robert Wootton, with preface by 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins, chief inspector of the educational department of the London 
County Council; 7% x 10 in.; oblong; 51 pp., illustrated with perspective draw- 
ings and diagrams; price, 75c. 

This book is another effort to demonstrate the practicability of construction 
work in wood in primary and lower grammar school grades. It follows the lines 
of "Learn by Doing" by J. H. Judd of Manchester, tho the problems do not carry 
the student so far in construction. 



An Outline for the Manual Arts Course in the Richmond Public Schools. 
This outline, prepared by Fred B. Hagaman, director of manual arts in Richmond, 
Va., is arranged by weeks and is unusually complete in detail. It covers (a) 
drawing and primary manual training, (b) sewing, (c) cooking, (d) cardboard 
construction, (e) knifework, (f) benchwork in wood, and (g) outlines for high 
schools. It contains many working drawings of models. In all it is a book of 171 
pages and is published by the school board of Richmond. 

Bulletin No. 13. National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Eeducation. 
This bulletin, giving the proceedings of the Boston meeting, is in four parts, as 
follows: I. Trade Education for Girls; II. Apprenticeship and Corporation 
Schools; III. Part Time and Evening Schools; IV. The Social Significance of 
Industrial Education. 

Report of Committee on Course of Study in the Manual Arts. This is the 
report of the committee of the Illinois Manual Arts Association that has been work- 
ing for two years in formulating and revising courses of study for elementary and 
high schools. Price, 10 cents. A. C. Newell, secretary, Illinois State Normal 
University, Normal, 111. 

Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants. By Arthur C. Parker, New 
York State Museum, Bulletin No. 144, Albany, N. Y. This bulletin is uniform in 
size and style with the other excellent bulletins issued by the New York State 



414 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Museum. It contains 119 pages of text interspersed with line cuts, and 30 full-page 
plates of half-tones. This is especially interesting to one who wants to know 
primitive methods of preparing corn or the practical use made of corn husks by 
the Indians. 

The Effect of Keyways on the Strength of Shafts. By Herbert F. Moore, 
Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 42, University of Illinois, Urbana, 
Illinois. 

How to Make a Wireless Set. Popular Mechanics Handbook. Price 25 cents. 
Popular Mechanics Co., Chicago. Tells how to make a set of apparatus for wire- 
less telegraphy. 

Arts-Crafts Lamps — How to Make Them. By John D. Adams. Popular 
Mechanics twenty-five cent hand book series. Published by the Popular Mechanics 
Co., Chicago. This book gives working drawings and working directions for 
sixteen different lamps and lanterns. 

Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Association of Life Insurance 
Presidents. This contains eight addresses on the general topic, "Educational Forces 
in Life Insurance," one of which is by President Judson of the University of 
Chicago, who spoke on the subject "The Place of Vocational Training in a General 
College Course," and another by President James of the University of Illinois, 
whose subject was "Vocational Training and Its Future." 

Philippine Hats. By Hugo H. Miller of the Philippine School of Commerce. 
Published by the Bureau of Education, Manila, 1910. Sixty pages of text and 21 
pages of plates telling the story of the making of the several styles of hats for 
which the Philippine Islands are noted. 

Addresses and Proceedings of the National Educational Association, igio. 
Dr. Irwin Shepard, secretary, Winona, Minn. Price, $2.00. Contains all the 
addresses delivered at the Boston meeting in July, 1910. 

New Jersey Training School for Feeble-Minded Boys and Girls. Vineland. 
New Jersey. A circular of information. 

Elementary Syllabus on Manual Training. Bv Leon L. Winslow, Niagara 
Falls, New York. 

North Bennet Street Industrial School, Boston, Massachusetts. Alvin E. Dodd, 
director. A most interesting report on the work of this now famous school 
where new methods in education are tested before their adoption by the public 
school system of Boston. 

Manual Training in the Public Schools. By Louis C. Petersen. Bulletin 
published by the Southern Illinois State Normal University, Carbondale, Illinois. 
This is an illustrated pamphlet dealing with the manual training course in 
this school in considerable detail. 




JOSEPH HENRY JUDD 



VOLUME XII NUMBER 5 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE 



JUNE, 1911 



SCHOOL CRAFT AND THE EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF 
DOING WRONG. 

Joseph Henry Judd. 

THE sub-title of the paper appears to be so diametrically opposed to 
the accepted precepts of moral teaching that some preliminary 
explanation is necessary before any attempt is made to prove 
the assertion made that by wrong-doing a child is making definite edu- 
cative progress. 

We have been told for years past that the methods of teaching school- 
craft were far from sound, being more or less dogmatic, certainly stereo- 
typed, and designed more for the benefit of the teacher than for the 
harmonious development of the children. And we have believed that 
drastic reforms were as necessary in our section of the work of the ele- 
mentary schools as any unloading of the present curriculum defined by 
the code regulations. 

Led thus to investigate, experiments have been made during the last 
five or six years on educational method, or, to be more definite, method 
in education. We have been deeply impressed with the enormous value 
of mistakes made by both teachers and scholars in working out problems 
having known results, in research work conducted on orthodox lines 
.requiring memory work, as distinct from a knowledge of principles; 
and especially with the utter lack of appreciation accorded to the spon- 
taneous outbursts of self-acquired knowledge born of the innate inquisi- 
tiveness of childhood, when the tension of coercive discipline was unknown 
and the inherent activities were given fair play. 

These impressions have caused something approaching on revolution 
in our centers of instruction, have partially released from bondage and 

415 



416 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

manual drudgery over ten thousand alert laddies, opened up a brilliant 
and enchanting vista of unlimited extent and established a new era with 
possibilities for future good, which, so far as we are able to judge from 
results to hand year by year, will be of immense value. You will 
remember that Bacon advocated the building and endowment of a college 
for the discovery of new truths in order "to mix like a living spring with 
the stagnant water" which characterized the university teaching of his 
day. We have attempted to create a new atmosphere in our centers and 
have succeeded in energizing the stagnant air, which has put life and vigor 
into both teachers and children. The changes have been brought about 
entirely thru the study of errors, misjudgment and mistakes in theory, 
policy and application. We therefore feel justified in saying that true 
education is largely founded on the correction of errors by humanizing 
influences. 

Man Adam received his first lesson from his Maker in the command : 
"Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat; but of the tree of 
knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it ; for in the day that 
thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die;" but the educative value of that 
lesson was not appreciated until after the fall, until after the wrong 
had been done and punishment awarded. Even thus it is today. Does 
not Pestalozzi say "that education of some kind begins from the cradle," 
and do not modern workers in social reform assert that one of the chief 
causes of infantile mortality is the unpreparedness of the mother to under- 
take the duties incumbent on motherhood ? Is it not a fact that in many 
instances the knowledge necessary for the upbringing of children is 
gained after mistakes — often irretrievable — have been made? 

This is a glaring instance of wrong-doing which will ere long bring 
about reform in the education of our girls thru the enlightenment of 
the administrator who, without rhyme or reason, perpetuates the systems 
and methods of by-gone ages. They will have been educated by wrong- 
doing. We can therefore safely say that by doing wrong the whole 
world is becoming civilized, and at every step taken in correction valuable 
knowledge is being assimilated. 

We are all conversant with the injunction, "Whatever thy hand findeth 
to do, do it with all thy might," but seldom do we fully realize the 
potency which the word "whatever" may have in determining the ac- 
tivities displayed by a child who is brought directly under the influences 
of evil minds. When we see this precept displayed on the wall of a 
schoolcraft room for the purpose of moral teaching, we are inclined to 
question the value of it, and similar quotations or paraphrases, which 



EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF DOING WRONG 417 

may present to the children a double meaning or an adaptable interpre- 
tation capable of being used by them to justify an action which is an 
offense against the discipline of the school, thoughtless inactivity (lazy- 
ness, some may call it), or deliberate wantonness in destruction. 

We all know the little fellow who fails to reach the high standard of 
his classmates, who, thru the constant showing up of his failures, 
ultimately becomes perfectly immune to such treatment — almost a law 
unto himself, and ready to assert with full justification that he is obeying 
the letter and law of the injunction when he deliberately smashes up 
his model. "He has done it with all his might," and cares not for the 
result; the innate animal spirit has been roused, the curb has snapped; 
he is once again a savage existing in an environment at that particular 
moment distasteful to himself and his childlike conception of right and 
wrong. 

The student of psychology will in a case of this kind find a ready-made 
"subject" for experiment and become more or less enthusiastic in the 
application of the principles constituted and involved in such studies, 
whilst the ordinary matter-of-fact individual will as readily adopt and 
apply corrective measures more forcibly and probably "with all his might." 
In each case the individuals, the child, the ps3 ? chologist and the ordinary 
person will have received a moiety of education from the source of doing 
wrong. Whichever way the child has been approached, he must of 
necessity have received some knowledge of corrective influences, either 
mentally or physically and mentally, whilst the correctors have each 
added to their experiences another case to illustrate and prove their 
arguments for and against the question of corporal punishment. 

THE TEACHER^ RESPONSIBILITY. 

Doing wrong is a very potent factor in the education of every child, 
and especially is this dictum true in reference to schoolcraft. The far 
greater portion of an instructor's time is devoted to correcting mis- 
takes, either in the handling of tools, the laying out of the work, or the 
method of approach to effect a given solution of practical problems. It 
matters not what the media be that form the groundwork of the scheme, 
the principles involved are identical, but some offer greater advantages 
than others. As a rule 'the media which present to the worker the 
errors consequent on wrong-doing in the quickest time should be con- 
sidered as the basis or rock foundation upon which a sound and reliable 
superstructure can afterward be built. In this division, commencing in 



418 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

the infant school, we generally find some kind of plastic material adopted 
by general consent because such work embodies the principle of self- 
development and places the initiative faculty of children upon an educa- 
tional basis with the specific idea of developing and increasing the powers 
of the child mind rather than to furnish it with knowledge entirely 
foreign to its conception. 

The origin of the idea, no doubt, is due to the pie-making child-play 
of early days when untutored and untrammeled, the spontaneous growth 
of the power of imitation forces aside all others, and develops side by 
side with the physical growth of the child. But it is questionable if the 
"plastic" foundation thus formed has produced one sufficiently solid 
for the superstructure which must of necessity follow. 

Whilst we admit that teaching must follow the growth of development 
and not that of dogmatic exposition, we contend that the incorrectness 
of the products of imitation resulting from the use of plastic materials 
in the early stages of school life, is apt to cause a distorted idea of form, 
a knowledge of which is said to be an essential element in true education. 

We are fully conversant with the methods by which children of very 
tender years are made — no other word adequately explains the modus 
operandi — to produce copies of flowers, fruit, vegetables, etc., with faith- 
fulness worthy of any artist of mature years, even to the beautiful bloom 
of the plum and grape, the delicate coloring of the peach and apricot, 
and the fragrant perfume of the parma violet. That is a very common 
and typical case of schoolcraft where education is given thru wrong-doing, 
where morality is traversed and truth maligned in the interests of 
selfishness and effective results. The real teaching of form, the sin qua 
non of the plastic medium is in such cases utterly ignored for selfish 
ends ; the ultimate value of the repetitional, slavishly irksome, and almost 
inhuman work necessary to attain these excellent results are never for 
one moment considered, nor would the wrong-doing be acknowledged, 
by the persons who thus interpret the paraphrase precepts: "Let not thy 
right hand know what thy left doeth," but "do it with all thy might." 

Plastic material readily renders itself to a travesty of truth, and there- 
fore the effect caused by its use as a medium of quick expression, should 
be counteracted by some other medium, which at once shows in manipu- 
lation a distinct and unmistakeable difference between right and wrong. 
For this purpose paper cannot be equalled and especially so if the two 
surfaces are of distinct color. This medium offers all the advantages 
which can accrue from maintained interest and creative instincts, it 
admits of constant and ever-changing development in scheme of work, 



EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF DOING WRONG 419 

which will engage the whole attention of the child, whilst judgment is 
exercised and the value of truth for truth's sake is ever prominent. 

I do not know of any schoolcraft which educates more thoroly, more 
conclusively and more simply by wrong-doing than paper folding in the 
junior, and surface development in cardboard in the senior, departments 
of an elementary school, or which offers the same advantages with such 
a minimum of cost. Each fold, each crease, each tear, each cut, wrongly 
made is proof positive of error in measurement, judgment or manipu- 
lative skill. Patience, perseverance, thoughtfulness are almost auto- 
matically impelled during the period of pause which follows the discovery 
of error, and the child apprehends the causes without the aid of a 
teacher almost as readily as if given full assistance. Education by doing 
wrong is an accomplished fact, and whiist the child is conscious of his 
failure, he will attempt to carry out the necessary correction before the 
error is detected by his teacher. 

APPLICATION TO OLDER PUPILS. 

It will be obvious that these remarks apply with equal force to the 
handwork of the senior school — that is to woodwork, metalwork, 
garment planning and cutting, but do not of necessity apply to such 
crafts as bead-stringing and woolwork, cane and willow work, rug- 
making, paper flower work, and pulp modeling, because inaccuracy of 
planning, manipulation, or design are more readily covered up, and 
therefore do not present such unmistakable proofs of wrong-doing; yet 
each and every one of these can be made a groundwork of self-effort 
and education. The impression given by some of them is as sound 
as any given by either paper, card, wood or metal, but the essentials of 
truth cannot be so clearly demonstrated with pliable and plastic as by 
more unyielding and refractory media. 

It follows therefore that a scheme of work should begin with the 
simplest elements with which the child is familiar, a substance or medium 
with which he is in daily contact — sees, knows, and handles at every stage 
of growth, and proceed gradually step by step, coincident with his 
physical development thruout the whole period of school life, so that 
"to knowledge is added power," "to what he know r s, the ability to turn 
it to account." 

Within the last few years alterations have been made in teaching 
schoolcrafts, and, altho to a certain extent the alterations have been 
more or less experimental, the teachers rather than the children have had 



420 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

to bear the burden of change. If we look backwards a few years to 
the time when we as a nation, without rhyme or reason, accepted the 
schoolcraft schemes of foreign nations, all and sundry, and introduced 
these direct into our schools, we cannot help feeling somewhat ashamed 
of the treatment we accorded to the children placed under our charge, 
when we forced results from almost babies, in emulation of the results 
we in our manhood had perforce to produce to satisfy our critics and 
examiners of our executive skill. 

We were satisfied to accept the assurances of American, Swedish and 
German experts of technological schoolcrafts, that a systematic course 
involving the use of certain tools and equipments common to specific 
industries was absolutely necessary to secure muscular activity of the 
hand with the specific object of counteracting the effect produced by a 
more or less literary scheme of education in our primary schools. We 
obtained hand dexterity by certain obvious methods of procedure and 
produced the required and preconceived results for exhibition purposes, 
but we ignored completely the well-being of the child. The finished 
model, not the enlightned mind was the be-all and end-all of the systems 
imported. Thus we have today many costly and elaborate, more or less 
totally unnecessary, tool equipments which doubtless bar the way to 
reform in schoolcraft procedure and militate against purely educational 
schoolcraft w T hich claims the child as the starting point of the scheme of 
instruction. 

NEW IDEAS WIN RECOGNITION. 

Altho there are yet many exponents of the old school of thought who 
fail to see the real significance of the self-effort and individual, expres- 
sional aim of the new constructional movement, we may fairly claim that 
our efforts have proved successful, and that our education has been 
materially increased thru the complete acknowledgment of our blind 
acquiescence in procedure and conventionalities which were totally un- 
suitable for the purpose for which they were adopted. We have un- 
doubtedly proved the educational value of doing wrong. 

Many expert minds are trying to evolve a scheme out of the present 
chaos which shall bring schoolcraft within the range of practical politics 
in order to insure its inclusion in the curricula of all schools. Before this 
is possible many cherished theories and ideals will have to be ruthlessly 
cast away as false, and many converts will have to be made. The old 
idea of elaborate tool equipments — the greatest stumbling block to general 
adoption — will have to be eliminated, and replaced by some more simple 



EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF DOING WRONG 421 

means which will admit of ready adaptation to local needs in town and 
country schools, and be in complete sympathy with the needs and require- 
ments of the children. 

To break down entirely the vested interests will take time. It may 
require a noble leader of men to effectually marshall the forces and direct 
the battle, but "He who waits to have his task marked out shall die 
and leave his errand unfulfilled." The mechanical methods which the 
old system perpetuates disgust the children, deprive them of imagina- 
tion — the very essence of child nature — fill their undeveloped minds 
with mere words without meaning and leave them capable of doing 
little, if anything, without help. 

In the newer method we have attempted to look beyond these talk- 
and-listen ideas by seeking out the natural aptitudes of each child, stim- 
ulating the mental growth by encouragement, in order to develop all 
the best inherent powers of mind, instead of placing before him the ideas, 
feelings and knowledge of others for assimilation as best he can, and 
memorizing the platitudes and axioms of past ages without investigation 
or reason, making him entirely subservient to the desires and will of 
others with whom, in many instances, he has nothing in common, destroy- 
ing his individuality and curbing his innate activities and buoyant energies, 
to the detriment of the future well-being of the nation of which he is a unit. 

STUDYING THE CHILES POINT OF VIEW. 

In making the experiments, we were led to discard conventional ideas 
and teaching aids, by giving well-merited praise of a piece of woodwork 
made by one of our boys, which was not accepted. Being curious to know 
why the remarks made were not appreciated, we asked the boy for an 
explanation and received this answer : "Please, sir, I have only worked 
to the drawing which I copied and produced a model which was designed 
by someone else, and in which I have had no interest beyond doing what 
was required of me." We well merited the rebuke ; we had done wrong, 
and received from that boy a corrective lesson of far greater educative 
value than any we had received during our course of training. Deeper 
research work followed, in which children in all stages of mental capac- 
ity and culture entered very largely into the investigations in order 
to eradicate wrong methods and established new theories. Our investi- 
gations showed us clearly that even mentally defective children are 
active inquirers of a peculiar and interesting type, and that the "want- 
ing to know" innate inquisitiveness of normal children is far more 
deserving of cultivation than repression. 



422 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

In dealing with sub-normal children we became children again, using 
child language, simile and example in order to reach the dormant cells 
of "mind pulp" and to obtain response to our efforts. The crude 
products of this class, or the moral effects produced by the lessons, 
would have failed to convince the most enthusiastic partisan of the value 
of the work attempted, but we felt that if the proposals were to be 
of any help in bringing about any reform in methods, it was absolutely 
necessary that every detail should be readily adaptable to every possible 
phase of child culture. We created infection by being, or appearing to 
be, enthusiastic over the smallest success ; we watched the listless look 
give way to eagerness, apathy to activity, and a keen desire to excell. 
The clumsy, irresponsible fingers became more pliant, responsive to 
new will power, for the children during these lessons were living in 
a new atmosphere and being energized thereby. The teachers were 
more or less appehensive of failure, but this unthought-of enthusiasm 
of these children over their own successes, the ecstacy of joy shown as 
each produced the results of his labors for our inspection, became infec- 
tious, and engendered hearty cooperation in making the new methods 
a complete success in these schools, until we can now with full confi- 
dence assert that under patient teaching and guidance, even children of 
weak intellect can give definite expression to preconceived ideas with- 
out undue mental or bodily effort and with a minimum of equipment 
and teaching aids. At opportune times careful observations were made 
of the chief delights of well-matured children, of the provisions made 
for their demands in the various bazaars and toy emporiums, of child 
life in city slums and country villages, and in hospital wards — where 
perhaps the deepest and most lasting impressions were obtained — to 
further test the proposals. We argued that toys had a fascination for 
children which few adults realize, and more especially those which in 
any way give some realistic movement, or are capable of giving effect 
to imagination, and that under a skilful teacher the making of these 
toys would create an intelligence unattainable by the original methods. 
Whilst we take care to direct and guide the self-efforts of the children 
on right lines to secure manipulative skill, we give full freedom and 
encouragement to develop latent talents of inventiveness; the teacher 
has to be ever on the alert, almost an encyclopedia of knowledge, in 
order to answer the many and varied questions which arise during the 
construction of these individual, expressional models, which serve to 
make the work deeply interesting to both teacher and child, and to give 
an element of real life to the instruction. 



EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF DOING WRONG 423 

Constant activity is the surest way of getting a child to learn; im- 
pressions made by failure produce deeper thoughts, inspire new resolu- 
tions and energize will power. Mere words have no lasting effect; by 
his failures he gains a mastery over himself and thus unconsciously lays 
a foundation of sound judgment upon which he can build the super- 
structure of his life's work. He has proved that wrong-doing has been 
a potent factor in his education, and that he can and does appreciate 
the precepts which presented to his undeveloped mind a perplexity of 
thought and application. 

It matters not in what direction we make investigation in proof of 
the statement, we find that experience is gained — that is, education is 
enhanced — thru our own errors or the mistakes of others ; in every walk 
of life, professional, civil, or commercial, we take advantage of failures 
and increase our store of knowledge thereby. 

There are in existence today examples of wrong-doing in some of our 
finest works of architecture, in projects of civil and mechanical engineers, 
on both land and sea, and in many other ways well known to all of us ; 
but we venture to think that in no case are the examples more pro- 
nounced than in our system (or want of it) of national education. It is 
a most curious anomaly, yet a serious fact that the best type of education 
(if we imply by the word, generation of power, for the direct application 
to the duties of life) is reserved for subnormal and abnormal children. 
Those of you who are interested in, or engaged with, children in the 
schools established for those of weak or defective mental growth, or in 
institutions of correction — reformatories, homes for waifs and strays, 
and other such establishments — well know that the extraordinary results 
obtained in these places is largely, if not wholly, due to the humanizing 
rational and natural system adopted by the teachers in developing or 
reforming the instincts and impulses of the children placed under their 
charge. In the education, or reclamation, of such children almost entire 
freedom is given to the teachers to work on the lines of natural laws, 
systematizing impulses and processes evolving character out of spon- 
taneous activities, giving individual attention to individual needs, as- 
serting with kindly repression the animal spirit, and diagnosing with full 
confidence of success the many failures of contemporary schools for 
normal children. 

We must remember that all knowledge of form, of things, of sounds 
gained by a babe prior to acquiring the power of speech is self-gained 
knowledge, and that afterwards much is similarly gained without the 
help of direct teaching; and further that by the process of education 



424 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

adopted in our public elementary schools as a whole, this natural method 
— which is considered vital in the cases before mentioned — is often 
strangled in the efforts made by administrators to standardize both 
observation and phenomena. We are constantly making the children 
mere receivers of our own acquirements, our successes and failures. 
Should we not rather attempt to follow the lines of least resistance 
adopted in special schools, appealing to the finer instincts thru direct 
observation, treating the hand and eye as handmaids of the mind, as 
against the existing method of training the various senses in almost 
water-tight compartments having no connection whatever for a continuity 
of flow? 

We are convinced that the humanizing methods of these special schools 
are productive of results which, when compared with those of our 
primary schools, cause the latter to sink into insignificance. If then 
we assume these advances possible with sub-normal children by the 
coeducation of heart, head, hand, what might we not assume possible 
if the whole system of elementary education was conducted on these 
lines? At present it is not the children who are of prime importance, 
— it is finance. "How much can we earn in grants from the Board 
of Education?" "How much will the proposals cost?" "How will it 
affect the taxes?" These are the questions which decide the issue. The 
unwritten answers are before us every day; the wrong-doing is per- 
petuated year in, year out, and the close of each school year adds almost 
countless numbers to the ranks of unemployed because during the period 
of life when each plastic mind was hungry for growth in accordance 
with natural laws, we and our colleagues have been compelled to work 
against our better natures in conforming to regulations which are in 
many cases diametrically opposed to the future well-being of the children. 

In conclusion let me appeal to you my colleagues to help forward, by 
every means in your power, the movement which has for its guiding 
star the real education of the children in every phase of school work 
on rational lines and in strict conformity with nature's law, and with 
the full assurance that, when the appointed time draws near for each 
one to give an account of his or her stewardship, appreciation and reward 
will come with the words of the great Teacher, "Well done, thou good 
and faithful servant, thou hast worked with all thy might, enter now 
into rest and the joy of thy Lord." 



A BOX KITE 

Will J. Craig. 

The kite described in this article is one that has been worked out in the 
attempt to design a box kite that will fly easily and that will withstand 
ordinary jars and bumps on the ground during the experimental stage 
without breaking a corner stick or suffering other serious injury. This 
kite, with full working drawings, is presented as a solution of this 
problem that has "worked" to the entire satisfaction of the pupils in the 
manual training shop at Belvidere. 

The materials required in the construction of a three-foot box kite are 
as follows : 

Straight grained, soft, white pine, 

4 corner sticks, J4" x J A" x 36" 
8 struts, -iV x y 8 " x 12" 
2 stretcher sticks, iV x iV x 48" 
2-/4 yards good quality cambric, any suitable color. 
1 paper 2-oz. carpet tacks. 

1 ball black wax, like that used by harness-makers. 
Gilling, or carpet thread. 

Medium laid seine twine. You can find nothing equal to this seine 
twine for flying line. No. 24 thread is the size we use for flying a 
three foot kite. 

CONSTRUCTION 

To make the frames, get out and dress up the four corner sticks and 
the eight struts to the dimension given. Place the corner sticks together 
on the bench so that ends are even and lay out with pencil and try-square 
the spaces for the struts on the four sticks at once. Now place two 
corner sticks on an old board, or on the floor, and tack each end of each 
strut in place with a small brad. Drive the brads in just far enough to 
fasten struts in place. Fasten both ends of one corner stick to board or 
floor, and with framing-square, square the frame and fasten the other 
corner stick down, after which the frame is ready for the glue. Loosen 
one of the struts from the corners, the brads remaining in the strut, put 
a drop of glue on each corner piece where the strut was, and place the 
strut back, the brad holes serving as guides, and drive the brads home. 

425 



426 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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A BOX KITE 427 

Do the same with the other three struts. Do not disturb until glue has 
time to set. Make the other frame the same way. While you are wait- 
ing for the glue to dry, get out sixteen of the brace blocks, A. Plane to 
size, saw to length, place block on sawing board, and cut the taper on 
one side with the chisel. One cut with the chisel should be sufficient to 
do the job. 

After the glue sets on the frames, remove them from the board or 
floor, turn them over and glue on the blocks; press them well in place 
and you will not need any clamp or nails. After the glue gets hard and 
dry, drill the T V' holes. Be careful to drill as close to the corner stick 
as you can, but without cutting it. The frames are now ready for the 
cloth. Get out the two stretcher sticks four feet long. Do not cut them 
to length until after cloth and loops are fastened in place. 

To make the cloth cells, take 2^4 yards of cambric and tack or pin 
down on the floor so that it will be smooth and straight. With a 
framing-square, lay out from each edge and mark with a pencil the lines 
as shown in the drawing, to the dimensions given in layout of cloth. 
After the ends are sewed together, hem the cut edge, making a double 
hem, and if you sew a single hem on the selvedge edge it will add to the 
life of the kite. 

Next prepare eight loops of twine to stretch up the kite. Make a jig 
as shown in the sheet of details, and stretch a piece of seine twine around 
the pins ; fasten by winding with gilling or carpet thread that has been 
well waxed with black wax. To wind, take a piece of thread about 16" 
long, place the center of it across the twine, *4" from the pin with one 
end in each hand, pass both ends down and under the twine, changing 
the ends to opposite hands, bring up and cross on top, pulling tight. Re- 
peat this winding eight or ten times and tie. Treat the other end of the 
loop the same. Cut off all short ends, and remove from the pins. Make 
eight loops in this way, being careful to have all the same length. 

ASSEMBLING THE KITE 

To assemble: Place the frames (so that the struts will come on the 
inside) inside the cloth, with the dotted lines, A, B, C, D, and E, in 
layout of cloth and marked with pencil on the cloth, on the outside 
corners of frame; fasten to frame with one 2-oz. tack in each edge of 
cloth. Thread a large needle with gilling or carpet thread and wax it 
well with black wax; pass needle thru one end of loop, thru cloth, and 



428 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




A BOX KITE 429 

thru the T y hole drilled in strut, thence around the corner stick to the 
outside, and thru the loop and hole again. Tie the two ends and cut the 
thread. Fasten the other end of loop in the same way, but be sure to 
fasten it to the diagonally opposite corner, see sheet of details, 1, 1-2, 2. 
All loops are fastened in the same way. 




A BOX KITE WITH IMPROVED FORM OF TENSION. 

Sew two pieces of tape to the lower corner sticks just back of front cell, 
forming loops into which to fasten the flying bridle. The tape will not 
cut the corner stick when the kite pulls hard, which sometimes happens. 
One of these kites will pull from four to fifteen pounds according to the 
velocity of the wind. 

Make a hole thru the cloth in the center of the end of each cell for the 
stretcher stick to pass thru. Notch one end of stretcher, see sheet of 
details. Stand kite on end with one frame next to you, pass the notched 
end of the stretcher stick under the loops, thru the hole, and on thru the 
other side of kite. Put the centers of the loops in the notch ; grasp the 



430 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



centers of the loops next to you and pull on them, at the same time push- 
ing on the stretcher stick. Strain it up good and tight; mark stretcher 
stick where the loops cross, and draw it out ; cut to length, cut the notch, 
wind with waxed thread, and put back with loops in notches on both 
ends. Fit the other stretcher stick in the same way. 

FLYING THE KITE 

To fly, stand the kite on end with the bridle end up and towards the 
wind ; let out about fifty feet of line and run a little with it towards the 
wind. If you have followed directions carefully up to this point, the rest 
is easy and lots of fun. If the kite does not pull strong enough to suit 
3'ou, set it up on end, get it squared exactly, and give the cloth a coat of 
thin shellac varnish. It will add to the life of the kite and increase its 
pulling power. 

The frame of this kite can be made much lighter than the dimensions 
given and covered with silk instead of cambric. The writer has one that 
weighs only seven ounces, or one ounce for each foot of lifting surface, 
that will fly when there is not wind enough to keep other kites in the air. 




GLEN FALLS, N. Y., HIGH SCHOOL. 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
THE GRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS, VII. 1 

Arthur F. Payne. 

AT this particular stage in the development of this course, the 
problems that could be made, and the possible development of 
processes, are so numerous, that the writer feels loth to pass 
along without showing some of these possible problems and developments. 

The crumb-tray and scraper 
shown in the photograph, are 
problems supplementary to the 
round plate, the same tools and 
processes being used. The metal 
is cut to shape, the edge lapped 
over, the design painted on and 
etched, and the depression beaten 
down over the edge of the wood- 
en block, and planished and fin- 
ished in the same way as the 
plate. The only difference is in 
the method of planishing the bot- 
tom of the tray and scraper : the 
straight front edge of the bottom 
must be planished first, crossing 
from one side to the other in reg- 
ular even rows, planishing the 

deepest part of the depression last. The reason for this difference is that 
if the front edge is hammered last, it will stretch and swell upward and 
will not lie flat, thereby making it unsuitable for the use for which it 
is intended, which is after all the final test of any piece of arts and crafts 
work. 

In this course we have used four decorative processes outside of color- 
ing, namely, etching, saw-piercing, planishing with the neck hammer, 
fluting and modelling. The electric light dome shown in the photograph, 

Copyright, 1911, by Arthur F. Payne. 




CRUMB-TRAY AND SCRAPER. 



431 



432 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




METALIVORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT 



433 



is a development of the lantern problem, and introduces a new process 
called "outline chasing," a process which is entirely suitable for public 
school work. The first photograph shows a piece of 20-gage copper 
tacked to a piece of one-inch board, with the design traced on one half 
and "chased" on the other half. This chasing, which is only the simplest 
kind of metal chasing, is done with two small chisel shaped tools that 
are called straight and curved tracers, and the ball pein hammer. 




METHOD OF CHASING. 



They can easily be made from a piece of -fa" square steel rod, and 
should be about 434" l° n g; one end should be filed to an edge like a 
small chisel, except not so sharp with the edge dull and slightly round- 
ing, so as to avoid cutting thru the metal. The edge of the curved 
tracer is filed so that the curve would be about the same as a small 
section of a ^/\" circle. The tools and the correct position of holding 
and using them are shown in the photograph. It is rather difficult to 
follow the lines at first, so it would be advisable to practice a little on a 
scrap piece of copper tacked to the board. Do not make a very heavy 



434 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



line the first time, but go over it a second and third time straightening 
and correcting it. 

Another photograph shows the side of the dome chased, and the back- 
ground cut out with a chisel, made and used in the same way as the 
chasing tools, except that it has a cutting edge which is kept sharp to 
cut thru the metal. After the chasing is done, and the background cut 




SIDE OF "DOME" CHASED, AND BACKGROUND CUT OUT READY TO BEND INTO SHAPE. 



out, the metal is removed from the board, cut and bent to shape, and 
riveted together into the finished dome which is shown in the photo- 
graph. The ceiling plate was raised into shape and planished, in a 
manner similar to that described for the lantern-top in the last issue. 

Another adaption of this new process is shown in the sterling silver 
plate illustrated in the photograph. The same chasing tools were used 
as in the chasing of the dome, the steps in the process being: First, tack 
the flat piece of metal to the board by driving tacks thru the metal as 
near the edge as possible; Second, trace on the design; Third, chase the 
design; Fourth, remove from the board and trim the edge of the tack 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT 435 




FINISHED "DOME.' 



436 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



holes; Fifth, lap the edge; Sixth, beat down the depression; Seventh, 
planish and finish. 

The next regular problem in our series, the small bowl, is distinctively 
a "raising" problem ; that is, it is completed entirely by the process of 
raising from a single flat piece of metal. 




CHASED SILVER PLATE. 



There are three distinct methods of raising a shape from the flat metal, 
any one or all of which may be used, depending upon the shape of the 
object to be raised. The simplest and commonest method is that of 
forming the shape by beating it into a depression on a block of wood, or 
over the edge of a block, as in the cases of the match-holder base, lantern- 
top, and plate, already described. 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT 



437 



The simplest form of the problem is the round pin-tray with a flat 
bottom, made from a circular piece of copper or brass about 4" in di- 
ameter. This problem can be adapted to a variety of uses, with the same 
tools and methods as described, by varying slightly the processes. By 
using a circular piece of 20-gage sterling silver 8" in diameter, we can 




COPPER AND BRASS BOWLS. 



make a dainty little salt disk. By using a piece of silver 5" in diameter 
we have a dish for candies or almonds. By beating a 5" piece of copper 
or brass as deep as the hammer will allow we can make a jar for violets 
or other short stemmed flowers. By inverting it and placing a glass ink 
well inside and tapping a bottom on, we have an ink-well that it is im- 
possible to tip over. And by using an 8" circle we can make a serviceable 
nut-bowl. All of these types are illustrated in the photographs. 

For a description of tools and processes, we will take the round pin 
or ash-tray made from a circular piece of 10-gage copper or brass 4" in 
diameter. We shall need a block of hard wood about 3" square and 6" 
long. Place this block upright in the vise and in one end cut with a 
gouge a circular concave depression, about 2" in diameter and x / 2 " deep 
in the middle. If you cannot obtain a gouge, it is possible to hammer 
this depression in by striking the block with the ball end of the hammer. 

With a pencil compass find the center of the piece of copper, and draw 
a circle the size you wish the bottom of the bowl to be. In a 4" circle 
the bottom should be about 2" in diameter, having one inch all around to 



438 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



form the sides. Next place the flat piece of copper over the depression 
in the block and with the ball end of the hammer beat the copper down 
into the depression as shown in the photograph and in sketch 1. Strike 




STEPS IN RAISING A BOWL. 



a single row of blows all around the circle and this will raise the copper 
to the shape marked A in the sketch. Then tilt the bowl as shown in 
2 and strike another row of blows with the hammer all around, about 




PIN-TRAY AND INK-WELL. 



half way between the first row and the edge of the metal ; this will raise 
the bowl to a shape similar to B in the sketch. Now tilt the bowl as 



METALJVORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT 439 

shown in 3, and strike with the hammer another row of blows near the 
edge of the bowl, this will make the shape about the same as C in the 
sketch. Continue this process until it is fairly smcoth and even and the 
shape you wish. 



RAISING A BOWL. 



The bowl may now be polished and planished and a simple design 
etched around the edge, on the inside on the bottom ; or the shape may 
be made more interesting by beating over the edge as is shown in D in 
the sketch. This may easily be done by fastening the tee-stake 1 in the 
vise, in the position shown in the sketch, 4, and holding the edge down 
to the stake, bringing it to the shape shown at D. If the bowl is to be 
rather deep, the metal will probably become hard and unyielding. If 
it does so, anneal it and clean as described in the last issue and continue 
hammering, remembering to strike even, regular blows all around the 
bowl. If you strike harder on one side than on the other, the bowl will 
not be true and even in shape. The regular even hammer marks on hand- 
made metalwork, give to it a beauty and charm that is impossible to re- 
produce by any other means. A bowl that is uneven and has been chopped 
and banged at with a hammer, is just so much good metal spoiled, but 
one that is smooth and true showing the honest marks of the process used 
in bringing it to form, is an object of utility and beauty, something to 
take pride in, use, and treasure. 

(To be continued.) 
1 See April, 1911, number, p. 374. 



MANUAL TRAINING AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 
IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

Lewis W. Cruikshank. 

THE Pennsylvania Frame of Government contained the injunction 
that all children should be taught some useful trade or skill, 
and from the very beginning there have been recorded feeble at- 
tempts to fulfill this law. 

Manual labor schools and manual labor departments of colleges came 
into existence about 1830, coincident with the Manual Labor Movement 
which originated in America at about that time and which ran its course 
in a few years. The Manual Labor Academy of Germantown, estab- 
lished by a stock corporation in 1829, under a board of trustees, had 
connected with it a large farm and various workshops. In 1830 an agri- 
cultural school started on "Bottom Farm," near Bristol, Bucks County, 
under Ismar, pupil of Fellenburg, but this also had a short life. 

A bill for the establishment of a state manual labor academy near 
Harrisburg, was reported from a committee of the House, in 1833. 
It was very strongly supported, but failed to pass. About the same time, 
Lafayette, Madison, Jefferson, Allegheny, and Penn Colleges, were 
trying the experiment of having students work part of the time on farms 
and part in the shops. 

The common school law of Pennsylvania, 1834, Section 10, provided 
that it should be the duty of school directors to decide whether manual 
labor should be connected with moral and intellectual training, to be 
given in common schools, and if they decide in the affirmative, they 
shall have power to purchase materials and employ artisans for instruc- 
tion of pupils in useful branches of mechanics. All of these efforts 
failed and there was no actual beginning of manual training in Penn- 
sylvania until several years after the Russian Exhibit at Philadelphia 
in 1876 had stirred other sections of the country to action in the matter. 
True, the Franklin Institute, Girard College, Spring Garden Institute, 
and various colleges had been doing work of a semi-manual training 
character, but up to the late seventies no systematic method of teaching 
tool practices, had been introduced into the schools of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia was the first to recognize the value of manual training 
as an educational factor. This was fitting, for the inspiration for this 

440 



MANUAL TRAINING IN PENNSYLVANIA 441 

movement in America had its birth in that city. Girard College first 
introduced work of true manual training character in 1872. The city 
took up the work in 1883 and started its first school in 1885. Home- 
stead came next, Mr. Schwab giving the equipment for manual training 
in that city in 1888. Beside these two cities there remains only the 
city of Tidioute among the early ones. An equipment was given to this 
city in 1882. 

The developments in the last few years have been of such character 
as to give new heart to many who were despairing of ever accomplish- 
ing anything in this slow old state. 

CHRONOLOGICAL CHART SHOWING SEQUENCE OF EVENTS. 

1830. Manual Labor Movement. Manual labor schools started and failed. 
Manual Labor Academy of Germantown, started and failed. 

1850. Philadelphia School of Design for Women opened to the public. Avery 

Trade School for Negroes opened in Pittsburg. 

1851. Spring Garden Institute opened lecture courses for artisans. 
1871. Swarthmore College equipped shops for engineering students. 

1876. Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia and great interest in manual train- 
ing aroused by Russian exhibit of scheme of teaching tool processes. 
Philadelphia Textile School opened thru influence of Exposition. 
1878. Spring Garden Institute added a shop. 

1882. Manual Training introduced into Tidioute schools by donation of a 

philanthropist of that town. 
Girard College added first shops for teaching handwork. 

1883. Commission appointed by the legislature to investigate and report on the 

subject of industrial education in the public schools. 
Hebrew Trades School opened in Philadelphia. 
1885. State College equipped with shops. 

Central Manual Training High School opened in Philadelphia. 
Commission made extensive report and recommendation to the legislature. 

1887. Lehigh University equipped with shops. 

1888. C. M. Schwab gave Manual Training Equipment to Homestead Schools. 

1889. Institute for Colored Youths in Philadelphia started trade teaching. 
Bowman Technical School for Watchmaking opened in Lancaster. 

1890. Haverford College built shops. 

1891. Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades opened outside Phila- 

delphia. 
Drexel Institute opened in Philadelphia. 
1895. Allegheny City installed manual training in some grades. 
1897. Friends' Meeting School, Philadelphia, established manual training. 

National Farm School opened. 
1900. Roman Catholic High School, Philadelphia, 
Yates School, Lancaster, and 
Hill School, Pottstown, all started manual training. 



442 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

1901. Wilkesbarre established manual training in schools. , 

Carnegie Technical Schools, Pittsburg, opened. 

Berean Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youths and 
Girls opened in Philadelphia. 
1902 to 1910. An average of two cities a year have established a little manual 

training work in their school systems during this time. 
1906. Philadelphia Trades School opened. 
1910. Thaddeus Stevens Industrial School opened at Lancaster. 



COMMISSIONS. 

Two commissions had served the state legislature of Pennsylvania whose 
work had vital concern with manual training and industrial education in 
the state. The first of these was appointed by the assembly of 1887 to 
investigate and report regarding the subject of industrial education. Five 
prominent educators served on this body, without pay except expenses, and 
made a diligent study of this subject in their own and other states and in 
foreign countries. One member spent several months in European coun- 
tries and his report is incorporated in the complete final report of the 
commission. 

The commission made the following recommendations to the state 
legislature : 

1. That provision be made for the introduction of manual training into each 
state normal school, with a prescribed course in woodworking for all students, 
a course in iron work for young men and a course in sewing for young women. 
All work to be accompanied with a comprehensive course in drawing. 

2. That an appropriation of $5,000 be made to each normal school for the 
establishment of the proper plant, including building, equipment, tools, etc., and 
a further sum of $2,000 annually for maintenance. 

3. That after April, 1890, no certificate or diploma be granted a student 
of any state normal school, who shall not have completed a six weeks' course 
in woodwork. 

4. That a summer school of manual training be started at State College. 

5. That the state make moderate annual appropriations to such districts as 
shall undertake to start manual training in connection with their public school 
systems. 

6. That provision be made for the introduction of drawing in every school in 
the state. 

7. That the law require all new building plans to include rooms for manual 
training work. 

8. That provision be made for the grouping of rural schools for the purpose 
of manual training. 

9. That a state inspector of manual training be appointed. 



MANUAL TRAINING IN PENNSYLVANIA 443 

10. That provision be made for the introduction of manual training into 
reformatories, but that no attempt be made to teach specific trades. 

11. That under existing state laws manual training can be introduced into 
the schools. 

This report was submitted to the legislature of 1889 and was con- 
sidered at some length by that body, but was finally dropped as unsat- 
isfactory and nothing further was done until 1907. 

The legislature of 1907 appointed a commission to make thoro investi- 
gation of the entire public school system of the state and to submit to the 
assembly of 1909 a complete, revised, up-to-date school code. This com- 
mission, altho it did not attempt to make as thoro a report as that of 1889, 
brought before the legislative body in 1909, a very satisfactory and com- 
plete code, covering every possible phase of education in the state. That 
part of their recommendation which has to do with manual training is 
included in chapter XIX, section 1902, and reads as follows: 

"The board of school directors of any school district of the second 
class in this commonwealth, when requested by 75 or more taxpayers, 
shall establish and equip a Manual Training School (Evening), for 
pupils over 14 years of age, provided that no such Evening Manual 
Training School shall be opened unless at least 25 pupils apply for 
admittance thereto, and the same shall be closed by the board of directors 
when the attendance falls below this number." This is absolutely the 
only provision of any kind for manual training or vocational schools 
in the state. It is significant of the attitude of this commission that no 
mention is made of manual training in our state normal schools. This 
the commission of 1889 provided for very amply. 

However, it is not worth while finding fault with the school code 
of 1909, for it followed in the wake of its predecessors and went into 
the waste basket. Its crooked path thru the legislative halls of the 
capitol at Harrisburg are entirely in keeping with the reputation of 
this state. It was alleged that the book companies and the politicians 
of Philadelphia so changed the code as to make it worthless to the public 
and enabled themselves to borrow unlimited amounts of money for the 
city school system and to control the book supply for the state. 

PRESENT AND FUTURE. 

In the state at the present time there are a few trade and vocational 
schools, one or two of which are doing work of real value in training for 
future breadwinning and good citizenship. However, the manual training 



444 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

high schools, such as are located in Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Scranton, 
and Altoona, are all tending, some unconsciously, some with declared 
intention, toward vocational training. 

Among the manual training high schools, those of Philadelphia and 
Altoona are accomplishing the most good. In Philadelphia they are 
overcrowded and the percentage of boys remaining for the full four years 
is gratifying. In Altoona the high school was equipped by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, and serves admirably as a training school for its future 
employes. 

In cities like Chester, Allentown, York, Pittsburg, Easton, and Lan- 
caster, in which there is no manual training or industrial training work, 
we note a spirit of unrest regarding this matter. Allentown and York 
are waiting for their new high schools in which to start work of this 
character. Easton has a committee on the road, making investigation 
with the idea of installing some of this work next year. Lancaster says 
that the matter has repeatedly been brought to the attention of the school 
board, but has, in each case, received a rebuff. 

In Homestead we find a beautiful school, presented to the city by C. M. 
Schwab, but manned by inefficient teachers, as the city claims to be unable 
to maintain such a school. 

As far as grade work is concerned, the progress of manual training 
has been poor indeed. Very few schools have any work below the fifth 
grade and it is surprising to find how few have any below the high school. 

As a whole, the cities of Pennsylvania, in which manual training is 
conducted, do not want for comfortable quarters. In all cities in which 
the work is taught in high schools, there is provided either a fine new 
building, or very comfortable rooms. It is mostly in the grades and in old 
high school buildings that the work is relegated to cellars and old shacks. 
There are but two cities reporting the use of centers in localities and this 
is due in a large measure to the fact that few cities have any work in the 
grades. 

The teacher presents the real problem in the success of this work, and 
in too many cases is the cause of its failure. In many of the cities they 
report that the work at first was under the direction of a first-class 
pedagog, but he was replaced by an artisan, as the artisan could be hired 
cheaper and knew the business as far as the practical end of it is con- 
cerned. This attitude of school boards is not improving with the years 
and is not helping the cause of manual training. 

Ninety per cent, of the manual training work in Pennsylvania is in 



MANUAL TRAINING IN PENNSYLVANIA 445 

wood only, and the systems followed are well known by the character 
of their product, — coat-hangers, toothbrush-racks, broom-racks, etc. 

Some schools are producing excellent results with furniture making 
courses and others are losing out on the same thing because of poor 
administration of the department. In the grades we find stereotyped 
courses in well-known materials, such as sticklaying, cardboard, clay, 
etc., and there is little that may be called a departure. There is little 
enterprise shown and no attempt at a Fitchburg or Cincinnati plan. 

About one-half of the private schools of the state conduct manual 
training work in connection with their schools and in many cases the 
work is of a half-hearted character. No colleges have started this work 
for its educative value in training the hand and eye together. Where 
shops are used, they are to give engineering students practical work 
illustrative of their profession. 

From a state of lethargy to one of keen interest, is the transformation 
which has taken place in the past few years among the teachers of Penn- 
sylvania. In the last two state conventions of teachers, a large part of 
the time has been given to the discussion of the "industrial education 
problem," as they elected to call it. I believe that I am safe in stating 
that two-thirds of the teachers of the state are heartily in accord with 
the work. All labor conventions of recent years have indorsed, and even 
offered assistance in, this movement for the training of hands as well as 
minds. 

This has been, perhaps, the most difficult state in the Union, in which 
to educate the people to the value of hand training in their schools. Many 
of the letters in answer to mine of inquiry, have mentioned the stubborn 
resistance of the public, and I believe that the work could never have 
reached its present state without the support of broadminded philanthro- 
pists. In a number of cities the work done has been brought about by the 
efforts or money of some single citizen. Now, however, I believe that the 
general public is thoroly aroused to the value, need and possibilities of 
industrial education in the public school system of the state, and the only 
deterring obstacle seems to be the financing of the movement. 




FIG. 13. A CRAFT CLUB — WORKING AFTER SCHOOL HOURS 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 



James Parton Haney 



II. 



THE preceding article described something of the philosophy de- 
vised as a foundation for New York City's work in the Arts, 
and something of the causes which brought this philosophy into 
being. With a vigorous imagination and a creed which preached the 
Arts as coordinate elements, one could conjure up a picture of satisfying 
completeness in which the new subjects were seen fully developed, fitted 
to each other and working smoothly in twice a hundred schools. But 
from such pleasant dream, one awoke with a cooled and chastened sense 
of the length of the road to be traveled before the vision could become 
reality. The plan was clear enough ; there was at hand a corps of assist- 
ants to develop it, and with five thousand classrooms, one could not 
complain of lack of breadth in the field. 

But it was this very breadth that made the new fledged director look 
so solemn. How could the theory of the Arts be made plain to so many, 
many teachers? None of these had been brought up to regard drawing 
as anything but drawing, or knew constructive work and design save as 
frills which in the one case used an abhorred material — clay — as part 
of the paraphernalia, and in the other, an equally ridiculous medium — 
water color!, "as if we were going to make artists of all the children!" 
And granted that one could corral these teachers in classes and con- 
ferences, and give them a new theory of the Arts, how were they 
to be given technical skill to enable them to make personal use 



446 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 447 

of it. Here was the rub — for the very first catch-word of the new creed 
was "Unity without Uniformity," and this required that all follow the 
same scheme, but follow it in plans suited to individual conditions and 
needs. 

Plainly the case was one of "teach the teacher" and this implied a 
preliminary teaching of the supervisors who in the twenty-six big districts 
were to give this normal instruction on a rather abnormal scale. Under 
such circumstances, some school superintendents would have deluged 
the director with scores of cautions from the pedagogical "Don't Book." 
Not so did John Jasper, the long-time head of the schools of the city. 
He said no word until approached, and then as his forehead ran into a 
dozen humorous wrinkles and his eye twinkled behind his glasses, he re- 
marked sententiously "be sure each teacher knows what she is to do, 
before she tries to do it — and remember — more flies are caught with 
honey than vinegar." How often have we recalled that brief and 
pregnant counsel? 

The personal assistants to be trained, nearly thirty in all, made a size- 
able group, but formed no Council of Perfection. Far from it, for it 
was soon plain to their anxious chief, that while there was a mass of 
material dealing with methods of teaching, there was no similar source 
of supply concerning methods of supervision, particularly of the highly 
specialized form of supervision demanded. The only literature touching 
the subject was buried in the proceedings of drawing teachers' asso- 
ciations, or to be read by implication in articles on school management. 
Even in the normal art schools, which fitted for supervision, there was but 
very scant attention paid to this side of the art teacher's training. In 
Kipling's phrase "the course was all to make," so almost before he real- 
ized it, the writer found himself presiding over a post-graduate normal 
school, with a term of a dozen years in prospect, and a practice depart- 
ment of several thousand classes. As the enthusiasm and devotion of 
his associates made that gathering what it was [and continued to be, 
for a decade and more], he may be pardoned the belief that it formed 
one of the most interesting "proving grounds" that the history of the 
arts has seen. Its members were all teachers of experience, chosen after 
searching tests, so it was not difficult to weld them into a single-minded 
body, embued with the communal spirit, and working in that impersonal 
way which must ever go with the successful doing of an extensive piece 
of work — the way which sees jealousy and self-seeking excluded, and the 
whole effort of the worker put into the service of "The Cause." 



+4S 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



This "school of supervision" — as much a training class for its director 
as for his assistants — continued for a dozen years to hold what a peda- 
gogically inclined friend termed "its hebdomadal gatherings." These 

weekly meetings were called 
"conferences," and were — 
what such meetings frequent- 
ly are not — assemblies with 
frank discussions in which 
everyone took part, with the 
fervor that goes with the ar- 
tistic temperament. An art 
school is said to be a place 
where students come together 
and teach one another, and 
in similar fashion these "su- 
pervisors' meetings" served as 
an Exchange and Clearing 
House for ideas. Programs 
were prepared, and three or 
four members were assigned 
each week to the presentation 
of phases of the work in hand 
■ — drawing, construction, or 
design. These exhibitions 
showed the choicest results 
secured by their exhibitors 
and served as a basis for ex- 
planations and lessons given 
to the group. Thus a prac- 
tical ideal was kept continu- 
ally in view, and every teacher brought to see how far her own work 
squared with the best her associates could show. 

It would be difficult to overestimate the value of this personal contact 
and instruction in meetings where the very flower of the product of the 
schools passed in review. These gatherings formed the continuous 
sessions of an art teachers' associaton, which met to discuss practical 
problems of immediate concern to every member. Of them was born the 
feeling of professional pride and mutual responsibility, without which 
anything like unity of aim and method would have been impossible. Yet 




fig. 14. 



WORK OF VARIOUS PRIMARY YEARS — 
THANKSGIVING DESIGN. 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 



449 




the watchword was in mind, and the error avoided of making this "unity 
of aim" read " uniformity of method." The desire for unity was not, 
in other words, allowed to stand in the way of legitimate experiment, 
that better measures to make 
the arts "coordinate" might 
be devised. Indeed every 
step of the road was admit- 
tedly an experiment, and she 
whom George Ade would 
have capitalized as the "Ear- 
nest Pleader," after present- 
ing a device for encouraging 
teacher or pupil to use the 
arts in some new and helpful 
fashion, was sure of an invi- 
tation to "try it." That the 
trial would be thoughtfully 
planned and carried out, goes 
without saying, when it is 
realized that the planner had 
later to present her results 
to a room-full of searching 
eyes and questioning tongues. 
This practice in clear-think- 
ing and in simple and direct 
explanation meant much to 
the supervisor. It stood her 

in good stead when later she had to face in her own district meetings, 
scores of skeptical grade teachers who might have hailed as a body from 
Missouri could one have judged by the unanimity with which they re- 
quired to be "shown." 

To the older teachers, the tentative efforts to fit and adjust the new 
course of study, were in both senses of the word — "a trial." They had 
been used to outlines fixed as a Median Law, and now saw changes in 
exercises with every successive term. As a rule they spoke more in sorrow 
than in anger, vainly regretting the good old days when one did this year 
exactly what one had done for a decade of years before. Occasionally a 
sharper protest in the public prints demanded — like the stern voice from 
the bleachers — "judgment!," as to whether the city's schools were "to be 








FIG. 15. 



ILLUSTRATIVE DRAWING — THE CIRCUS 
THIRD PRIMARY YEAR. 



450 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

turned by faddists into one great experiment station." But the younger 
generation, less accustomed to the case-hardened 'course,' soon entered 
into sympathy with the efforts to make the arts of service in their class 
work. They forgave the repeated adaptations in the light of what they 
saw was an honest effort to make the specialities not subjects for show, 
but helps in teaching, and aids in making the school a pleasant place to 
which to come and in which to work. As their interest grew keener, 
that of their older associates became more and more tolerant until there 
was finally heard in primary class rooms a most significant question. The 
plaint "are we never going back to the old course?" disappeared and in 
its place one was asked "can't I change this outline next term so as to 
work in Nature study?", or, "Language work?", or whatever had for 
that particular teacher a special interest. This was the flag of surrender 
hung from the battlements of the 3 R's. The citadel breached, the de- 
fenders were making overtures to these they once deemed enemies, but 
had come to see were friends. 

Thru the requests and suggestions of class teachers there thus came to 
be incorporated into the arts course countless reflections of classroom 
needs. The grade-outline thereby profited immensely. Not only were 
the minds of a score and a half of district leaders focussed upon it, but 
many hundreds of teachers were interested helpers in suggesting ways 
and means to make the scheme more effective. To this end a growing 
body of shop teachers lent the practical views of the men behind the 
chisel and jack-plane. These helped much to temper the enthusiasms of 
the devotees of pencil and palette, so that from the joint efforts of many 
grew that which it is the part of this article to describe — the working- 
plan of the coordinate scheme of the arts. 

This plan expanded as the working-philosophy behind it broadened and 
deepened. For its shortcomings the writer may fairly be held responsible, 
but for its virtues he would, in no mock-modest spirit utter a disclaimer. 
Credit for the latter must go to his associates and to that host of class 
teachers who made it. The printed outlines, or "syllabi," which were 
written in revised editions year after year, were the product of no one 
mind, but under constant emendation reflected the judgment of a great 
number of helpful but anonymous aids. Those who helped, however, 
understood that this aid was valued, and they shared in the spirit of team- 
work which was at the basis of the entire scheme. This spirit was 
preached in season and out. It appeared as one of the golden-texts in the 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 



451 



heart to heart talks of the director with his flock. Another was drawn 
from the sage commentary of Dr. Eliot on modern methods. Says he 
"We used to give little children tasks they could not do well. More 
wisely now we give them tasks they can do well, and show them how." 




FIG. 16. CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN — INDIAN CENTER — THIRD PRIMARY YEAR. 



"Work together" and "show the way" — these were the beginnings of 
the code which slowly developed in the meetings of those who as directors 
of others sought to learn how to direct themselves. What follows is — 
as old Balloo would say — "the Law." A bulky chapter of commentary 



452 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

might be written on each one of its provisions. For its makers it was 
supervision reduced to first principles — their judgment all compact. 

THE SUPERVISOR'S DECALOG. 

1 . Aim to lead, not drive ; enthusiasm and kindness will gain what force 

cannot secure. 

2. Make system in doing, a habit; there can be no development without 

organization. 

3 . Study the general curriculum and develop the Arts as part of that curri- 

culum. 

4. Aim first to make plain the meaning of the Arts; to succeed they must be 

understood. 

5. The Arts stand as means to ends — social, developmental, esthetic. Aim so 

to adapt them, that in every situation they may serve their purpose. 

6. Teach most by objective example, by illustration and exhibition. 

7. Keep before all teachers the highest standards raised by the children them- 

selves. 

8. Place teaching before criticism and make every criticism constructive. 

9. Develop pride in an honest excellence, one born of methods founded on 

right aims. 
10. Strive to know what makes for the professional life — and knowing — live it. 

THE COURSE OF STUDY. 

It has already been hinted that the new course looked to see all teachers 
teach the arts and all pupils learn them. It was the aim to make the 
grade instructor responsible for their success and to avoid multiplying 
specialists with their weekly irruptions into the classrooms of a school, 
their hurried lessons and their hurried departure. The specialists who 
were employed, therefore, did supervisory service and as little as possible 
inserted themselves between the class teacher and her pupils. The teacher, 
it was clearly seen, was the only one that knew the class and the grade 
work. Once she understood the idea of relating the ''motor subjects" to 
this work, she was in a strategic position to make combinations that the 
specialist could never effect. 

Frank disapproval was also aimed at the idea that only the elect could 
learn to draw. It is an axiom of the Arts that every pupil should receive 
their training. The dull they quicken, the bright they school in new 
methods of expression. They are emphatically not for the talented few, 
and the concentration of interest upon the gifted is one of the deadly sins 
in their teaching. This is peculiarly an error of the studio-trained 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 



453 



specialist in drawing and in painting, one ignorant that the arts do not 
exist to make artists but to quicken the manual and esthetic skill of all who 
come under their influence. 

The idea of training the grade teacher to use the new subjects in 
personal fashion thus came 
to be seen as an essential part 
of the scheme. For before 
the planning of the details of 
the course had proceeded a 
half-dozen steps, the path 
came up against the rock- 
ribbed abutments of that 
structure known as the gen- 
eral curriculum. To organ- 
ize the Arts as a coordinate 
part of this, required that the 
curriculum itself be founded 
on some scheme of correla- 
tion — but there was no foun- 
dation of this kind. There 
were numerous admonitions 
"to correlate," but no clearly 
defined strings around which 
such relations might crystal- 
lize. The culture epoch plan, 
tho not employed in the course 
of study, suggested a way out 

of the difficulty, and after a deal of experimentation, there was developed 
a plan of "center work," which proved to be the key to the solution of the 
whole problem. 

This center work was in the words of the White Knight "our own 
invention" — so far as it applied to the development of the Arts in the 
elementary schools. It became a leading feature in the coordinate plan 
and served to make that plan a working reality in a course of study that 
offered no other foothold for intimate relationship. It enabled the once 
feared specialties gradually to work their way from the outside into the 
middle of the primary curriculum and led many hundreds of teachers 
to use the Arts in connection with language work, number work and 
nature study around "centers of interest" particularly related to the needs 




FIG. 17. OBJECT AND ILLUSTRATIVE DRAWING 

INDIAN CENTER — THIRD PRIMARY YEAR. 



454 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



of their own small pupils. And — it may be added — what this plan did 
in making friends in our circle of schools it will do for all who 
choose to use it in similar situations. It is the password, grip and counter- 
sign, which will enable the supervisor laboring with "specialties" to call 
to his aid the instructors in the grades and make them willing assistants 




FIG. 18. DESIGN FROM BOY'S CLASSES SEVENTH AND EIGHTH YEARS — BOX-TOP, PLATE-, 

AND BOOK-RACKS. 



in converting "specialties" into "essentials," gladly used because of the 
interest, pleasure and profit, they have for their users. 

What this center plan was may be briefly described as follows : It 
pointed out certain topics in each of the different grades, round which 
it was suggested that the work of the class be developed for as long a 
time as the topic remained of interest. If possible, the language work, 
number work, etc., were to join in this treatment of the subjects, while 
the drawing, construction and design, were to serve in illustration of all 
the phases of it that it could be made objective thru the Arts. This use 
of the latter was what was meant in the direction to employ them "in 
the spirit of service" — to make them just as practically useful as possible. 
A page or two from a primary teacher's plan book will serve to show this 
plan at work in the classroom. 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 



455 



EXTRACT FROM A TEACHERS PLAN BOOK. ONE WEEKS WORK IN THE 
FIRST YEAR CENTER "HOME WORK." 



Language — 

Conversations in 
People in the Home 
Home occupations 
Mother's work 
What we can do to help 

Ethics and Hygiene — 
Lessons on 

Helpfulness to elders 

Kindness to brothers and sisters 

Kindness to Animals. 

Nature Study — 
House Pets 

Canary, Cat, Dog. 

Recognition and name. 

Color, Movements, Covering, Food. 

Drawing — 
Canary 

Drawn in mass with colored chalk. 
Illustrate 

How I help mother. 



Construction — 

Things used in the homes 
Broom — splint and paper. 
Brush — splint and paper. 

Writing — 

From copy in connection with Nature 
Study and conversations. 
My bird is yellow. 
I can sweep. 
The baby sleeps. 
My cat is black. 

Spelling — 

Words used in conversation lessons 
Bird, cage, bill, broom, baby, 
kitten, cup, dish, spoon. 

Number — 
Combinations. 

4 + 5, 5 + 1, 6 + 1, 4 + 2, 5 + 
2, 6 + 2, 2 + 2. 

Stories — 

4 cups and 2 cups. 
6 birds and 2 birds. 

5 apples and 2 apples. 



A SECOND YEAR PLAN. 



There follows another abstract from the plan book of a primary 
teacher in the second year, where the general center is Nature Study, 
developed thru a number of subordinate centers — the one illustrated 
being "seeds." 



Number — 
Oral 

Combinations 14 ■ — 6. 
Had 14 seeds in my hand, 6 blew 
away. How many had I left? 
Special drills in increasing by 
decades the combination 6 + 9 ; 
16 + 9; 26 + 9. 



Written 

Column addition 

In a seed box I had 13 maple, 23 

acorns, 18 apple, 82 milkweed. 

Total? 

Problem in substraction 

38 seeds, wind blew away 16. 

Left? 



456 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



Nature Study — 

Disposal of seeds by the wind 
Dandelion. Milkweed. Maple. 

Spelling and Dictation 

In connection with Nature Study 
Seed, wind, wings, play, hair, 
stick, some, fields, blow, grow, sow, 
throw. 

Dictation 

This seed has little wings. 
The wind likes to play with it. 
The wind helps to sow the seed. 
It blows them away. 
Reading — 

Aim. Thought Expression. 
Cyr's First Reader, page 48. 

Blackboard lesson 
The Chestnut. 

Supplementary reading 
Wilson's Nature Reader. 
Tell part of story of The Maple 
Keys, write remainder on black- 
board for the children to read. 
Drawing — 

Milkweed pods 
Colored chalk. 

Aim 

Good placing and individual ex- 
pression. 



Illustrate 

Different ways in which seeds are 

planted. Emphasize proportion. 
Construction 

Fold pattern, cut and paste — seed 

box. 

English — 

Oral reproduction 

"How West Wind Helped the 

Dandelion" — Poulson. 
Conversation 

The disposal of seeds by animals 

and people. 
Seeds that stick 

Burdock, Stick tight, etc. 
Disposal of seeds by animals 

Acorns, Nuts — Squirrels. 

Cherries, Apples — Birds. 

Poetry and Writing — 
Poetry 

"Dainty Milkweed Babies." 
Writing 

Winds will blow away the seeds. 

Some seeds have little hooks. 

The hooks get into the hair of 
animals. 

Milkweed seeds are brown. 

The seeds have white wings. 



The above excerpts give a little idea of what this individual planning 
served to accomplish. It made the work highly personal, and highly di- 
versified. In time many scores of centers were developed. Some were 
useful only for a week or two. Some more elaborate, were carried by 
their makers thru a series of weeks. But all used the Arts as a matter of 
course and found them capitally helpful in aiding by pictures and con- 
structions to clear up notions of number and form and color. 

Naturally it was in the primary grades that the center work flourished 
best. The later years saw the curriculum more rigid and less adaptable. 
Yet even in the higher classes the idea of coordination was made to 
underlie the work in the Arts. Thus the craft work of the girls, with its 
embroidery, stenciling, block-printing, applique and bookbinding, and the 
shopwork of the boys of the same grades, was closely related to the needs 
of the school, and to the home. The different steps of each exercise 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 

PRIMARY CONSTRUCTIVE WORK-GRADE 3B 



457 



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" ' Department of Education New York City. 

February 1906. 

FIG. 19. AN ILLUSTRATED PAGE FROM THE SYLLABUS FOR THE PRIMARY GRADES. IT 
SHOWS FORMS RELATED TO DIFFERENT CENTERS OF INTEREST. THE COM- 
PLETE SYLLABUS CONTAINED MANY PAGES SIMILAR TO THI3 
AND INCLUDED OVER ONE THOUSAND SEP- 
ARATE DRAWINGS. 



458 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



called for freehand and mechanical drawings and for knowledge of color 
and applied design. Each separate process was thus directed toward the 
same definite end. The study of science was also taken as a topic in the 
shops and much simple and ingenious apparatus added to classroom 
equipments. 




FIG. 20. LEATHER WORK FROM A CRAFTS CLUB. 

Not the least valuable result of this union of exercises was found in 
the interdependence of teachers which it occasioned. Where the grade 
teacher developed the working drawing for the shop model, and later, 
for certain forms, had her pupils devise schemes of color and simple 
decoration to be carved or stained there was a keen interest on the part 
of the shopman in the classroom lessons, and on the part of the class- 
teacher, in their shop development. The shop then became an intimate 
part of the school, and cooperation was made essential to any movement 
of the whole machinery. 

But the reader will be prone to ask "How were the teachers schooled 
to a plan of such interdependence — what books did you use?" The 
second query may best be answered first. The books used were of our 
own devising, and, to add an Hibernian twist — thev weren't books at all. 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 459 

Of course, in a plan like the one outlined, none of the printed drawing 
books were of much service. All of these were full of denaturized exer- 
cises "in representation" or "in design" — planned to be used as well in 
one city as another. The coordinate scheme, however, demanded exer- 



FIG. 21. A ROOM FURNISHED WITH PUPILS WORK. 

cises fitted to particular plans for particular classes of a particular school. 
It became necessary, therefore, to devise aids that offered general out- 
lines with abundant illustrations, which the grade teachers might study 
and from which they might choose material suited to their purpose. On 
these lines were developed the leaflets known as "syllabi." Together 
they formed a manual of which now and then a few copies were bound, 
but which existed for the most part as a sheaf of pages of suggestions and 
pictures. Each syllabus was — like the other features of the plan — a 
growth. A more formal handbook or two was at first tried, but was 
outgrown and an aggravation before it had seen a term's use. Thus 
separate leaflets came to be recognized as the only practical way to com- 
mit the scheme to print. These had the advantages of a card catalog 



460 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 





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TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 461 

or a loose-leaf ledger. Each teacher received the outline for her grade, 
and as soon as improvements could be devised, it was withdrawn and a 
revised edition substituted without affecting the work or plans of other 
grades. In time there thus came to be a score of grade outlines, filled 
with over a thousand separate pictures, all bearing directly on the work 
in construction and design. Other pamphlets dealt with problems in 
mechanical drawing and shopwork, and also blossomed with many cuts 
as the value of these graphic hints became plain to the supervising corps. 
The latter discovered how wise was that old New England School 
Commissioner, who, on being told that the drawing teacher's outlines 
were always being lost, remarked, "Wal, if you'll fix 'em up with some 
good pictures, they'll val'y 'em too much to lose 'em." 

Of course, outlines alone did not suffice to make the coordinate scheme 
plain. But they served as texts on which many conferences and lessons 
could be conducted. This form of district teaching was carried on as 
continuously as the supervisor's meetings. Indeed, Squeer's principle — 
that once you knew how to spell "winder," you were to go and clean 
it — found application in the continued admonition to carry the con- 
ference work over into the district meetings. Most of the latter were 
only big classes of teachers taught as the children were taught, by actual 
practice, and by exhibitions of w T ork drawn directly from the classrooms. 
The best was shown that its standards might — as a leaven — raise the 
ideals of all who saw it. 

In time another form of group teaching proved so effective that it 
deserves a word. A medical observer called it the "clinical method," 
but it was only the familiar form of "model lesson" conducted on a 
large scale. In it a class of pupils was carried thru the paces of some 
difficult lesson by a crack teacher, while the instructors from a hundred 
or more classrooms looked on. The presence of the pupils, their mis- 
understandings and mistakes, the reaction of the teacher to these, her 
appeals, illustrations and devices, all served to give a zest and point to 
the lesson that helped many an onlooker puzzled by just such difficulties. 
What a capital thing it would be if every good-sized town had just such 
a teaching amphitheater as one may find in a hospital clinic, a room where 
a hundred persons can be seated in steeply rising seats, while on the floor 
below them appears the complete equipment of a classroom. How many 
phases of teaching, not alone in the arts, but in English, history, geog- 
raphy, and science, could be illustrated to advantage with every move of 



462 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




s z 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 463 

teacher and pupils visible. Not a normal condition for a class to work in ? 
Well, perhaps not, but the writer has seen teacher and taught under just 
such conditions, so wrapped in the subject of the lesson, that the quiet 
audience of onlookers might have been a dozen miles away, so far as 
their presence affected the teaching. But this idea is in parenthesis. Like 
Dr. Holmes' moral in the One Hoss Shay, "it runs at large — take it, 
you're welcome, no extra charge." 

HOW THE SEPERATE ARTS DEVELOPED. 

The story of how the separate arts developed would indeed make a 
long chapter, did one rehearse all the incidents in the march, with its 
halts and skirmishes, its temporary retreats and its victories in the win- 
ning of friends. Some of the more salient points must suffice, that the 
picture have sufficient of detail to make it clear. 

It was early found that the illustrative or pictorial drawing of the 
primary grades was a self-registering barometer which showed the 
changes in the attitude of the class teachers toward the manual subjects. 
This drawing was a topic foreign to the course of study until the co- 
ordinate scheme appeared. It called for pictures made by the little 
folk which deal with their own experiences, home life, reading 
lessons, etc. Quaint enough were some of them, particularly in the 
lowest grade, when the policeman ran more to buttons than to arms, and 
the house appeared as that glass structure (in which so many of us live) 
which reveals its contents thru its walls. Quaint? Yes, altogether too 
quaint for many of the class teachers who could not be satisfied to have 
their small charges tell the story themselves. So there was first an effort 
to make the class tell the story the teacher's way — and Red Ridinghood 
crawled like a red bug thru forty similar forests of three trees, while a 
brown bug — the wicked wolf — ever pursued her. This wasn't youthful 
imagination in the process of cultivation. It was the old dictated draw- 
ing lesson not much disguised. So teachers were implored to give the 
children a chance — to let them tell the story their own way, with only 
the help of the teacher in getting over the technical stiles which cum- 
bered the road. The next year or two saw an improvement — there was 
more child and less teacher ; the pictures did not so plainly bear the hall- 
mark of what one acid critic called "adultomania" — a passion for making 
the primary youngling do things in grown-up fashion. 



464 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Succeeding years saw more and more freedom in this work until, when 
the coordinate scheme was fairly established, one might find in certain 
classrooms, great collections of these illustrations done in bright crayons 
and fairly crammed with interesting, original and most graphic detail. 




FIG. 24. TESTING A PIECE OF SHOP-MADE APPARATUS. 

There rises in mind one such room in a school close-pressed by teeming 
tenements, where the walls glowed with dozens of virile pictures and 
were hung with scores of constructed forms in cardboard. These told 
the story of the coal mined in distant Pennsylvania and brought by train 
and barge to the huge black "pockets" that raised their somber bulk on 
the neighboring river bank. Here was "adaptation of subject matter to 
surroundings" and "interpretation of environment" in very cogent 
fashion ; nor could one doubt the appeal of such teaching when one was 
personally conducted thru this picture gallery, by a cohort of original 
producers, all nearly suffocated with importance and information con- 
cerning the story they had learned. One felt truly as one looked and 
listened, that the leaven of the Arts was working — that here at least they 
were being used in the spirit of service. 

As the illustrative drawing developed, so did the constructive work, 
which passed the first formal stage of cube and square prism, done in 



TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF MANUAL TRAINING 



465 



oak-tag, and went on thru more elastic exercises (using paper, cardboard, 
splints, wire, string and raffia) until it too saw a genuine growth in 
original expression. This was made possible by "practice exercises" given 
to secure muscular control and technical knowledge, followed by the 




fig. 25. 



EXHIBITION OF SCIENCE MODELS MADE IN WORK-SHOPS — SEVENTH AND 
EIGHTH YEARS. 



opportunity for original work in making forms based upon the practice 
model. In this latter work the illustrated leaflets aided much, as they 
offered many hundreds of forms related to many different interests in 
the home, the streets, markets, docks, railroad stations, etc. 

The design done by these classes soon left the older drills on "Rep?- 
tion," "Alteration" and "Radiation," and set itself to beautyfying these 
constructed forms — valentines, boxes, cornucopias, booklets — that were 
made by the thousand at every holiday time. Not only the patterns, but 
the motifs were changed and made for the child as real and appealing 
as possible. The dot and dash and stilted little borders of the drawing 



466 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



books gave way to subjects drawn from the stories studied; so Cin- 
derella's coach figured with pumpkin and mice in one set of patterns, 
and Hiawatha's tent, his canoe, and "the dark pine trees" in another. 
Thus the decorative work became of a piece with the construction and 
illustration. It rose from life and reflected living interests. 

Thru all this, color ran like a golden thread. Its stimulus was 
directed upon each separate subject and the old hatchings and ellipses of 
dull pencil lines, were made to give way to the drawing of bright-hued 
toys, of beady-eyed dolls, and a whole menagerie of papier-mache animals. 
By degrees the entire primary scheme became tuned in the treble key. It 
showed the work of little children — recognizable as such — dominated 
only by the standards which children themselves could erect, filled with 
their love of movement, born of their interests in home and street, the 
Story of Indian, the Esquimaux and Jap, and expressing in over a thou- 
sand different classrooms something of their own power to make graphic 
and constructive the world in which they lived. The magic of the arts 
had shown how work — hard work — could be made as delightful as any 
play. 

(To be continued.) 



< ! M IB 



FIG. 26. FILING CABINET — GROUP WORK 
FROM EIGHTH YEAR PUPILS. 



VISITING MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 

IX.— MUNICH. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

FROM Strasburg I went to Mannheim, and in doing so I seemed 
to be going from poetry to prose. Mannheim is a modern com- 
mercial and manufacturing center. In the business part of the 
city, at least, the ground is level and most of the streets are laid out on 
the square. Except for the German language used in all the advertising 
in the store windows, one might almost think of it as an American city. 
Unfortunately I did not receive my permit to visit the schools of Mann- 
heim until I reached Paris, about a week later. However I was kindly 
received by Dr. Sickinger, the superintendent of schools, who allowed me 
to see one of the woodworking shops where there were no pupils at work 
and to study the display of models in the exhibition room in the central 
school building. Here I found clay work, cardboard work, woodwork, 
wood-carving and metalwork. Previous to visiting Mannheim I had seen 
the published course in wood-carving, Neuer Lahrgang fur Schnitzen, by 
Enderlin, and the course in metahvorking, Skizzen fur Metajlarbdtcn, 
by Schaber. The influence of both of these books was evident in the 
models I saw, tho neither of their courses was followed in every re- 
spect. The outline carving of Enderlin was preceded by models adorned 
with chip-carving. The cardboard work at Mannheim was similar to 
that given at Leipsic, the woodworking course consisted of useful models 
simple in construction, and the clay work was essentially a course in 
hand-built and decorated pottery. In the Mannheim schools modeling 
and cardboard work may be begun by children nine years of age, but 
carving, woodworking and metalwork cannot be taken until the pupil is 
twelve years of age. Each pupil chooses the course he wishes to take. 
He may spend five years in modeling, if he wishes to do so, or five in 
cardboard work, or he may spend three of these years in carving or two 
in either woodworking or metalworking. 

467 



46S MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

I called on Herr Faber, the supervisor of manual training, in his home 
and from him obtained the following statistics concerning the develop- 
ment of his department : 

Year. Pupils. Courses. Teachers. Workroom. 

1895 to 1899 80 4 2 2 

1899 345 20 5 5 

1900 415 24 6 5 

1901 5S4 30 8 5 

1902 742 39 10 7 

1903 920 43 15 8 

1904 1134 57 20 9 

1905 1280 60 20 9 

1906 1573 73 27 11 

1907 2167 110 45 17 

1908 2731 140 50 24 

Cardboard work was introduced in 1895, woodworking in 1899, metal- 
working in 1902, modeling and wood-carving in 1904. The distribution 
of pupils in 1908 was as follows: 

Subject. First Semester. Second Semester. 

Modeling 711 618 

Cardboard work 804 704 

Wood-carving 805 738 

Metalworking 207 195 

Woodworking 204 189 

2731 2444 

Of all the boys in the public schools of Mannheim who were eligible 
to take manual training 41.47 per cent took the work in 1908. This is 
an excellent record for a German city. In many it is no more than from 
four to ten per cent. The supervisor stated that he believed that in two 
or three years the manual training would be a required subject. 

The cost of instruction was only $5,250. Pupils paid a tuition of 
fifty cents a semester which covered the cost of the materials. About 700 
pupils were admitted free because unable to pay the tuition fee. New 
equipment is not counted in the above figures because it is paid for out 
of the general equipment fund for the schools. 

As I had no official permit to visit schools in Mannheim, and as there 
was a rigid rule against taking photographs even of work on exhibition, 
I remained only one day, and took the evening train for Munich. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



469 



On the following day I found my way to the Rathaus which, more 
than any other modern Gothic building I had seen, seemed to possess the 
charm of the medieval period. In this building was the office of the 
superintendent of schools, and there I presented my credentials to Dr. 
George Kerchensteiner, the man who has made Munich famous as a 
center for industrial education. He received me so cordially that I shall 
never cease to be grateful to him. In the twenty minutes I was in his 
office he conversed with me in English on educational topics of mutual 
interest, inquired for several American friends, told me just what I 
ought to see in Munich, planned my 
route, gave me letters and cards of in- 
troduction and a book outlining the 
courses in manual training in the city. 
Dr. Kerchensteiner especially advised 
me to visit the Flurstrasse Volkschule 
because it represents the latest devel- 
opment in his scheme of training for 
citizenship, and shows clearly the 
place he would give to art and manual 
training in the elementary school. 

THE FLURSTRASSE VOLKSCHULE. 

At eight o'clock on the following 
morning we started for this school. 
When we reached there a light snow 
was falling, but it did not prevent me 
from getting a snap-shot of the build- 
ing, Fig. 127, constructed in the style 
of the old Bavarian builders. I was 
told that in an effort to revive the old 
Bavarian architecture, this style was fig. 127. 

being used in all the new public school 
buildings. 

On arrival we were welcomed by the principal of the school, Herr 
Heinrich Eber, who conducted us thru the building and answered our 
numerous questions. First we went to the cooking room, Fig. 128. In 
harmony with the Bavarian style, the woodwork was painted instead of 
being finished to show the grain of the wood. The case at the end of 
the room, as I remember it, was painted a very strong blue and decorated 




FLURSTRASSE SCHOOL, 
MUNICH. 



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MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



471 




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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



with white ornaments in the panels and around the drawer pulls. In 
this room were four large tables, each intended for six pupils. All the 
cooking work was carried on in groups of six pupils each, working to- 
gether as a family. They cooperated in planning meals, in buying mate- 




FIG. 132. FIRST PART OF EIGHTH GRADE COURSE IN 
WOODWORKING, MUNICH. 



rials, in cooking and in cleaning. Fig. 129 shows the other end of the 
same room. On the blackboard is a list of materials with which to pro- 
vide a meal for twelve people. The cost is equivalent to seventeen cents 
in American money. A stool is provided for each girl, but this fact does 
not mean that the pupils are given all their instruction in cooking in this 
room. The theory work, including chemistry and hygiene, is given in 
the regular classroom, or in the room especially equipped for chemistry. 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



475 



The woodworking department was admirably equipped. There were 
individual benches, Fig. 130, tool cabinets hung on the wall between 
windows and on the two posts in the room, lights for evening work, a 
large stock rack, a work case, a turning lathe, drawing boards, a large 




FIG. 133. SECOND PART OF EIGHTH GRADE COURSE IN 
WOODWORKING, MUNICH. 

office for the teacher with desk and cases for displaying work, a lumber 
room, a wash-room alcove with four basins, and a museum room with 
shelving around it on which were arranged classified specimens of differ- 
ent kinds of wood. Fig. 131 shows two of the tool cabinets, one closed 
and one open revealing the set of tools. 

The course of instruction in woodworking in all the Munich schools 
is highly technical in character. It consists of exercise pieces of rather 



476 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

large dimensions. In fact it is just as "abstract" and severe as the original 
Russian course exhibited in this country in 1876. Figs. 132 and 133, 
leproduced from rather indistrict half-tones, suggest the forms and pro- 
portions of the models and the order in which they are given. In dis- 
cussing these formal exercises the principal said that it was necessary to 
follow this course instead of useful models because this work was credited 
in the Geiverbschule. This eighth-grade course and the elementary 
course in the Geiverbschule must therefore be identical. He would not 
admit that there could be anything better for boys of grammar school 
age tho a chance interview with one of the teachers who was in the room 
brought out the fact that at least two useful models had just been planned 
for an ungraded class of backward pupils, — "blockheads," the principal 
called them, speaking in English, — who were to take shopwork without 
reference to the Geiverbschule. These models were a picture-frame with 
miter joints and a well designed key-board. The models were said to be 
easier than the regular exercises. I did not learn whether they were also 
more interesting to the boys. Personally I was glad to learn that these 
"blockheads" were to make some useful things, and I wondered whether 
the experience with this new class might not raise a question concerning 
the necessity of holding so tenaciously to the Geiverbschule course. Later 
I learned that representatives of the industries of Munich had expressed 
themselves as being opposed to the Leipsic system in which finished ob- 
jects of utility are made, and that they approved of the system of exercise 
pieces. However, objects of utility are sometimes given by the teachers 
in Munich, but as extra problems for the especially diligent or skilful 
pupils. 

A further and essential difference between the Munich and Leipsic 
systems is in the fact that Munich employs only tradesmen as teachers, 
whereas most of the teachers trained at Leipsic are regular grammar 
grade teachers who have taken one or more summer terms in the training 
school. The selection and training of the Munich teachers is, therefore, 
of special interest. Applicants for teaching positions must show know- 
ledge of freehand and projection drawing, practical shopwork, shop 
mathematics, and of shop materials and processes. The candidates are 
given tests, and those who prove most efficient are allowed to do practice 
teaching for one year without pay, during which time they are required 
to pursue courses in drawing and the technology of the subject to be 
taught, to work out all the problems of the eighth grade course in draw- 
ing and shopwork, and to complete certain prercribed courses in peda- 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



477 



gogy. After another examination the applicant may receive his appoint- 
ment as a teacher, and finally, after a very thoro further examination in 
all the subjects of instruction, his appointment may be made permanent. 
The salaries range as follows : 

Year of Service. Salary. 

First to third $525.00 

Fourth to sixth 585.00 

Seventh to ninth 645 . 00 

Tenth to twelfth 682.50 

Thirteenth to fifteenth 720 . 00 

Sixteenth to twentieth 757.50 

Twenty-first to twenty-fifth 795.00 

Twenty-sixth to thirtieth 832 . 50 

Thirty-first to thirty-fifth 870.00 

The teachers are required to give instruction thirty hours a week. 
Only sixteen pupils are taught at one time. A class of thirty-two is 
divided into two sections and one of forty-eight into three. The in- 
struction in shopwork is overseen by a head teacher of woodworking and 
a head teacher of metalworking. These head teachers are given the title 
of inspector of workshcps. 




FIG. 134. BOWLS OF STEEI 



My visit to the metalworking shop was just at the end of the hour, 
so I did not see the pupils at work. They had evidently placed their 
tools in order and were consulting their teacher concerning their note- 
books. These books are a feature of the shopwork in both w T ood and 
metal. The books contain a drawing of each piece, its dimensions, the 
value of the material used, the time spent in the work, and the value of 



478 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

the finished piece. The course of instruction includes filing, cutting with 
snips, twisting, bending, fitting, punching, riveting, raising, and simple 
construction work. I was particularly impressed with some bowls, Fig. 

134, which had been beaten up out of sheet steel. They were excellent 
in every way. 

The equipment was ample. Besides the four benches shown in Fig. 

135, there was a long bench in front of the windows. Charts and good 
illustrative material were provided. In the teacher's office adjoining were 
two large cases with glass doors, which, added to the two shown in Fig. 
135, gave ample space for the keeping of tools, unfinished work and 
models in an orderly manner. It was evident that the teacher was skilled 
in art metalwork for in his office I saw several pieces of his own handi- 
work, especially in iron, which were excellent in both design and work- 
manship. 

The work in freehand drawing held my attention for a long time. 
Beginning in the fall the pupils study the fruits of shrubs. First a sheet 
of the elements, Fig. 136, is drawn and filled in with the brush in solid 
opaque colors. The barberries were vermilion, the rose seedpods were 
red, leaves were green, etc., and the colors were good. A noticeable 
thing about the drawings was that the berries were merely blocked in 
with straight lines, the rose leaves showed no serrations, and space was 
left in the color to show- the veins. In a curled leaf attention was given 
to the curve. Drill in technique and preparation for design were evi- 
dently foremost in the teacher's mind, but the method of thought was 
that of discovery of the characteristic forms and beauties of nature. 

After this sheet of individual studies of fruit in different positions and 
varying sizes together with leaves, growth of stems, etc., a full spray was 
drawn in the same manner on another sheet, Fig. 137. Every sheet was 
different from every other because each was drawn from the pupil's in- 
dividual spray which he had gathered or bought in the market ; every 
boy must provide his own model. In the rendering of this spray, also, 
the blocking in method prevailed, and the pupils were very successful in 
getting the leading characteristics of the spray as a whole, as well as of 
its several parts. 

After a study of four or five different types of plants in this way, 
border designs, Fig. 138, were made, adapting the forms previously 
drawn to present needs, but the natural colors were not retained. These 
were varied, often reduced one-half or more in intensity and harmonized. 
After the borders, diaper patterns were designed. The directness and 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



479 




480 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

general excellence of the work appealed to me very much. Everything 
had been thoughtfully done. Plenty of time had been allowed in which 
to acquire skill in blocking-in, and not one of the sheets looked as tho 




FIG. 136. STUDY OF FRUITS AND LEAVES. 



it had been done by a careless boy. I could not help but make com- 
parisons with some eighth grade work I had seen in America — hurried, 
careless, indefinite in method and leading to nowhere. To be sure this 




FIG. 137. STUDY OF SPRAYS. 



work in Munich was taught by a teacher who had skill, but should not 
that be true in America also? The teacher was a man who had been 
trained in a normal school — having spent six years in study above the 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



481 



grammar school work — and in addition to all this, had taken courses at 
the art school, but he was what we call a regular grade teacher because he 
taught mathematics, reading, gymnastics, etc. in addition to the drawing. 
About half of the teachers in this school were men. The room in which 




FIG. 138. DESIGNS. 



the drawing was taught was somewhat better to work in than a regular 
schoolroom in the United States, because it had been selected with ref- 
erence to lighting and had been equipped with desks a little different 
from the usual, tho they were not expensive ones. 

A brief visit to a first-grade classroom revealed the fact that the con- 
struction work of the primary grades is, for the most part, connected 
with directed work in observation on the street, at home or elsewhere. 
I was shown a large number of those marvelous things made at home 
which any teacher may call forth from young children if he goes about 
it in the right way. There were brooms, carts, wagons, automobiles, 
etc., in great variety, and there was almost as much variety in the material 
procured and used by the children. All the construction work up to the 
eighth grade seemed to be of this general type. It is not given a place 
in the school program corresponding in any degree to the other subjects. 
The fundamental method in the work was expressed by the principal as 
(1) observation, (2) understanding, (of forms, principles, processes, 



482 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

etc.) (3) drawing, (4) making. Pupils of the upper grades in this 
school, especially in the seventh, have made in the schoolroom (a) a rail- 
way station, chiefly out of sheet tin; (b) a model of a theater under 
construction, mostly of wood; (c) a model of a farm with appropriate 
buildings. This constructive work corresponds to our sand-table work 
in America, tho it is carried forward in a somewhat different way and 
is preceded by directed observation work. To help in this observation 
work a museum of industrial materials, tools and processes had been 
provided. This was kept in a large room on the upper floor of the build- 
ing. Here, for example, a teacher would find brick and stone and 
mason's tools which may be taken to his classroom for use in an obser- 
vation lesson. He may also find a great variety of farm implements and 
some farm machinery. The parts of a modern skate, for exmple, are 
clearly displayed on a board, also implements of warfare, all the pieces of 
a school desk, a chair, etc. This museum and the construction work that 
grew out of its use seemed to be a special hobby of Principal Eber, and, I 
understood, were not to be found in the other schools of the city. 

But of all the suggestive things I found at this remarkable school, 
the program of studies for the eighth grade interested me most because 
it seemed to point toward the solution of one of our American problems. 
The program for the girls was as follows: 

Religion 2 hours a week 

Reading 3 

German Language 3 

Domestic Economy 8 

(4 hours Theory) 

(4 hours Practice) 

Drawing 2 

Singing 1 

Gymnastics 2 

Needlework 4 

Total 25 

The principal of the school did not believe in co-education. He said 
that girls could not and should not do as much work as boys. In his school 
boys and girls were taught in different rooms, tho in the same building. 

The guiding principle in the selection of studies for both boys and 
girls was to follow the natural development of the children, but at the 
same time to recognize probable future occupation. The program for the 
boys was : 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 483 

Religion 2 hours a week 

German Language 2 

Reading and Literature 3 

History 2 

Practical Mathematics, including Bookkeeping 4 

Natural Science, Theory 2 

Natural Science, Laboratory, Physics, 2 

Chemistry 2 

Handwork, Wood and Metal, each a half year 4 

Drawing 5 

Gymnastics 2 

Total 32 

One hour of the time given to drawing was spent in making working 
drawings in connection with the shopwork. The remainder was divided 
between freehand and instrumental drawing. 

These programs seemed significant to me, in the first place, because 
the boys were given thirty-two hours of work a week and the girls 
twenty-five ; in the second place, because the boys were given six hours of 
work in mathematics and the girls none, except what might come in con- 
nection with their work in domestic economy; in the third place because 
the boys take physics and the girls do not; in the fourth place because in 
the eighth or finishing year of the elementary school course emphasis was 
placed upon practical mathematics, laboratory work in science, drawing 
and shopwork for the boys — in all twenty-one hours out of the thirty- 
two — and upon domestic economy, needlework, and drawing for the 
girls — in all fourteen hours out of the twenty-five. These facts are 
worthy of thoughtful consideration by educators in America. 

Formerly six hours a week were given to shopwork thruout the eighth 
grade, but in the school year 1907-8 physics and chemistry were intro- 
duced and the shopwork time reduced to four hours. I saw a class of 
boys at work in the simply but well equipped physics laboratory and I 
looked over several of their notebooks. Without hesitation I can say 
that I have never seen better laboratory notebooks in any high school class, 
and I had reason to believe that the boys were using their time most 
profitably in this study. 

Three out of the eight half-days I was in Munich were spent in the 
Flurstrasse school, but I found time to visit several continuation schools, 
the famous school of industrial art, Kunstgeiuerbeschule, and the Bavar- 



484 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



ian National Museum containing the great collection of examples of 
fine craftsmanship arranged in chronological order. At the school of 
industrial art I was especially fortunate in having a card of introduction 
from Dr. Kerchensteiner to one of the professors who spoke English 




FIG. 139. LIEBBERSTRASSE SCHOOL, MUNICH. 



readily. As we went thru the several departments of the school I was 
constantly running across suggestive processes and new methods of 
work. For example, in the department of book illustration I saw some 
charming examples of color work printed from blocks of linoleum. The 
linoleum had been cut with knife and chisel and then the printing done 
in a small press. I discovered that much of the lettering in this depart- 
ment was done with a cork point. Sheet metal the thickness of paper 
was being worked with a round wooden point in much the same way as 
we tool leather with a rounded steel point. This was done over a blotter 
or piece of soft cloth. In the class in decorative painting real fruit and 
flowers were arranged for models. In the woman's department the draw- 
ing under Professor Neimeyer especially impressed me. Here mounted 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 485 

birds of finest plumage were used as models. They were studied (a) in 
outline, (b) in color, and (c) as decorative motifs. Beautiful shells 
were studied (a) for the shapes and spots and the laws of their arrange- 
ment, and (b) for their delicate colorings. In this same department 
some remarkable decorative color effects were produced by paper paint- 
ing — paintings produced by pasting bits of paper on a background. 

THE CONTINUATION SCHOOLS 

Before going to Munich I had read of its system of continuation 
schools, but I did not really appreciate the great work they are doing 
until I went into some of the classes, saw the students at work, noticed 
the character of the instructors, and, as it were, caught the spirit of these 
schools. The German continuation school was not in its beginning and 
is not fundamentally today a trade or technical school, but it is a school 
of general culture for such boys and girls as are apprenticed to trades. 
It is intended to supply, as far as that is possible, what such children are 
obliged to lose by leaving the day schools before a broad general education 
has been acquired. The law in Bavaria making attendance upon such 
schools compulsory dates back to 1803. But the law was not really 
effective until after the passage of the "Regulation of Industry" in 1869 
which compelled employers to allow all their workmen who were under 
eighteen years of age to attend a recognized continuation school, and at 
the same time gave communes power to frame by-laws making atten- 
dance at such schools compulsory. This act was still further strengthened 
by the Imperial Industrial Law of 1891. The compulsory features of 
these laws were needed because of the lack of ambition on the part of 
many apprentices. The laws were comparatively easy to administer 
because of the German military system. Dr. Sadler, in his excellent 
work entitled "Continuation Schools in England and Elsewhere," tells 
us, in 1908, that forty-five forty-sixths of all the people of Germany 
were living under compulsory continuation school laws. This means 
attendance thru the elementary school and from eight to twelve hours a 
week thruout apprenticeship, or up to eighteen years of age for boys and 
sixteen for girls. 

In order that this instruction be of greatest practical value, the in- 
dustry of the apprentice is made the focal center of his school work. 
That is to say, the mathematics, the language, the science, the drawing, 
etc., are taught with special reference to the needs of the industry. This 



486 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

necessitated the grouping of pupils with reference to the industry rather 
than locality. Hence, there was established a centrally located contin- 
uation school for apprentices to bakers, another for apprentices to shoe- 
makers, and respectively for apprentices to butchers, barbers, chimney- 
sweeps, glaziers, confectioners, blacksmiths, tailors, machinists, photog- 
raphers, decorators, coachmen, carpenters, bookbinders, potters, paper- 
hangers, jewelers, and all the rest up to the number of about fifty. These 
were housed in four large central school buildings. To these buildings 
the pupils come for instruction twelve hours a week. The following course 
of instruction .for carpenters is fairly typical : Religion, 1 hour, arith- 
metic and bookkeeping, 1 hour; studies in life and citizenship, 1 hour; 
drawing, 6 hours; practical technology — wood, tools, machines, methods 
of doing work, etc., 2 hours. 

It was especially the introduction of this practical technology or in- 
struction in the practical work of the trades and the consequent fitting 
up of at least one shop or workroom for each trade, that gave the work 
in Munich distinctive character. These shops were equipped with the 
very best of appliances, and placed in charge of the very highest type 
of men in the several trades. Dr. Kerchensteiner had two reasons for 
establishing these shops or trades centers: First, to elevate the trades, 
and second, to enable the boy who happened to be working under an 
inferior or less skilful master, to acquire skill and knowledge above and 
beyond what he would get from the master to whom he was bound. 

The high character of the work done in one of these shops was made 
clear to me as I visited a class in cooperage. My respect for a barrel grew 
very rapidly as I saw those apprentices laying out the forms of the staves 
of elliptical-headed casks, cutting them with great accuracy and in some 
cases carving the heads with artistic figure groups. The stove-setters' 
shop or laboratory, the only one in Bavaria, showed apparatus for testing 
materials as well as methods of building German tile stoves. The pottery 
room was equipped with a large kiln, three wheels and much other 
apparatus of a modern pottery. The museum of wood was quite ex- 
tensive and most practical in character. It contained not only the 
usual classified samples of wood, bark, fruit, etc., but the pests and the 
results of diseases of wood were shown, also a large number of useful 
articles manufactured from wood. The curator of this museum had 
spent eight years in collecting and classifying this material. 

After visiting two of the large buildings the Liebherrschule, Fig. 139, 
devoted to the machine trades, and the Luisenschule devoted to the 



MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS IN EUROPE. 



487 



building trades I at least began to understand the truth of Dr. Kerchen- 
steiner's statement, "Our school system of Munich directly prepares 
ninety-five per cent of the population, during the period between the 
sixth and the eighteenth years of age for the trades, commerce, and in- 
dustry, and attempts to develop its pupils as far as possible in these 
pursuits." 

(To be continued.) 




MADF. BY EIGHTH GRADE PUPIL, ROCHESTER, N. V. 



EDITORIAL 

WE are grateful to our readers for their responsiveness. After 
every issue we receive words of commendation and encourage- 
ment. Some one is quite sure to have found the last number 
the "best yet." These messages are always helpful, but they are es- 
pecially so when coupled with suggestions, or statements of needs. Such 
statements, also, have not been lacking during the past year, and as we 
look back over them, we find that they may be arranged into three 
groups. The first of these calls for more issues of the Magazine. Many 
readers have said. "It doesn't come often enough," "When are you going 
to give it to us monthly?", and the like. The second group has called for 
more attention to the problems of vocational training — more discussions 
of the questions involved, more detailed accounts of what has been ac- 
complished in this new field. The third group has called for more prac- 
tical details of courses and methods in manual training, which may be of 
daily use to the teacher. 

A After considering all these needs and consulting many men 

ew . who are able to take a large view of the present educational 

situation, we have decided to try to meet all of them by 
enriching the Manual Training Magazine on the side of practical 
details, and, by publishing another bi-monthly magazine, alternating by 
months with the Manual Training Magazine. This new magazine 
will begin in September, 1911. It will be called Vocational Education, 
and will be under the same editorial and business management as the 
Manual Training Magazine. The staff of editorial writers has 
been revised, but will be the same for both publications. For the new 
magazine an additional advisory staff has been secured representing the 
most important interests involved in the problems of vocational education. 
Our announcement in the advertising pages of this issue shows that the 
new publication is to have the guiding influence of state and city super- 
visory officers in the fields of both general and vocational education, 
other educational leaders who stand for sound general education, but are 
sympathetic toward vocational demands, representative manufacturers 
and leaders of organized labor who are working for more effective edu- 
cation for industrial workers, university professors of agriculture, art, 

488 



EDITORIAL. 489 

domestic art and manual training, leaders in vocational guidance, and 
directors of trade and technical schools. It is believed that with the in- 
terest and active cooperation of such a body of men and women — and 
both of these are now assured, the editorial staff will be able to send out 
a magazine that will be an important factor in the solution of many of 
the present educational problems. 

New In selecting the additions to the staff of editorial writers 

Associate we were desirous of obtaining men of highest personal 

Editors standing, wide observation in the educational field, and 

experience in both manual training and vocational work. Fortunately 
we were able to secure the two men of our first choice, Professor Frank 
M. Leavitt of the University of Chicago, and Arthur D. Dean of the 
New York State Education Department. 

Up to last year Professor Leavitt's home was in the city of Boston. 
In 1886 he entered the mechanic arts school of the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology. Later he became an instructor in the same school 
and then principal of the historic Eliot School at Jamaica Plain where 
he developed courses in woodworking for the grammar grade boys. He 
became principal of the manual training schools of Boston in 1892, and 
four years later, under a new organization, assistant director of draw- 
ing and manual training. In these positions, thru the exercise of patience, 
tact and ability, he built up a system of manual training work second to 
none in the United States. In 1910 he came to the University of Chicago 
as associate professor of industrial education. In the meantime Mr. 
Leavitt had taken summer courses at Harvard University, studied sloyd 
in Sweden, served as secretary and then as president of the Manual 
Training department of the National Education Association, and pres- 
ident of the Eastern Manual Training Association. While president of 
the former, his suggestion resulted in the committee that prepared the 
report on the "Place of Industries in Education," and as president of 
the latter his diplomacy was a large factor in bringing about the final 
amalgamation of the Eastern Manual Training Association and the 
Eastern Art Teachers Association. One of the first attempts to modify 
the elementary course of study for those children whose interest in in- 
dustrial work seems stronger than in the traditional work of the school, 
was made by Mr. Leavitt in the establishment of the experimental class 
at the Agassiz School, Boston. This was followed by the extension of 
this sort of industrial training which, after conferences with labor organ- 



490 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

izations and business men, has resulted in the permanent establishment of 
the Pre-Apprentice School of Printing and Bookbinding, and other sim- 
ilar ventures in Boston, and finally in the Boys' Trade School which will 
be opened next September. Mr. Leavitt has formed the habit of working 
out new problems under conditions that have forced him to be conser- 
vative. 

Mr. Dean was born in Cambridge, Mass. He was the first boy to 
enrol as a student in the Ringe Manual Training School. In 1895 he 
graduated from the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology. After this he taught grammar 
school manual training for two years in Portland, Maine, introduced 
manual training into the schools of Maiden, Mass., staying there two 
years, and then went to Springfield, Mass., where he assisted in the or- 
ganization of the Technical High School, having been elected head of 
the mechanic arts department. While in Springfield Mr. Dean was in- 
vited by the insular government of Porto Rico to investigate the indus- 
trial and agricultural conditions of that island with a view to the 
establishment of industrial schools. The investigation was made and a 
report presented to the Commissioner of Education. On leaving Spring- 
field in 1906, Mr. Dean became supervisor of education for industrial 
workers in the schools under the Young Men's Christian Association of 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. In this position he took advantage of 
the opportunity to study the industries and the conditions of industrial 
workers in many cities. His aim was to be of service by promoting the 
idea of definite industrial education and establishing schools for textile 
workers, shoe factory hands, workers in the machine trades, the building 
trades, etc. About 5000 students living in twenty-eight different cities 
and towns were in these classes. 

For five summers Mr. Dean was at Cornell University, in charge of 
the department for training teachers of industrial work. It was here 
that he was brought into touch with conditions in New York State, 
which later led to his appointment as chief of the division of vocational 
schools in the State Education Department. Since his appointment to 
this position he has been much in consultation with manufacturers, school 
men and the leaders of organized labor with reference to the development 
of an effective system of vocational schools for New York State. Be- 
tween-whiles he has written some of the best articles on vocational 
education that have appeared. He won the first prize in the Craftsman 
competition for an article on the "Relation of Manual Training in the 



EDITORIAL. 491 

Public Schools to Industrial Education and Efficiency," and the Worlds 
Work prize for an article on the school of the future, this having just 
appeared in the April, 1911, number. He has also written for Machinery. 
American Industries, and other technical journals, has prepared a bulletin 
on the "Education of Workers in the Shoe Industry" for the National 
Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, has assisted Carroll 
D. Wright in his "Apprenticeship Bulletin," and written a valuable 
book, "The Worker and the State," which was published a short time 
ago by the Century Co. Our readers will recall that in 1898 Mr. Dean 
wrote the first vocational article that was printed in the Manual 
Training Magazine. 

We are glad to welcome both Mr. Leavitt and Mr. Dean to our 
editorial family and we are confident our readers will look forward to 
their contributions. 

_, . . An unparalled event in bov annals has become a matter of 
Cleveland • , 

Boys' history in Cleveland. The second annual Cleveland Boys 

Exposition Exposition was held in Central Armory, the largest public 
building in that city, May 4th, 5th, and 6th. The capacity of this 
great building was taxed to the utmost both by exhibits and by atten- 
dance. Nearly 12,000 people visited the exhibits and witnessed the 
contests within the three days. 

The movement had the support of the social settlements, Jewish Al- 
liance, city charities, public schools, particularly the manual training 
department, parochial schools, public libraries, School of Art, School 
of Music, turnvereins, various branches of the Y. M. C. A., Sunday 
schools, newspapers, newsboys' organization, and other organizations, 
religious and educational. 

The exhibition was strictly a boy's affair and of course, from its very 
nature, closely related to manual training. Its object was to inspire the 
boy to exhibit in friendly contest anything that a boy can do, make, 
collect, or care for: woodwork of every conceivable kind including wood- 
turning and wood-carving, metalwork, electrical apparatus, mechanical 
drawing, printing, art and crafts work of every description, paintings, 
drawings, signs and posters, designs, photography, collections, pets, con- 
tests in music, vocal and instrumental, in literature, including original 
stories, orations and poems, in commercial work, in boy's scout work, 
gymnastics, newsboys' stunts, costumes, etc. 



492 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

A newspaper, the Exposition Special, was printed daily, edited by the 
boys, containing the best stories, poems and orations and up-to-the-mo- 
ment news. 

There were three entries in all exhibits and contests: (a) boys under 
thirteen, (b) boys under sixteen, (c) boys under nineteen. First, second, 
and third awards were given in each exhibit. In all there were 2,240 
entries and 1,300 awards. In the giving of awards there was an endeavor 
to impress an important lesson. They were simple ribbons, rewards of 
merit without pecuniary value, honors given as recognition of excellence 
and effort — the highest honor that could be conferred upon any boy. 

The exposition was opened by the mayor of the city. It was hoped 
that Mr. Roosevelt might honor the occasion by his presence, but a tele- 
gram of explanation and hearty appreciation was all that he could grant. 

Certain lessons must inevitably be impressed upon a boy as a result of 
this great exposition : the value of enterprise, self respect as the result of 
feats successfully accomplished, pride in the results of honorable com- 
petition upon a basis higher than that of material gain, the value of 
unity of boy interests, the power of united effort, civic pride, all of 
which is significant in a city of 600,000 population. — W. E. Roberts 




ASSOCIATIONS 

SCHOOL CRAFTS CLUB. 

On Friday evening, February 1, 1911, the School Crafts Club of New York 
City had an interesting round table discussion at the Graduate Club, 11 East 
Forty-fourth street. After a very satisfactory dinner at 6:30, the Club separated 
into three tables, as planned in advance, and the following topics were discussed 
under their respective leaders: (1) "The Mechanical Problem," led by Fred P. 
Reagle; (2) "The Furniture Problem," led by Walter I. LeRoy; (3) "High School 
Problem," led by Wiliam A. Worth. 

After these subjects had been thoroly threshed out, and before the final de- 
parture for the evening, Albert W. Garritt, President of the Club, called for an 
expression of opinion from the members as to the success of the meeting and 
possible subjects for discussion. The abundance of suggestions for future meetings 
and the enthusiasm of this first one promise well for the success of this popular 
series of informal gatherings. 

ANNUAL DINNER. 

On Friday evening, March 10, 1911, was held the annual dinner of the Club 
at the Phi Gamma Delta House, and was followed by one of the most significant 
programs that has been offered for a long time. The program card, designed by 
P. A. Schwarzenbach, excited much favorable comment. 

After an eight-course dinner the program presented was as follows: 

"The Man and His Job," by Arthur D. Dean, Chief of the Division of Trade 
Schools, New York State Department of Education ; "The Neglect of Manual Work 
end Art," discussed by Gustave Straubenmiiller, Associate Superintendent of Schools, 
New York City, John Alexander, President of the National Academy of Design, and 
Leon Dabo, a New York artist ; "The Dignity of the Manual Arts," discussed by 
William McAndrew and Edwin C. Broome. 

It would be impossible to give an adequate account of this program within 
the limits of a reasonable report. 

— Fred P. Reagle, Montclair, New Jersey. 

DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE. 

The annual meeting of the Department of Superintendence of the National 
Education Association was held at Mobile, Alabama, February 23-25, 1911. The 
attendance at this meeting was considerably better than was at first anticipated, 
altho the general program was considered by many members to be rather inferior 
to other programs of recent years. There were 1136 names in "Bruce's Bulletin." 

At the Thursday morning session the visitors were treated to an exhibit of 
southern oratory, several speakers participating in the presentation of "A Message 
of Achievement from the Southland." One brief extract, taken from one of the 
speeches, must suffice for this report: 

"Another cause for gratification is the fact that all our educational problems 

493 



+94 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

and our educational institutions may be unaffected in future by sectional lines; 
because all sectional lines are wiped out now. They are always wiped out every 
time the North and the South participate in a public meeting. The latest proof 
that these sectional lines are almost completely obliterated was offered a few days 
ago when the metropolis of the South, New Orleans, situated almost in sight of 
the Panama Canal, was really seriously considered as a competitor with San 
Francisco, three thousand miles away, as the "logical point" for holding the 
Panama Exposition." 

At the Thursday afternoon session the "Present Status of Education in the 
Elementary Schools" was discussed by Mrs. Ella Flagg Young of Chicago, Presi- 
dent of the National Education Association, who said in part: 

"It would be interesting to compare the money expended to-day on education 
with the amount spent ten years ago, but there is even a more interesting side. Com- 
pare especially the physical, mental, and moral training of this time with that 
period. Vocational or industrial training we now realize is essential — we now 
understand that many pupils are not, or for economic reasons cannot be, interested 
in the purely academic studies. Today thruout the country manual training and 
the household arts are taught as formally as the fundamentals. The influx of 
peoples of all nations, with varying standards of morality and ethics makes 
morality in the schools a vital problem. Social hygiene also demands our attention. 
We have a great deal to learn ourselves. The measure of goodness in a child lies 
largely in the conformity to the ideals of the teachers, so it behooves us to realize 
there is more work before us, more hills to climb." 

The Tableaux at the close of the Thursday evening session proved very inter- 
esting to the visitors. The subject was "Mobile under Five Flags," Spanish, French, 
English, Confederate and the Stars and Stripes. To the northerners who were 
present it was extremely interesting to note that it was Mobile under the Con- 
federate flag that aroused the most enthusiasm in the southern audience. 

At the business session on Friday morning a sharp debate followed the pres- 
entation of the report of the Committee on Economy of Time in Education. 
Because of the new "Key Alphabet" proposed, concerted attempt was made to 
postpone action for one year, which was defeated by a vote of 403 to 368. The 
report which was finally adopted recommends a uniform alphabet for use in indi- 
cating the pronunciation of words in dictionaries and text-books. 

Two of the paragraphs in the report of the Committee on Resolutions were as 
follows: 

"The question of the extension of the amount and character of federal aid 
given to education is assuming great importance and demands the earnest con- 
sideration of all interested in education. This Department recommends that this 
question be given a place upon the program of the next annual meeting." 

"The Department of Superintendence approves of the use of school buildings 
as community centers and recognizes in this movement a socializing force of 
immense significance." 

In the Round Table discussion of superintendents of larger cities, Superin- 
tendent F. B. Dyer, Cincinnati, discussed the "Economic Aspect of Organization 
and Course of Study." He urged that exceptionally bright children be given a 
chance below the high school, that they should have vocational guidance till the 



ASSOCIATIONS. 495 

age of fourteen, providing it is essential for them to go out into the world, that 
their schooling should be continued for two years while they are working. 

At the Saturday morning session the general topic was "The Progress and 
the True Meaning of the Practical in Education." This topic was discussed in 
three parts as follows: "In Agriculture," by P. G. Holden, Iowa State College, 
Ames; "In Vocational Training," by President C. B. Gibson, Mechanics' Institute, 
Rochester, New York; "In the Balanced Course of Study and the All-year-round 
Schools," by Superintendent William H. Elson, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are: President, Charles E. Chadsey, 
Superintendent of Schools, Denver, Colorado; First Vice-President, O. J. Kern, 
Superintendent of Schools, Winnebago County, Illinois; Second Vice-President, 
H. J. Willingham, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Alabama; Secre- 
tary, Harlan Updegraf, Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. St. Louis was 
selected for the place of meeting in 1912. 

ILLINOIS MANUAL ARTS ASSOCIATION. 

That the Illinois Manual Arts Association is a successful organization and is 
accomplishing a great deal in the way of satisfactory results, is plainly seen from 
the success of the eighth annual meeting which was held in Normal and Bloom- 
ington, Friday and Saturday, March 3 and 4, 1911. The program was of excep- 
tional interest and value. 

Friday forenoon was given to the inspection of exhibits and visiting various 
points of interest. The afternoon session on Friday, which was held in the Manual 
Arts Building, Illinois State Normal University, was well attended and consisted 
principally of reports of committees appointed at the 1910 meeting of the associ- 
ation and the discussion of those reports. 

In the absence of F. D. Crawshaw of the University of Wisconsin, chairman 
of the Committee on Course of Study, Charles A. Bennett, Bradley Polytechnic 
Institute, presented the report for that committee. The report included carefully 
planned courses of study in the manual arts for the grades and high school, out- 
lined in a suggestive way, allowing community demands to determine largely the 
nature of the work. The report was adopted as a tentative course, the work of the 
committee to be continued. 

Clinton S. Van Deusen, chairman of the committee on Manual Arts for Rural 
Schools, in his report suggested a cooperative plan for the teaching of manual 
training in the rural schools. This plan was described quite fully in the April 
number of the Manual Training Magazine. According to this plan, twenty-five 
rural schools cooperate in employing a director of manual training who has charge 
of the work in all of these schools. The director visits each school once each 
week giving instruction and suggestions, and leaving drawings and typewritten 
or printed instructions to be followed during the remainder of the week, thus 
relieving the perhaps already over-worked rural school teacher of the additional 
burden of directing the work in manual training. The Association adopted Mr. 
Van Deusen's report, the committee's work to be continued during the coming year. 

Professor Frank M. Leavitt, of the University of Chicago, chairman of the 
committee on State Supervision of Manual Arts, gave the report for that com- 



496 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

mittee. This report, which was adopted by the Association, favors state super- 
vision of manual arts, placing the supervision in charge of a director who shall be 
an agent of a state board of education. 

The reports on printing and bookbinding in the public schools were given by 
Leonard W. Wahlstrom, of the Francis Parker School, Chicago, and S. J. Vaughn, 
of the Northern Illinois Normal School at Dekalb. Mr. Wahlstrom spoke of the 
great importance of the printing industry in the United States, of its vocational 
and economic value, and especially of the educational value of printing in the 
public schools. The work done in the school print shop correlates with and supple- 
ments nearly all other subjects of the curriculum, especially in English, art and 
mathematics. Abundant motive for this work may be supplied in the printing of 
a school paper and various other printed forms for the school which may be of 
economic benefit to the school. Mr. Vaughn spoke also regarding the selection and 
purchase of suitable equipment for beginning such work. Where the appropria- 
tion for the purchase of equipment is limited to a small amount, he advised the 
purchase of only necessary articles, but insisted that they be of good quality. The 
educational value of bookbinding was also discussed by Mr. Vaughn with refer- 
ence to its possibilities and its adaptability to suit the needs of all the different 
grades. As a result of these discussions a number of the members of the associa- 
tion made a visit on Saturday morning to the plant of the Pantagraph Printing 
and Stationery Company of Bloomington for a more concrete study of these sub- 
jects from the practical standpoint. 

During the evening session, following the banquet which was served in the 
Domestic Science Department, Manual Arts Building, the President's address was 
delivered by William T. Bawden, of the University of Illinois. Mr. Bawden 
reviewed the history and growth of the Association from its organization seven 
years ago, stating some of its accomplished results and the problems which are 
now before it for solution. We quote the following from his address: 

"1. This Association must continue its serious study of the place of the manual 
arts in education. It is true that the pioneer work has been done; the argument for 
motor education is no longer vigorously denied by leading educators. Never- 
theless, the details of the work and the methods by which it should be introduced 
and administered are still subjects of debate; the manual arts still have an 
unsettled place in education. In many places we are still on trial — work of a 
character that is highly esteemed in some communities has been thrown out of 
others. 

"2. We must in some way secure more general agreement among ourselves 
as to the essentials. This agreement can be exhibited concretely in such ways as 
by more general adoption and use and criticism of our courses of study. 

"3. As a necessary step in the direction of this unanimity, there must be wider 
dissemination of the facts concerning what the Association is doing, and what it 
stands for." 

Secretary R. E. Heironymus of the Illinois Educational Commission and Presi- 
dent David Felmley, a member of the sub-committee on Manual Arts, spoke of the 
increasing demand for the manual arts and vocational training in our schools, 
stating what is being done by those committees to meet this demand, in the way 
of recommending differentiated courses of study designed to meet more fully the 



ASSOCIATIONS. 497 

individual needs of the student, in the vocation in which he expects to engage 
at;er leaving school. 

The Saturday forenoon session, which was held in the Bloomington High 
School auditorium, was given largely to a continued discussion of the committee 
epcrts given Friday afternoon. 

Director T. C. Burgess, Bradley Institute, a member of the sub-committee 
en Manual Arts, spoke on "The Manual Arts in the Public Schools of Illinois." 
He discussed the growth of the manual arts in our rural, graded, and high schools, 
as well as our colleges and universities. He spoke also of the work which is 
being done by the committee mentioned above for the promotion of the manual 
arts in each of these classes of schools. 

The following officers were elected by the Association for the coming year: 
President, F. M. Leavitt, University of Chicago; Vice-President, A. C. Duncan, 
Quincy; Secretary-Treasurer, A. C. Newell, State Normal University, Normal. 
The next meeting of the Association will be held at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, 
Feoria. 

— D. L. Findley, Decatur, 111. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION. 

Extensive preparations are under way to make the Forty-Ninth Annual Con- 
vention at San Francisco, July 8-14, 1911, the largest meeting that has ever been 
held. Special attention is called to the announcement of the railway lines that 
join in giving from Montreal and Buffalo a rate of one fare for the round trip 
to Chicago, to be added to the one fare rate from that point. 

Very satisfactory hotel rates have been secured by the Local Committee, 
especially for entertainment "by the week." Every rate as announced is based 
on a definite contract filed with the Committee, an assurance that will be especially 
appreciated by those who attended the Mobile meeting in Fbruary. 

The announcement of the program for the Department of Manual Training 
and Art contains the following topics: Tuesday morning: "To What Extent 
Does Manual Arts Training Aid in Adjustment to Environment?" C. B. Connelley, 
Carnegie Technical Schools, Pittsburg; "The Dynamic Value of Manual Arts in 
Public Education," T. D. Sensor, Department of Public Instruction, Trenton, N. J. ; 
"The Requisites of the Efficient Teacher in Industrial Schools," G. W. Gerwig, 
Secretary, Board of School Controllers, Allegheny, Pa. Wednesday morning: 
"The New Standard of Present Day Industrial Education in Europe," Paul 
Kreutzpointner, Altoona, Pa. ; "The Requisites of Effective Teaching in Manual 
and Household Arts," Helen Louise Johnson, Associate Editor, Good Housekeeping, 
Springfield, Mass. ; "What have Vocational Schools Actually Done for American 
Development in Commerce, Industry, and the Home?" Frank H. Ball, Supervisor 
of Manual Training, Cincinnati. Thursday morning: "The Public School 
Domestic Science Department as an Influence in the Community for Enforcing the 
Observance of Pure Food Laws, Civic Cleanliness, Etc.," Mattie P. Clark, Poly- 
technic High School, Oakland, California; "Some Actual Needs for Intelligent 
Purchasing of Household Commodities and Practical Methods of Keeping House- 
hold Accounts," Miss Flagg, Los Angeles; Report of Committee on Nomenclature. 



498 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

Friday morning: "What Has Art Education in the Public Schools Done for 
Morality and Citizenship?" A. B. Clark, Leland Stanford University, California; 
"Art's Service as a Basis for Classified Knowledge," C. C. Henson, Newman 
Manual Training School, New Orleans; "The Emotional Development as an 
Asset," May Gearhart, Supervisor of Drawing, Los Angeles. 

For copies of the complete program, bulletins of railroad rates and routes, etc. 
address the Secretary, Irwin Shepard, Winona, Minn. 

r 

A new organization, the Industrial Science and Arts Association, has been 
formed at Muskegon, by a number of men interested in manual training in a few 
of the cities of Michigan. The purpose of the Association is the study and ad- 
vancement of all branches of industrial science and art, the raising of the 
standards of the profession, and the promotion of acquaintance and fellowship 
among its members. 

The cities now represented by active members are Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, 
and Muskegon, but it is the plan to take in men from other cities until the mem- 
bership reaches fifty. 

Three meetings will be held each year, in November, February, and May. 
At each meeting the visiting parties will spend Friday observing methods of 
handling classes and instruction. Immediately after school a meeting will be 
held for discussion of the day's work. In the evening a program will be given, 
and Saturday morning will be spent in visiting industrial plants. 

A School Art League was organized at a meeting held in the Fine Arts Build- 
ing, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York City, the President-elect being John 
W. Alexander, who is also president of the National Academy of Design. The 
League was orginally a committee of the Public Education Association, but has 
developed so far that with the consent of the parent body it has branched off as 
an independent organization. 

At the present time the League is conducting two courses of lectures, one for 
teachers at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and another for high school students 
at the different fine arts exhibitions held during the present year. 

The National Society of Craftsmen arranged a program for a conference to 
discuss "An Industrial Art School for New York," on Monday, April 24, 1911, 
with Lockwood de Forest as chairman. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



Geo. A. Seaton, Editor. 



SHAVING STAND. 

No method of construction could be more simple than that shown in the 
shaving stand. The legs are attached to the three shelves by means of round-head 
screws, or with ordinary screws with mission nails used at the joints for appear- 
ance only. A drawer is made to slide between the two 
upper shelves and is used to hold the paraphernalia for 
shaving. The mirror frame is mitered like a picture frame 
and is held together by corrugated metal fasteners. 

HALL CLOCK. 

Two sets of drawings show 
plainly the connection of the hall 
clock illustrated in the photo- 
graph. The drawings are made 
to scale, tho only the principal 
dimensions are given. The 
works and dial in the clock 
shown cost $13.00, the beveled 
plate glass $3.00 and the wood 
and other material $4.50, making 
the total cost of the clock $20.50. 
Tho this appears to be quite an 
undertaking, Hans W. Schmidt 

of St. Paul, who furnishes the drawing, says that three 
of his eighth-grade boys have worked out the clock 
with perfect success. 

SIX-PIECE PUZZLE. 

The drawings for the parts of the six-piece puzzle 
were made from blueprints in use at Bradley Polytech- 
nic Institute, Peoria, 111. The six pieces fit together 
to form a cross, and, as can readily be seen, con- 
siderable skill and accuracy in the use of the chisel 
will be needed in order to make the piece a success. 
While the drawings are not unusually complicated, 
the student who can correctly interpret them will have 
a good fundamental knowledge of working drawings. 
To insure ease in putting the puzzle together the stock should be planed about 
one-hundredth inch smaller than the dimensions given on the drawing. 





499 



500 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



The design for the tabouret is that of A. L. Polscher, of Cleveland, who has 
had considerable success with the problem in his eighth grade classes. As a 
suggestion of some of the possible variations for the decoration upon the sides, 
Mr. Polscher has given three sketches. 



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SPOOL HOLDER. 

The spool holder is a problem in metalwork which is being used by John 
F. Robinson in the high school of Wilmington, Delaware. The six stem pieces 
placed around the outside are riveted to the disk of sheet iron which revolves 
about the larger central stem. This is held in place by a nut placed inside of 
the cast base. The stem pieces may be finished by placing them in the drill-chuck 
upon the lathe and filing them. 



SHAVING MIRROR 

The shaving mirror presented in this number is from the design and drawing 
of one of the students of Shaw High School. While there is no adjustment pos- 
sible, the tilt given to the mirror makes it very satisfactory for use on the average 
chiffonier. It adds considerably to the attractiveness to use a beveled mirror in- 
stead of the cheaper plain one. 



SHOP PROBLEMS. 



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MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



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507 




CURRENT ITEMS 

The effect of industrial schools upon the attendance at regular high schools 
is a subject of considerable interest in some of the Eastern cities. Homer P. Lewis, 
superintendent of schools in Worcester, Mass. makes the following statement: 

"The attendance in our high schools has increased about 500 since the in- 
dustrial school was opened a year and a half ago. The opening of the industrial 
school did not affect the attendance upon our high schools so much as I expected. 
Of the 125 pupils attending the industrial schools, probably not more than 25 
would have attended the high schools steadily." 

NORTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

Some of the labor unions in New England seem to be suspicious of the move- 
ment toward trade and vocational education. They seem to fear that such schools 
will be dominated by the manufacturers instead of by the educators. A striking 
illustration is in the city of Brockton, where the efforts to establish a school in 
connection with the shoe industry has not yet been successful, tho the matter has 
been under discussion for several months. In Newport also, some objection has 
been made to the evening classes in machine work at the Townsend Industrial 
School. To offset these, however, many statements have been made during the 
past few months by labor leaders showing that in general, they thoroly approve 
of the movement toward vocational training. 

Cambridge, Mass. has established a school for young girls who have com- 
pleted their public school education and wish to prepare themselves to earn a 
hving by handwork. It offers courses in dressmaking and millinery, and aims, 
thru its supplementary courses in cooking, sewing, physical exercise and hygiene, 
to develop a healthy and intelligent mind in a healthy and efficient body. The 
school also aims to develop it its pupils an understanding of their work and sense 
of responsibility toward it, and a desire to become capable and intelligent workers. 

The Congress of Technology which met in Boston on April 10 and 11 in 
celebration of the semi-centennial of the signing of the charter of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology was a pronounced success on the two main lines laid 
out by its projectors. The Congress opened on the afternoon of April 10 with 
an address by President Maclaurin of the Institute on "Some Factors in the Insti- 
tute's Success." The greatest of these, he said, was the method of teaching due to 
William Barton Rogers, the founder of the Institute, and now phrased as "the 
learning by doing." 

The second day of the Congress was given over to the presentation of papers 
on various aspects of applied science. These papers were grouped in six divisions 

508 



CURRENT ITEMS. 509 

so arranged that the large numbers of the outside public which attended all the 
sessions were able to hear papers on the topics in which they were especially in- 
terested. 

The Congress came to its climax with the banquet in Symphony Hall on the 
evening of April 11th when the enthusiasm of the thousand of Institute Alumni 
and their guests who filled the floor of the hall was a sort of summary of the 
impressions made by the two days' proceedings. The papers presented at the 
public session gave to the audiences an extraordinarily adequate idea of how 
completely applied science shapes and controls the living conditions of the present. 
And as all the papers were by alumni or members of the faculty of the Institute 
it was also made clear how large a part the Institute had played in creating the 
applied science today. 

These two ideas were expressed along with the third idea more immediately 
practical at the great banquet. It has been clear for some time that the future 
development of the Institute of Technology is hampered by the lack of adequate 
endowments and buildings. The feeling that the beginning of the next half cen- 
tury of the Institute ought soon to see a New Technology, carrying on the 
standards of the past with greater facilities was the dominant note in all the 
speeches at the banquet. The alumni are eager to do their full share toward 
making this New Technology a reality. Their earnestness was shown by Pres. 
Maclaurin's announcement at the banquet, that alumni have already definitely 
pledged themselves to give a very large part of the price necessary for buying a 
new site for the Institute, and that Edward N. Kagar, Tech. '93, President of the 
Universal Portland Cement Co. has promised as a gift all the cement needed for 
erecting the new buildings in reinforced concrete. Meanwhile, the question of the 
site itself, Dr. Maclaurin said, had been narrowed to a choice between three 
sites all of which are within a short distance of the present buildings. It is ex- 
pected that this question of a new site, upon which everything else in the develop- 
ment of the Institute depends, will very soon be settled. 

NORTH CENTRAL STATES. 

A recent bulletin issued from the Ohio state education department gives the 
following statistics; sixty-four high schools now have manual training. This is a 
gain of 40% over last year. Forty-eight schools have domestic science which is a 
gain of 85% over the year before. There are 30,000 boys in the state enrolled in 
manual training classes and 16,000 girls in domestic science classes. The report 
states that the agitation for reform and the readjustment of the schools to the in- 
dustrial life of the community is no longer looked upon as a fad. The organized 
educational forces of the state are moving in the direction of industrial and com- 
mercial education. 

*&£ 

The city of Cincinnati has just opened its first continuation school for girls. 
Among the subjects taught will be a class in salesmanship in which "store arith- 
metic" will be taken up. The students will also study fabrics such as wool, silk, 
flax and cotton, color and design, care of stock, store system, and the method of 



510 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 




CURRENT ITEMS. 511 

approaching a prospective customer. Later on domestic science, civics, hygiene 
and English will be taught. 

The Illinois Educational Commission, after a year's work, has prepared a 
report covering the question of what is possible and desirable in the teaching of 
manual training, domestic science and agriculture in the public schools of the 
state. This report was prepared with great care by a sub-committee made up of 
the people who ought to know the most about these subjects. The Commission 
feels that this report expresses a safe and careful view of this large field of 
work. The report as it has come from the press also contains other recommen- 
dations of the Educational Commission. The report can be had upon application 
to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield, 111. 

The establishment of Corn Day in the country schools of Illinois has produced 
the most gratifying results. Boys have planted their corn and cultivated it. They 
have brought it to the school buildings on that day and exhibited it. They have 
prepared written exercises describing more or less in detail how they selected the 
seed corn, how they prepared the soil, how they cultivated it. They have given a 
more or less careful history of the rainfall and the insect pests. It all seems so 
simple and easy now that it has been undertaken that there is no reason why it 
should not be more generally observed throughout the State. The Superintendent 
of Public Instruction has set aside Friday of the first week of November of each 
year as Corn Day. 

A bill is before the Wisconsin state legislature to make Stout Institute at 
Menomonie a part of the educational system of the state. This has come about 
because of the death of Senator Stout, and the willingness of the heirs to present 
the school to the state. The school represents an investment of nearly $500,000. 
and best of all, has a national reputation. Such a gift any state might well be 
glad to accept. It is hoped that this proposition may be accepted owing to the 
fact that the endowment for the school is not sufficient to maintain it on its present 
basis. Legislators thruout the state seem to realize the exceptional opportunity 
in this offer and it is likely that it will be accepted. 

A special vocational committee in Kansas City has recommended that four 
vocational schools be established. First, that a day vocational school for boys 
and girls be established in which the time will be equally divided between in- 
dustrial work and the regular public school curriculum. In this school the boys 
would be taught shopwork in wood and metal, mechanical and freehand drawing, 
and design. The girls would be taught cooking, garment making, hand sewing, 
and designing. Second, that a central trade school be opened in which would 



512 MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 

be taught printing, carpentry, cabinet-making, moulding, brick-laying, machinist 
work, steam, gasoline and electrical engineering, sheet metalwork, and plumbing. 
Third, that a night trade school be established at the manual training high school 
with the same branches as those named for the central school of trades. Fourth, 
that a school to teach salesmanship to girls be opened. This school would be 
carried on in two rooms of the central high school building and would be for girls 
from fourteen to sixteen years of age. This report was the result of work ex- 
tending over several months during which investigations were made, including a 
trip to several of the larger Eastern cities. 

Salem, Indiana, reports the introduction of manufacturing problems as a 
successful feature of manual training work of the present year. Typewriter 
tables, library tables, home and office fixtures have been a part of the work which 
the supervisor states has proved beyond a doubt that industrial training can be 
successfully carried on in a township high school. 

A serious fire occurred at the University of Missouri on the 26th of March, 
destroying the Mechanics Arts Building valued at $80,000. This has caused 
serious inconvenience to Professor Selvidge and his assistants who are obliged 
to take refuge in a planing mill not far from the university. 

We are indebted to John W. Curtis of Helena for preparing the following 
statement concerning manual training in the state of Montana: — 

Column I shows the number of puplis taking manual training in grades one 
to five inclusive; column II shows the number of pupils taking manual training 
in grades six, seven and eight and high school; column III shows the number 
of girls taking sewing; column IV shows the number of girls taking cooking; 
column V shows the manual training enrollment for the city systems. The in- 
terrogation points indicate that the town has pupils taking manual training, but 
they are not included in the report. 

city I II III IV V 

Billings 364 ? ? 364 

Bozeman 750 195 215 1160 

Butte 783 833 36 1652 

Dillon - 28 47 23 98 

Forsyth 90 64 33 187 

Great Falls 1591 368 350 2309 

Helena 917 317 146 1380 

Kalispell - 39 23 62 

Lewiston 16 92 87 28 223 

Missoula 700 170 185 1055 

Philipsburg 34 139 40 213 

Montana's Total ...8703 



CURRENT ITEMS. 



513 



A serious fire occurred at the University of Missouri on the 26th of March, 
destroying the Mechanics Arts Building valued at $80,000. This has caused 
serious inconvenience to Professor Selvidge and his assistants who are obliged 
to take refuge in a planing mill not far from the university. 

WESTERN STATES. 

Plans for the group of buildings for the state normal school of manual arts 
at Santa Barbara have been completed by N. S. Ellery, the state engineer. The 
group is to be constructed in the mission style, and will surround a court, somewhat 
after the plan of Stanford University. The central building will be one and a 
half stories high. It will be built of re-enforced concrete and will have a red tile 
roof. It is expected to cost $100,000, and its equipment $70,000. The sum of 
$50,000 is asked for an additional administration building to contain the offices 
and auditorium of the school. A smaller building to cost $10,000 is to be used for 
a dining room and cafeteria. The total cost of the new buildings is expected to 
be $250,000. 

And still the long list of polytechnic high schools in Southern California 
keeps growing. Now the word comes that Pasadena is added to the list by the 
successful termination of a campaign for a $475,000 bond issue. The building is 
to be constructed on the group plan, similar to that of the Holywood building. It 
will be placed on a twelve or fifteen acre lot and have an agricultural department. 




MADE BY STUDENT AT ILLINOIS STATE 
NORMAL UNIVERSITY 



REVIEWS 

The Educational Meaning of the Manual Arts and Industries. By Robert 
Keable Row. Row, Peterson & Co., Chicago, 1909; 7%xS% in., 248 pages; price, 
$1.25. 

This book is a worthy effort to contribute something to a better understand- 
ing and appreciation of the value of the manual arts in education. It attempts 
also to show where, in the schooling of the child, these arts and industries are 
of greatest value and finally to suggest what general methods should prevail in 
order to secure the best results in teaching these arts and industries. The book 
does not attempt to exhaust so large a subject, but rather to give a general survey 
with emphasis at certain points. 

The first chapter is devoted to giving the author's point of view. In this he 
discusses the educative process, the function of the school, and the aim and 
motives in education. The second chapter is devoted to a brief historical summary 
of the educational conception of handwork, reviewing the points of view of 
educators in European countries and in America. The next twelve chapters are 
given to the principle theme of the book — the value of the manual arts in edu- 
cation. This is essentially a psychological discussion of impulses and interests, 
sense training, motor control, etc., with reference to the manual arts, re-inforced 
in some instances by reports of interesting and significant psychological laboratory 
experiments with what he calls a "dynamometric saw handle'' and a " dyna- 
mometric pen." With these he demonstrates, by the methods of scientific experi- 
ment, several generally accepted facts, and in the process he brings out some sug- 
gestive points in methods of teaching. If these chapters could have been relieved 
of many of the technical terms of the psychologist, the book would have served a 
much wider range of readers. 

In chapters VIII to XIII, the author discusses intellectual, esthetic, economic 
and social values in education, also habit and attention in relation to the manual 
arts. These chapters are helpful, but in the treatment of some subjects they 
leave one unsatisfied. Perhaps this was intended. 

In the later chapters of the book, the language is free from undesirable 
technicalities, and is clear and forceful. The chapters on general method and his 
summary are especially strong. They deserve careful study. 

It must have taken considerable courage to end a book with a chapter on 
a suggestive course of study because it is a foregone conclusion that no one will 
agree with it in detail. However, it is a fitting ending to the book, and if looked 
upon as intended — merely suggestive — it is sure to be helpful. We consider 
the high school outlines to be especially so. 

Taken as a whole, this book has many excellencies, and is one of the first in 
a new field that needs to be occupied. — C. A. B. 

Exercises in Elementary Algebra. By M. A. Blodgett. The North-Western 
School Supply Co., Minneapolis, Minn., 1911; 7%x5% in. 89 pages; price, 25 cents. 

514 



REVIEWS. 515 

This book differs from others on the same subject in the fact that instead 
of being a miscellaneous collection of exercises and problems, these are graded and 
classified, and the principles involved in the different operations are exhibited 
by means of many concrete illustrations and simple problems. It is not a com- 
plete textbook in itself, but can be used as an adjunct to any good high school 
text. A feature of the book which is worthy of special commendation is the num- 
ber of new and practical problems. 

Elementary Industrial Work. By George H. Jensen, formerly director of 
manual arts, Louisiana State Normal School, Natchitoches, La. Fublished by 
the author, 1910; 8x5% in.; 182 pages. 

The book begins with directions for work in mechanical drawing, including 
simple lettering and geometric problems. Then follows a chapter on community 
work, including doll-house construction, building of houses in paper, holiday 
work, including envelopes, boxes, valentines, etc. Following these is a chapter 
on cord and string work, a chapter on "burlap work," chapter on weaving, one on 
raffia work, one on reed basketry and one on simple bookbinding. At the end of 
the book is a chapter on design, and another on bird-houses. 

Shop Problems in Mathematics. By William E. Breckenridge, Samuel F. 
Mersereau and Charles F. Moore. Published by Ginn & Co., Boston, 1910. 
7 x /2x5 in.; 280 pages; price . - " 

According to the preface, this book has two aims; first, to "impart informa- 
tion in regard to shops and shop materials," both woodworking and metalvvork- 
ing, and second, "to give a thoro training in the mathematical operations that 
are useful in shop practice and science." The first is well carried out in the 
first two thirds of the book by means of cuts of machines, explanatory diagrams, 
and practical problems arranged in subjects, some of which are board measure, 
house building, pulleys, belts and speeds, areas and volumes, pattern-making 
and foundry work, gear-cutting, etc. The collection of problems is excellent and 
is well adapted for use in shop classes, or as a source of practical problems for 
classes in algebra and geometry. 

The remainder of the book is devoted to a review of calculation with short 
methods, mensuration, evaluation of formulae, derivation of formulae from given 
formulae by solving for any letter, and the solution of right triangles by use of 
trigonometric formulae. The work is well done and furnishes such mathematical 
facts and methods as are needed in shop practice, but for science work somewhat 
more would be requisite. 

Some attention is given to the different degrees of accuracy desirable in 
different kinds of work. It is a serious omission, however, not to refer to the 
errors in results calculated from actual measurements and the significant figures 
to be retained. In all measurements there is error which accumulates in calcu- 
lated results. — Clarence E. Comstock, 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute. 



516 MANUAL TRAINING MAGA/ANE. 



Metal Work and Etching. By John A. Adams. Popular Mechanics twenty- 
five cent handbook series. Published by the Popular Mechanics Co., Chicago, 111. 
This is an attractive little handbook, bound in cloth, containing many good 
designs for book ends, desk sets, calendars, match-boxes, watch fobs, pins, cuff 
buttons, etc. 

Industrial Courses. Cincinnati High Schools. Outlines of special courses 
in English, mathematics (course for girls different from that for boys), industrial 
geography, shopwork for boys, and industrial work for girls. 

Report of the Illinois Educational Commission, 1911. Francis G. Blair — 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction — Springfield, 111. This document is 
sure to attract much attention because it recommends the restoration of the two- 
mill tax, and because it contains the report of a sub-committee, headed by Dean ' 
'Davenport of the University of Illinois, outlining courses in agriculture, manual 
arts, domestic economy, and in doing so makes some significant statements con- 
cerning the place and character of vocational courses in the schools of the State. 

Program of Study and Industrial Work in the Elementary SemiAndustrial 
Schools of Indianapolis. Contains suggestions for modifying the work of the 
seventh and eighth grades to meet the demands of industry. 

Your Home and its Decoration. Sent with the compliments of the Sherwin- 
Williams Company, Cleveland, Ohio. This is a beautifully bound and richly 
illustrated book of more than 200 pages, containing suggestions for furnishing 
homes. It treats of doorways, walls, ceilings, fabrics, rugs, colonial houses, the 
city flat, re-moleding, re-decorating, treatment of woodwork, etc. 

Department of Manual Training. Winthrop Normal and Industrial College, 
Rock Hill, South Carolina. Contains outlines of a variety of courses in elementary 
handwork. Many of these courses are illustrated with full page halftones. 

Final Report of the Committee on the Condition of Art Work in Colleges 
and Universities. Reprint from the 1910 report of the Western Drawing and 
Manual Training Association. Ira S. Griffith, Oak Park, 111., chairman of edi- 
torial board. This comprehensive report has been prepared by a committee con- 
sisting of John S. Ankeney, University of Missouri, William Woodward, Tulane 
University, and Edward J. Lake, University of Illinois. 

Tenth Annual Report of the Director of Education for the Philippine Islands. 
Manila, 1910. This report contains many agreeable surprises. Among them 
is the fact that of 445,826 pupils enrolled in the grades below the high school 
during the past year, 381,878 were engaged in some form of industrial work. So 
far as possible, the handwork in every school is being put on a commercial basis. 
Instruction in the minor industries has in view the training of the pupil to make 
a serviceable and salable article. 



REVIEWS. 517 

Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1910. As usual, 
this report gives considerable space to industrial education and agricultural edu- 
cation in the United States. It also devotes a chapter to the Prussian systems of 
vocational schools from 1884 to 1909. 

Syllabus of History Work in the First Grade. Bulletin of the State Normal 
School, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, March 1911. Outline of work done in the 
training school. Treats the subject under three heads, (1) the shelter problem, 
(2) food problem, (3) clothing problem. Drawing and construction work are 
largely involved. 

Report of the Michigan State Commission on Industrial and Agricultural 
Education. Published by the Commission, Lansing, Mich. A report of 95 pages, 
containing much timely datr. The report covers labor conditions, agricultural 
education, industrial education, conclusions and recommendations. 

Report of the Vocational High School Commission, Syracuse, New York. 
Published by the Board of Education. Contains some very interesting facts con- 
cerning the modification of high schools to meet the demands of industry. 

Elementary Industrial School Report. Flans, course of study and a brief 
summary of results. Published by the Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Annual Report of the Birmingham Public Schools. Birmingham, Ala. Con- 
tains full-page illustrations of rooms for manual training and domestic science. 
Also report of the director of the manual arts. 

Some Points in Choosing Textiles. By Charlotte M. Gibbs. University of 
Illinois bulletin, Champaign, 111. 

Syllabus of Domestic Science and Domestic Art for High Schools of Illinois. 
Published by the University of Illinois, Champaign, 111. 

Pre-Vocational Classes at the North Bennet Street Industrial School. Boston, 
Mass. Contains outlines of courses. 

How Shall the Little Ones Seiv? By Florence Kendrick Johnson. The 
Peoples' University Extension Society, New York, 1910; price 10 cents. This 
booklet gives many suggestions for teachers desiring information concerning the 
teaching of elementary exercises in needle work. 

The Gyroscope. By V. E. Johnson. Spon & Chamberlain, New York, 1911; 
price, 25 cents. This book of 52 pages contains directions for many experiments, 
. some of which are illustrated. 

Windmills and Wind Motors. By F. E. Powell. Spon & Chamberlain, 
New York, 1910; price, 25 cents. This book contains working drawings of several 
small windmills. 

The Use of Illustrative Material in Teaching Agriculture in Rural Schools. By 
Dick J. Crosby. A reprint from the year book of the depatment of agriculture 
for the year 1905. Illustrated with three pages of halftones and several line cuts. 



518 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE. 



Some Problems of the Rural Common School. By A. C. True. Reprint from 
the year book of the department of agriculture for 1901. 

Time Schedule Assignment of Work and Suggestive Problems for I9I0- 
iqii. Published by the Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio. This contains 
outlines for all the elementary school subjects arranged by grades. 

Market Classes and Grades of Meat. By Louis D. Hall, Bulletin No. 147, 
Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. An 
illustrated pamphlet of fifteen pages. 

The Apprenticeship System in Its Relation to Industrial Education. By Carroll 
D. Wright, Bulletin No. 6-1908, United States Bureau of Education, Washington, 
D. C. Treats of the extent of the apprenticeship system in the United States, 
Austria, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, France, and Hungary. Discusses vari- 
ous types of apprenticeship and gives general considerations and conclusions. 

Tuskegee Institute Bulletin, Tuskegee, Alabama. Annual catalog edition, 
1909-10. Contains excellent illustrations of the buildings and work of this 
famous school. 

Chicago Public Schools. Course of study for elementary schools for 1910. 
This contains outlines for art and industrial arts which will be of interest to 
every supervisor of the manual arts in the elementary schools. 

Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama. A recent report of the principal, 
illustrated with excellent photographs showing the industries and life at Tuskegee. 




WORK OF EIGHTH-GRADE PUPILS, MT. VERNON, N. Y., PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 







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